Prestressed Pavement Rehabilitation

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Prestressed Pavement Rehabilitation"

Transcription

1 Prestressed Pavement Rehabilitation FINAL REPORT June 23, 2009 By Shelley M. Stoffels, Andrea J. Schokker, Hao Yin, Vishal Singh, Lin Yeh and Maria Lopez de Murphy The Thomas D. Larson Pennsylvania Transportation Institute COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTRACT No PROJECT No. PSU-015

2

3 Technical Report Documentation Page 1. Report No. 2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipient s Catalog No. FHWA-PA PSU Title and Subtitle Prestressed Pavement Rehabilitation 5. Report Date June 23, Performing Organization Code 7. Author(s) Shelley M. Stoffels, Andrea J. Schokker, Hao Yin, Vishal Singh, Lin Yeh and Maria Lopez de Murphy 8. Performing Organization Report No. PTI Performing Organization Name and Address The Thomas D. Larson Pennsylvania Transportation Institute The Pennsylvania State University 201 Transportation Research Building University Park, PA Sponsoring Agency Name and Address The Pennsylvania Department of Transportation Bureau of Planning and Research Commonwealth Keystone Building 400 North Street, 6 th Floor Harrisburg, PA Work Unit No. (TRAIS) 11. Contract or Grant No , PSU Type of Report and Period Covered Final Report 1/7/20 11/7/ Sponsoring Agency Code 15. Supplementary Notes COTR: Ed Stoltz, Abstract In 1989, a landmark pavement project was opened to traffic in Blair County, Pennsylvania, that received national attention. The pavement was a two-mile section of prestressed concrete pavement that was constructed on the northbound lanes of what is now Interstate 99. The pavement has now started to show signs of distress, including transverse cracks, longitudinal cracks, spalling, and seal failure at the armored contraction joints. In addition, there are signs of shoulder separation and some localized subgrade failure. However, the ride quality of the pavement is still very good. Due to the uniqueness of this pavement section, and the lack nationally of any other similar sections in terms of design and age, traditional rehabilitation and overlay options are not necessarily directly applicable. The objective of this project was to develop recommendations for feasible rehabilitation strategies for the prestressed concrete pavement on I-99 in Blair County. As part of the work, the expected design lives and cost-effectiveness of the strategies were evaluated. 17. Key Words Pavement, prestressed concrete, distress, rehabilitation, design life 18. Distribution Statement No restrictions. This document is available from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA Security Classif. (of this report) 20. Security Classif. (of this page) 21. No. of Pages 22. Price Unclassified Unclassified 240 Form DOT F (8-72) Reproduction of completed page authorized

4 This work was sponsored by the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation and the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. The contents of this report reflect the views of the authors, who are responsible for the facts and the accuracy of the data presented herein. The contents do not necessarily reflect the official views or policies of either the Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, or the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania at the time of publication. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation.

5 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION FIELD DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS FORMULATION OF ALTERNATIVES LIFE-CYCLE COST ANALYSIS RESULTS, DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS REFERENCES AND SOURCES CONSULTED...50 APPENDIX A: DISTRESS MAPS APPENDIX B: CONDITION SURVEY TABULATIONS APPENDIX C: VISUAL CONDITION PHOTOGRAPHS APPENDIX D: BACKCALCULATED MODULUS VALUES APPENDIX E: LOAD TRANSFER RESULTS APPENDIX F: PRELIMINARY PAVEMENT THICKNESS CALCULATIONS APPENDIX G: LCCA PRINTOUTS APPENDIX H: ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION PLAN DETAILS v

6

7 1. INTRODUCTION Scope In 1989, a landmark pavement project was opened to traffic in Blair County, Pennsylvania, that received national attention. The pavement was a two-mile section of prestressed concrete pavement that was constructed on the northbound lanes of what is now Interstate 99. The pavement has now started to show signs of distress, including transverse cracks, longitudinal cracks, spalling, and seal failure at the armored contraction joints. In addition, there are signs of shoulder separation and some localized subgrade failure. However, the ride quality of the pavement is still very good. Due to the uniqueness of this pavement section, and the lack nationally of any other similar sections in terms of design and age, traditional rehabilitation and overlay options are not necessarily directly applicable. The objective of this project was to develop recommendations for feasible rehabilitation strategies for the prestressed concrete pavement on I-99 in Blair County. As part of the work, the expected design lives and costeffectiveness of the strategies were evaluated. Pavement History and Characteristics Design Features The two-mile section of prestressed pavement was constructed in November 1988 along a section of U.S. 220 in Blair County in Pennsylvania. That pavement section is now part of I-99 and is in the northbound lanes of a four-lane divided highway. The 31,411-sq-yd prestressed pavement is 24 ft wide and 7 inches thick. Active joints are spaced at 400 ft, with 396 ft of main slab and 4 ft of gap slab. Details about the design and construction were obtained from the project design documents as well as from a research report resulting from extensive testing and instrumentation done near the time of construction (Okamoto, 19). 1

8 The outside tied concrete shoulder is 7 inches thick and 10 ft wide. The inside tied concrete shoulder is 7 inches thick and 4 ft wide. The cross section of the prestressed pavement consists of the following (from top down): 7-in-thick prestressed pavement 2 layers of 6-mil polyethylene sheets 5-in-thick lean concrete base (LCB) course 3-in-thick open-graded subbase 3-in-thick dense-graded subbase Natural compacted subgrade The minimum compressive strength for class AA concrete for the prestressed pavement was specified to be 3,000 psi at 7 days and 3,750 psi at 28 days. The following prestressing details for the encased tendons were used: 7-wire strand, grade 270 ksi (stress relieved or low-relaxation steel) Strand diameter: 0.6 inch Strand spacing: 18 inch No of tendons: 15 Ultimate strength of strand: 58.6 kip Stressing load (80% of ultimate): 46.9 kip Tendon placement: 0.5 inch below mid-depth To guard against corrosion, the tendons were made with a special extrusion coating process. Each seven-wire steel tendon was encased in grease and then coated with seamless polypropylene sheath 0.06 inch thick. To accommodate large horizontal movements, steel channels were used to protect the slab ends, with stainless steel dowels crossing the joints to transfer vertical loads. To avoid early shrinkage cracks, each main slab was stressed in three stages. One-third of the design stress was applied when test cylinders showed compressive strength of 1,000 psi. Two-thirds stress was applied when the concrete reached 2,500 psi, and full stress was applied at 3,750 psi. 2

9 Problems During Construction As might be anticipated during such a unique project, several problems developed during construction. The polyethylene sheets developed wrinkles as concrete was spread across them. One of the 480 tendons failed during stressing, possibly because of misaligned wedges at the tendon anchor. Stress was transferred smoothly to the gap slabs at most tendons, but some of the permanent anchors failed to hold. This may have been because of concrete leaking into anchors. The problem was compounded when workers burned away several anchors in an attempt to relieve stress at the temporary face. The anchors were repaired by cutting away part of the gap slab. Broken tendons were replaced with 5/8-inch tendons pulled through the existing sheathing with the old tendon. Dowel expansion caps were damaged, and the ends were drilled after concrete placement to allow for the expansion. Early Condition Assessments and Observations Falling Weight Deflectometer Test Results Falling weight deflectometer (FWD) data were used to calculate deflection load transfer efficiency and estimate modulus of subgrade reaction. The joint efficiency was calculated at each joint at the center of the truck lane. The effective modulus of subgrade reaction was backcalculated for each slab at stations 2+00 and The full results are listed in the 19 research report (Okamoto, 19). A brief summary from that report is provided in Table 1. Condition Surveys Condition surveys were performed in April and August 1989, and again in 1990 and 19. The 1989 and 1990 surveys were summarized by Okamoto (19). The 19 survey was provided 3

10 by PennDOT District 9. The 19 survey was used as a reference to observe subsequent changes in condition, as discussed in a later section and shown in Appendices A and B. The predominant observed distresses were longitudinal cracks, generally over prestressing tendons. Some transverse cracks were also recorded. Table 1. Summary of falling weight deflectometer testing in September 1989 (Okamoto, 19). Subgrade Support (pci) Joint Efficiency (%) Minimum Maximum Range Average Standard Deviation 50 9 Effective Prestress at One Year Analysis of instrumentation data at 8 months indicated a long-term creep and drying shrinkage prestress loss of 27 psi. This produces an effective midslab prestress loss of 27 psi, resulting in an effective midslab prestress of 74 and 202 psi for slab 1 and slab 2, respectively. This assumes that no loss due to steel relaxation had yet taken place. Joint Width Measurements indicated that for the prestressed pavement the joint width changes were approximately 83 percent of those calculated. The measured change in width (movement) between August 1989 and March 1990 measurements averaged approximately 1.2 inches. 4

11 2. FIELD DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS The field data collection included a visual distress survey, falling weight deflectometer testing, and Portable Seismic Pavement Analyzer (PSPA) testing. All three activities were conducted in April 20. Field Investigation Location Referencing The prestressed pavement section is on the northbound lanes of I-99. For convenience, the inspection and testing procedures were conducted from south to north. The slabs were also numbered from south to north, and designated as slab 1 to slab 26. To assist in identification of testing and analysis locations within each slab, testing was referenced by distance from south to north, from 0 ft at the south joint to 400 ft at the north joint. Testing was also referenced by transverse position in the slab, such as corner or wheelpath positions. Distress Survey The distress survey included the preparation of a detailed map of cracks and other distresses. Measurements of width and faulting were taken at cracks and joints, as appropriate. The detailed distress maps are included in Appendix A, Figure A (key) and Figures A-1 through A-26. These figures include the distresses shown on the maps from the 19 distress survey, as well as the additional/different distresses observed in 20. Appendix B provides tabulated details of the distress and faulting measurements. The distresses in Appendix B were referenced to the original construction stationing, in order to correspond to the distress surveys conducted soon after construction. The starting and ending stations for each slab are cross-referenced with the distances used for other testing. Appendix C presents additional photographs from the visual survey. While some new cracks have appeared and propagated, the majority of the cracking has simply experienced some spalling and deterioration since the early surveys. The photographs in Figures 5

12 1 and 2 illustrate fairly typical high-severity longitudinal cracking. Although the tendon coating is visible, and the sealant out in some locations, the tendons appear to be undamaged. Localized subsidence near slab 17 had been previously observed and repaired by PennDOT District 9 engineers. Subsealing has improved the ride, but subsidence is still evident. In any rehabilitation alternative, special repairs and attention would be needed for this section of the prestressed pavement. Figure 1. Longitudinal cracking that extends across a number of slabs. This crack was present at the time of the early distress surveys. 6

13 Figure 2. Deteriorated longitudinal crack, with tendon coating visible. Also observed during the distress survey were significant amounts of vertical displacement of the transverse shoulder joints. The lane-shoulder joints at and near the mainline transverse joints were principally affected. It is inferred that the cause of the vertical displacement is not the typical faulting mechanism, but rather an interaction between the plain shoulder slabs and the prestressed mainline slabs, resulting in the apparent faulting or heaving. There is also separation of the lane-shoulder joints near the transverse joints. Figure 3 shows an occurrence of such vertical displacement on the shoulder joint between slabs 8 and 9. 7

14 Figure 3. Severe vertical displacement of the shoulder joint between mainline slabs 8 and 9. Falling Weight Deflectometer Testing The FWD testing was conducted by the PennDOT Bureau of Maintenance and Operations, with project staff on site. The Dynatest falling weight deflectometer was utilized for the testing, and time history data were collected. Temperature measurements were also recorded during the course of the testing. The following approximate load sequence was performed for each test position, for a total of nine drops at each test position: 8

15 Seating load 15,000 lb 1 drop First load level 6,000 lb 2 drops Second load level 9,000 lb 2 drops Third load level 12,000 lb 2 drops Fourth load level 15,000 lb 2 drops Testing was conducted at three interior locations per slab, at 100 ft and 300 ft from the slab approach joint, and at two transverse positions, as illustrated in Figure 4. Load transfer testing was performed at all transverse joints, and on the longitudinal lane/shoulder joints. Testing at the slab corners was also performed. Travel Direction 400 ft Both joints Wheel Path CL Travel Lane FWD test for backcalculation FWD test for load transfer Figure 4. FWD test layout for each prestressed slab. FWD Data Examination For each FWD test, the data were plotted and examined, as shown in Figure 5. By examining the full history of the load pulse and the deflection responses, anomalies can be detected. This can 9

16 prevent erroneous data from being included in the analysis. The slight buffering during the increase of the load application is typical of the Dynatest FWD and was observed for most locations. In general, the data from this site were well behaved. The few drops with problems were not used in the subsequent analysis D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 Load Figure 5. Example of time series graph, showing load pulse and deflection sensor responses, slab 1. Backcalculation of Layer Moduli Backcalculation was performed for all center slab and wheel path locations, considering five pavement layers. Several potential layer configurations were tested to achieve the best consistent convergence and modulus stability. The layers assumed for the reported backcalculated moduli were: Prestressed concrete layer 7 inches 10

17 Lean concrete base 5 inches Subbase 6 inches (two subbase layers were combined together) Upper subgrade layer 6 inches (The top 6 inches of the subgrade was taken as a separate layer.) Subgrade layer The program used for backcalculation was BAKFAA, developed and distributed by the Federal Aviation Administration. The program is based upon layered elastic analysis and is designed to work effectively for both flexible and rigid pavements. The user interface for the program is shown in Figure 6. The program allows for seven sensors to be used in the backcalculation. Backcalculated results from all layered-elastic programs can be sensitive to the number and spacing of sensors, depending upon the thickness and stiffness of the pavement layers. Therefore, various combinations of the available sensors were utilized to determine the most consistent assumptions for backcalculation. In addition, the interface friction parameter between layers was varied, again to find the values that provided the best convergence. Figure 6. BAKFAA user interface and typical inputs. 11

18 The results were evaluated on the basis of the backcalculated modulus values of the prestressed concrete, upper subgrade and subgrade layers. Backcalculated values were categorized on the basis of minimum modulus values across all load levels for the test location. Potential areas of concern included the following: Backcalculated values for the prestressed concrete were less than 4 million psi for four test locations in slab 3, slab 8, slab 15, and slab 17. Of these test locations, those in slabs 3 and 15 had backcalculated values of approximately 2.5 million psi. These locations should be noted for localized investigation. Slab 4, slab 14, slab 16, slab 18, and slab 24 had locations with subgrade backcalculated values less than 20,000 psi. Slab 2, slab 4, slab 15, slab 22, and slab 26 had locations with upper subgrade backcalculated values less than 10,000 psi. Upper subgrade backcalculated values for other locations were typically between 20,000 psi and 40,000 psi. Slab 4 had low modulus values for both the subgrade and upper subgrade. Areas with the highest backcalculated modulus values were as follows: Slab 8, slab 9, slab 10, slab 11, slab 12, slab 13, slab 20, and slab 21 had locations with subgrade backcalculated values more than 50,000 psi. Slab 21 had a subgrade backcalculated value of more than 70,000 psi. Slab 1, slab 4, slab 5, slab 21, slab 22, slab 23, and slab 25 had prestressed concrete backcalculated moduli of more than 8 million psi. Observational correlation with the distress survey showed that these test locations were not in highly cracked areas. Overall, it was found that the backcalculated moduli provided a general indication that substantial tendon prestress remained in most tested locations. Locations with lower moduli 12

19 corresponded with observed distresses. With the exception of only 10 tested locations, the upper subgrade backcalculated moduli exceeded 20,000 psi, and should provide good support for rehabilitation. More detailed summary tabulations of the backcalculated moduli are included in Appendix D. Load Transfer Calculations The falling weight deflectometer data were also utilized to examine the load transfer across joints. The load transfer value is very important to the consideration of the deterioration of the pavement and to the progression of roughness. Load transfer was calculated using the deflection from the sensor on the unloaded side of the joint divided by the deflection at the sensor on the loaded side of the joint. In addition, corrected load transfer was calculated, considering the deflection sensor further away from the joint on the loaded side, but equidistant from the load. Corrected load transfer values are higher, and on some pavements with very stiff joints may exceed 100 percent. Brief summaries of the load transfer values are included here. Further tabulations are provided in Appendix E. Load Transfer at Mainline Transverse Joint Corners Load transfer calculations were performed for the corner FWD drops, for the transverse mainline joints. Corner load transfer calculations often produce the lowest values, as slab corners typically are the most subject to curling, warping, sealant damage, erosion, etc. The corner load transfer values were categorized on the basis of average normal load transfer values of all load levels, with key summarized observations as follows. (Joint 2 3 means that LT is being calculated from slab 2 to slab 3, for example. The first slab number represents the location of the load plate.) 13

20 Only the test locations at slab 1 (joint 1 0), slab 2 (joint 2 3), slab 17 (joint 17 18), slab 21 (joint 21 22), slab 22 (joint 22 21), and slab 24 (joint 24 25) had calculated deflection load transfer values greater than 70 percent. The load transfer values for slab 1 (joint 1 2), slab 2 (joint 2 1), slab 3 (joint 3 4), slab 4 (joint 4 3), slab 7 (joint 7 8), and slab 11 (joint 11 10) were less than 20 percent. The low load transfer values were not anticipated on the mainline transverse joints. The transfer through the lean concrete base was expected to provide a significant level of load transfer. However, no differential performance problems or faulting were observed at the transverse joints with poor load transfer. Lane/Shoulder Joint Load Transfer Load transfer testing and calculations were performed for a number of lane/shoulder joint locations, sometimes exceeding the number of locations shown in Figure 3. The results are summarized as follows. Slab 3, slab 4, slab 18, slab 20, slab 21, slab 22, slab 23, slab 25, and slab 26 had tested locations with lane/shoulder load transfer values greater than 80 percent. Slab 2, slab 4, slab 7, slab 8, slab 9, slab 10, slab 11, slab 12, and slab 13 had tested locations with lane/shoulder load transfer values less than 20 percent. The remainder of the tested locations had lane/shoulder load transfer values between 20 and 80 percent. The locations of poor load transfer do indicate a greater potential for initiation of reflection cracking for overlay rehabilitation options. However, no surface distress correlations were currently observed. 14

21 Void Detection Calculations When a slab is fully supported, with no curling, warping or erosion, the magnitude of deflection typically increases linearly with load, from a load of zero. If gaps are present between the slab and underlying layer, a regression line through different load levels will indicate a positive intercept at zero load. This indicates that much less load is needed to cause deflection under such poorly supported circumstances. Examination of the load-deflection plots can also show nonlinear behavior of the pavement structure. The results for all corner tests are provided in Table 2. With the possible exception of the initial terminal joint, no voids were detected. Table 2. Analysis of corner deflections for possible voids. Slab Intercept (mils) Joint Void/ Potential Stress Softening Behavior Possible Void Stress Softening Stress Softening

22 Slab Intercept (mils) Joint Void/ Potential Stress Softening Behavior Portable Seismic Pavement Analyzer Testing Within the last decade, nondestructive test (NDT) methods have become popular for the assessment of existing pavement conditions. Because of the effects of temperature, moisture, and traffic on pavement materials, knowledge of the in-situ material properties of pavement layers is essential for evaluating the effective structural capacity of the pavement and selecting an appropriate rehabilitation strategy. The Portable Seismic Pavement Analyzer, as shown in Figure 7, is a device designed to determine the modulus of the top pavement layer in real-time. The PSPA consists of two receivers (accelerometers) and source packaged into a hand-portable system that can perform high-frequency seismic tests. Figure 7. Portable Seismic Pavement Analyzer (PSPA). 16

23 The analysis method implemented in the PSPA is called the ultrasonic surface waves (USW) method. As surface waves contain most of the seismic energy, the USW method utilizes the surface wave energy to determine the variation in modulus with wavelength. At wavelengths less than or equal to the thickness of the uppermost layer, the velocity of propagation is independent of wavelength. The relationship amongst velocity, V R, travel time, Δt, and receiver spacing, ΔX, can be written in the following form: V R ΔX = (1) Δt Therefore, if one simply generates high-frequency (short-wavelength) waves, and if one assumes that the properties of the uppermost layer are uniform, the shear wave velocity of the upper layer, V S, can be calculated from surface wave velocity, V R, and Poisson's ratio, υ. Then the elastic modulus of the top layer, E, can be determined from mass density, ρ. V S = V R ( υ ) E [( υ ) V ] 2 2ρ(1 + υ) s (2) = (3) To collect data with a PSPA, the operator initiates the testing sequence through the computer. The high-frequency source is activated four to six times. The outputs of the two receivers from the last three impacts are saved and averaged (stacked). The other (pre-recording) impacts are used to adjust the gains of the amplifiers. The gains are set in a manner that optimizes the dynamic range. The PSPA testing was conducted by the Penn State research team at the same time that FWD measurements were conducted. A prior study found that the variation of PSPA data collected within a small area (3 ft 2 ) can be up to 10 percent. Therefore, it was desirable to perform PSPA tests at three locations that were within a reasonable range (less than 1 ft) from each FWD testing location. The PSPA measurements were repeated at least three times for each PSPA testing location. 17

24 The PSPA results were analyzed to obtain the effective seismic moduli at all testing locations. An overall modulus was determined for each specific location. Those moduli are shown in Tables 3 through 5, for the lane-shoulder testing locations, the wheelpath testing locations, and the center slab locations, respectively. Table 3. PSPA results from lane-shoulder testing locations. Slab No Testing Location (ft) Seismic Modulus of Prestressed Concrete (MPa) 18

25 Slab No Testing Location (ft) Seismic Modulus of Prestressed Concrete (MPa)

26 Slab No Testing Location (ft) Seismic Modulus of Prestressed Concrete (MPa) Table 4. PSPA results from wheelpath testing locations. Slab No Testing Location (ft) Seismic Modulus of Prestressed Concrete (MPa)

27 Slab No Testing Location (ft) Seismic Modulus of Prestressed Concrete (MPa) Table 5. PSPA Results from Center Slab Testing Locations Slab No Testing Location (ft) Seismic Modulus of Prestressed Concrete (MPa)

28 Slab No Testing Location (ft) Seismic Modulus of Prestressed Concrete (MPa) The seismic modulus values obtained along the length of the prestressed pavement section are shown in Figure 8. The PSPA modulus values are given in MPa, as those are the output units of the device s output software. The values of the FWD backcalculated moduli and the seismic moduli have not been converted to compatible units, as the underlying assumptions under each are different. The seismic moduli do provide an independent means of assessing the variability of the concrete condition. Examination of Figure 8 shows that when lower values of seismic modulus occurred, the occurrences were in the wheelpath and center positions. The lower moduli may correlate to damage, but also may correlate to interference from the tendon channels. Figures 9 through 11 show the variation of seismic modulus with depth in the pavement. The interface between the prestressed slab and the underlying concrete is clearly discernible in all three plots. In Figure 9, the results of testing near the lane-shoulder joint on slabs 1 and 4 are illustrated. The seismic modulus profile for the prestressed slab is similar for both locations. There is a greater variation in the modulus of the lean concrete. Similarly, in Figure 10, greater variation is apparent for the lean concrete base. In Figure 11, the results are plotted for a center slab location in slab

Impacts of Increased Loading Due to Heavy Construction Traffic on Thin Pavements

Impacts of Increased Loading Due to Heavy Construction Traffic on Thin Pavements Impacts of Increased Loading Due to Heavy Construction Traffic on Thin Pavements Author: Harry Sturm, P. Eng. Stantec Consulting Ltd. 16-77 Mississauga Road Mississauga, ON L5N 7G2 Phone: (95) 817-296

More information

OHIO ASPHALT PAVING CONFERENCE

OHIO ASPHALT PAVING CONFERENCE OHIO ASPHALT PAVING CONFERENCE 38 th Annual Conference Wednesday, 2/6/2013 Fawcett Center Campus of The Ohio State University 2400 Olentangy River Road Columbus, Ohio 43210 REHAB STRATEGIES FOR LOCAL

More information

The AASHO Road Test site (which eventually became part of I-80) at Ottawa, Illinois, was typical of northern climates (see Table 1).

The AASHO Road Test site (which eventually became part of I-80) at Ottawa, Illinois, was typical of northern climates (see Table 1). Página 1 de 12 AASHO Road Test The AASHO Road Test, a $27 million (1960 dollars) investment and the largest road experiment of its time, was conceived and sponsored by the American Association of State

More information

Chapter 7: Pavement Rehabilitation 7-1 Asphalt Pavement Overlays 7-1 Surface Preparation Methods 7-2 Concrete Pavement Preparation 7-3 Recycling

Chapter 7: Pavement Rehabilitation 7-1 Asphalt Pavement Overlays 7-1 Surface Preparation Methods 7-2 Concrete Pavement Preparation 7-3 Recycling 7-1 Asphalt Pavement Overlays 7-1 Surface Preparation Methods 7-2 Concrete Pavement Preparation 7-3 Recycling Asphalt Pavements 7-7 Chapter 7 Pavement Rehabilitation Pavement rehabilitation can be accomplished

More information

What is design ESALs?

What is design ESALs? TEXAS DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION What is ESAL? ESAL is the acronym for equivalent single axle load. ESAL is a concept developed from data collected at the American Association of State Highway Officials

More information

Rehabilitation Strategies for Bonded Concrete Overlays of Asphalt Pavements

Rehabilitation Strategies for Bonded Concrete Overlays of Asphalt Pavements University of Pittsburgh Rehabilitation Strategies for Bonded Concrete Overlays of Asphalt Pavements Authors: J. M Vandenbossche S. Sachs August 2013 1. Introduction Bonded concrete overlays of asphalt

More information

Expected Service Life and Performance Characteristics of HMA Pavements in LTPP

Expected Service Life and Performance Characteristics of HMA Pavements in LTPP Expected Service Life and Performance Characteristics of HMA Pavements in LTPP Expected Service Life and Performance Characteristics of HMA Pavements in LTPP Submitted to: Asphalt Pavement Alliance Prepared

More information

Final Report Evaluation of I-Pave Low Volume Road Design Software

Final Report Evaluation of I-Pave Low Volume Road Design Software Final Report Evaluation of I-Pave Low Volume Road Design Software May 2015 Michael I Darter, William R. Vavrik, Dinesh Ayyala 2015 2014 Applied Research Associates, Inc. 1 Objectives 1. Obtain all documentation

More information

Joint Rehabilitation. Driving Forces for Concrete Pavement Joint Repairs

Joint Rehabilitation. Driving Forces for Concrete Pavement Joint Repairs Long Life Concrete Pavement Joint Performance Joint Rehabilitation Gary Fick, Trinity Construction Management Services, Inc. Representing the National CP Tech Center Driving Forces for Concrete Pavement

More information

Construction Specifications for Keyhole Pavement Coring and Reinstatement

Construction Specifications for Keyhole Pavement Coring and Reinstatement F I N A L Construction Specifications for Keyhole Pavement Coring and Reinstatement Gas Technology Institute 1700 S. Mount Prospect Rd. Des Plaines, Illinois 60018 www.gastechnology.org Version 13 October

More information

Rehabilitation by cracking and seating of concrete pavement optimized by FWD analysis

Rehabilitation by cracking and seating of concrete pavement optimized by FWD analysis Rehabilitation by cracking and seating of concrete pavement optimized by FWD analysis H. C. Korsgaard & J. P. Pedersen Carl Bro Pavement Consultants, Kokbjerg 5, DK6000 Kolding M. Rasmussen Copenhagen

More information

APPENDIX B. I. Background Information

APPENDIX B. I. Background Information APPENDIX B GUIDELINES FOR IDENTIFYING AND REPAIRING LOCALIZED AREAS OF DISTRESS IN AC PAVEMENTS PRIOR TO CAPITAL PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE OR REHABILITATION REPAIRS I. Background Information A. AC Pavement

More information

SECTION III-06 Surfacing Page 1 Revised 3/2/10. See the DESIGN GUIDELINES in Section I-06 for requirements for cross slope of the roadway.

SECTION III-06 Surfacing Page 1 Revised 3/2/10. See the DESIGN GUIDELINES in Section I-06 for requirements for cross slope of the roadway. Page 1 Revised 3/2/10 See the DESIGN GUIDELINES in Section I-06 for requirements for cross slope of the roadway. For New/Reconstruction projects: The cross slope of the driving lanes range from 1.5% to

More information

Pavement Design. Guest Lecturer Dr. Sirous Alavi, P.E. SIERRA TRANSPORTATION. 1005 Terminal Way, Suite 125 Reno, Nevada 89502

Pavement Design. Guest Lecturer Dr. Sirous Alavi, P.E. SIERRA TRANSPORTATION. 1005 Terminal Way, Suite 125 Reno, Nevada 89502 Pavement Design Guest Lecturer Dr. Sirous Alavi, P.E. SIERRA TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERS,, INC. I 1005 Terminal Way, Suite 125 Reno, Nevada 89502 Topics Introduction Design Factors Pavement Types Fundamentals

More information

738-B-297 POLYMERIC CONCRETE BRIDGE DECK OVERLAY. (Adopted 02-20-14)

738-B-297 POLYMERIC CONCRETE BRIDGE DECK OVERLAY. (Adopted 02-20-14) POLYMERIC CONCRETE BRIDGE DECK OVERLAY (Adopted 02-20-14) Description The polymeric concrete bridge deck overlay shall consist of an epoxy polymer that acts together with special aggregate to form an overlay

More information

PERFORMANCE TESTING OF BITUMINOUS MIXES USING FALLING WEIGHT DEFLECTOMETER

PERFORMANCE TESTING OF BITUMINOUS MIXES USING FALLING WEIGHT DEFLECTOMETER ABSTRACT NO. 6 PERFORMANCE TESTING OF BITUMINOUS MIXES USING FALLING WEIGHT DEFLECTOMETER Prof Praveen Kumar Dr G D Ransinchung Lt. Col. Mayank Mehta Nikhil Saboo IIT Roorkee IIT Roorkee IIT Roorkee IIT

More information

DESIGN OF PRESTRESSED BARRIER CABLE SYSTEMS

DESIGN OF PRESTRESSED BARRIER CABLE SYSTEMS 8601 North Black Canyon Highway Suite 103 Phoenix, AZ 8501 For Professionals Engaged in Post-Tensioning Design Issue 14 December 004 DESIGN OF PRESTRESSED BARRIER CABLE SYSTEMS by James D. Rogers 1 1.0

More information

LIFE-CYCLE COST COMPARISON FOR MUNICIPAL ROAD PAVEMENTS

LIFE-CYCLE COST COMPARISON FOR MUNICIPAL ROAD PAVEMENTS LIFE-CYCLE COST COMPARISON FOR MUNICIPAL ROAD PAVEMENTS HEIN, David K., P.Eng. Applied Research Associates, Inc., 5401 Eglinton Avenue West, Suite 105, Toronto, ON, CANA- DA, M9C 5K6. Tel: 416-621-9555

More information

Municipal Pavement Design with StreetPave Software

Municipal Pavement Design with StreetPave Software Municipal Pavement Design with StreetPave Software March 5, 2009 Scott Haislip Senior VP Pavement Engineering Presentation Overview Background / history of the design procedure Concrete pavement design

More information

METHOD OF STATEMENT FOR STATIC LOADING TEST

METHOD OF STATEMENT FOR STATIC LOADING TEST Compression Test, METHOD OF STATEMENT FOR STATIC LOADING TEST Tension Test and Lateral Test According to the American Standards ASTM D1143 07, ASTM D3689 07, ASTM D3966 07 and Euro Codes EC7 Table of Contents

More information

September 1, 2003 CONCRETE MANUAL 5-694.900 CONCRETE PAVEMENT REHABILITATION 5-694.900

September 1, 2003 CONCRETE MANUAL 5-694.900 CONCRETE PAVEMENT REHABILITATION 5-694.900 September 1, 2003 CONCRETE MANUAL 5-694.900 5-694.901 GENERAL CONCRETE PAVEMENT REHABILITATION 5-694.900 Concrete Pavement Rehabilitation is an extremely valuable tool of the Minnesota Department of Transportation

More information

Pavement Rehabilitation Using Hot Mix Asphalt. - National Perspective -

Pavement Rehabilitation Using Hot Mix Asphalt. - National Perspective - Pavement Rehabilitation Using Hot Mix Asphalt - National Perspective - Rehabilitation Process Evaluate Existing Pavement and Conditions Evaluate Options Construct Project Monitor Performance Evaluate Existing

More information

Theodore L. Neff, P.E. Executive Director Post-Tensioning Institute

Theodore L. Neff, P.E. Executive Director Post-Tensioning Institute Specifying Post-Tensioning Theodore L. Neff, P.E. Executive Director Post-Tensioning Institute Presentation Objectives Identify the most current & appropriate p specs for different applications Highlight/

More information

INSTRUMENTATION AND FIELD TESTING OF WHITETOPPING PAVEMENTS IN COLORADO AND REVISION OF THE TWT DESIGN PROCEDURE

INSTRUMENTATION AND FIELD TESTING OF WHITETOPPING PAVEMENTS IN COLORADO AND REVISION OF THE TWT DESIGN PROCEDURE Report No. CDOT-DTD-R-2002-3 Interim Report INSTRUMENTATION AND FIELD TESTING OF WHITETOPPING PAVEMENTS IN COLORADO AND REVISION OF THE TWT DESIGN PROCEDURE Chung Wu Matthew Sheehan Construction Report

More information

The Impact of Market Demands on Residential Post-Tensioned Foundation Design: An Ethical Dilemma

The Impact of Market Demands on Residential Post-Tensioned Foundation Design: An Ethical Dilemma The Impact of Market Demands on Residential Post-Tensioned Foundation Design: An Ethical Dilemma Bart B. Barrett, B.S., P.E.1 Kerry S. Lee, M.B.A., P.E., M. ASCE2 Erik L. Nelson, Ph.D., P.E., M. ASCE3

More information

Reinforcement HUESKER. HaTelit. Engineering with geosynthetics

Reinforcement HUESKER. HaTelit. Engineering with geosynthetics HUESKER Engineering with geosynthetics rhuesker HUESKER HUESKER HUESKER HUESKER HUESKERr SKER HUESKER HUESKER Asphalt HUESKER HUESKER HUESKERHUES Reinforcement - the answer to reflective cracking in asphalt

More information

700 Life-Cycle Cost Analysis... 700-1

700 Life-Cycle Cost Analysis... 700-1 Table of Contents 700 Life-Cycle Cost Analysis... 700-1 701 Introduction... 700-1 701.1 Discount Rate... 700-1 702 Initial Construction... 700-1 703 Future Rehabilitation... 700-1 703.1 Introduction...

More information

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION SERIES 8000 PRECAST CONCRETE

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION SERIES 8000 PRECAST CONCRETE TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION SERIES 8000 PRECAST CONCRETE TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION PART 8000 - PRECAST CONCRETE TABLE OF CONTENTS Item Number Page 8100 PRECAST CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION - GENERAL 8-3 8101 General

More information

Minimizing Reflective Cracking With Applications of the Rolling Dynamic Deflectometer and Overlay Tester

Minimizing Reflective Cracking With Applications of the Rolling Dynamic Deflectometer and Overlay Tester Minimizing Reflective Cracking With Applications of the Rolling Dynamic Deflectometer and Overlay Tester Dar-Hao Chen, 1 Moon Won, 2 Tom Scullion, 3 and John Bilyeu 4 ABSTRACT Since reflective cracking

More information

C. Section 014510 TESTING LABORATORY SERVICE.

C. Section 014510 TESTING LABORATORY SERVICE. SECTION 014500 QUALITY CONTROL PART 1 GENERAL 1.01 RELATED REQUIREMENTS A. Drawings and General Provisions of Contract, including General and Special Conditions and other Division 1 Specification Sections,

More information

Tensile Test Results of Post Tensioning Cables From the Midbay Bridge

Tensile Test Results of Post Tensioning Cables From the Midbay Bridge Tensile Test Results of Post Tensioning Cables From the Background The Midbay bridge, located on State Road 293 between State Road 2 and U.S. 98 in Niceville, Florida is a concrete segmental box bridge

More information

Rehabilitation Strategies for Highway Pavements

Rehabilitation Strategies for Highway Pavements NCHRP Web Document 35 (Project C1-38): Contractor s Final Report Rehabilitation Strategies for Highway Pavements Prepared for: National Cooperative Highway Research Program Transportation Research Board

More information

FINAL REPORT EVALUATION OF CONCRETE SLAB FRACTURING TECHNIQUES IN MITIGATING REFLECTIVE CRACKING THROUGH ASPHALT OVERLAYS

FINAL REPORT EVALUATION OF CONCRETE SLAB FRACTURING TECHNIQUES IN MITIGATING REFLECTIVE CRACKING THROUGH ASPHALT OVERLAYS FINAL REPORT EVALUATION OF CONCRETE SLAB FRACTURING TECHNIQUES IN MITIGATING REFLECTIVE CRACKING THROUGH ASPHALT OVERLAYS Thomas E. Freeman, P.E. Senior Research Scientist Virginia Transportation Research

More information

CHAPTER 13 REINFORCED CONCRETE PAVEMENTS

CHAPTER 13 REINFORCED CONCRETE PAVEMENTS TM 5-822-5/AFM 88-7, Chap. 1 CHAPTER 13 REINFORCED CONCRETE PAVEMENTS 13-1. Application competitive with plain concrete pavements of equal Under certain conditions, concrete pavement slabs load-carrying

More information

Advancements in GPR for a Sustainable Tomorrow

Advancements in GPR for a Sustainable Tomorrow Advancements in GPR for a Sustainable Tomorrow Shawn Lapain, BSc. E., EIT Pavement Specialist Applied Research Associates Inc. 5401 Eglinton Avenue West, Suite 105, Toronto, ON, Canada, M9C 5K6 Tel: 416-621-9555,

More information

Nevada DOT Cold In-Place Recycling Federal Highway Administration National Review Close out meeting, August 25, 2005

Nevada DOT Cold In-Place Recycling Federal Highway Administration National Review Close out meeting, August 25, 2005 Nevada DOT Cold In-Place Recycling Federal Highway Administration National Review Close out meeting, August 25, 2005 Purpose The purpose of this review is to capture for technical deployment the most advanced

More information

REGIONAL TRANSPORTATION COMMISSION OF WASHOE COUNTY

REGIONAL TRANSPORTATION COMMISSION OF WASHOE COUNTY REGIONAL TRANSPORTATION COMMISSION OF WASHOE COUNTY FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT DESIGN MANUAL February 2007 PREPARED BY: SIERRA TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERS, INC 1005 TERMINAL WAY, SUITE 125 RENO, NV 89502 EXECUTIVE

More information

La Nueva AASHTO Guia de Diseno de Pavimentos Hormigon

La Nueva AASHTO Guia de Diseno de Pavimentos Hormigon La Nueva AASHTO Guia de Diseno de Pavimentos Hormigon Michael I. Darter Emeritus Prof. Civil Engineering, University of Illinois & Applied Research Associates, Inc. USA October 2012 Cordoba, Argentina

More information

Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement (JPCP) Preservation and Rehabilitation Design Guide

Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement (JPCP) Preservation and Rehabilitation Design Guide CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DIVISION OF DESIGN Office of Pavement Design Pavement Design & Analysis Branch Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement (JPCP) Preservation and Rehabilitation Design Guide

More information

CHAPTER 2 LCCA APPROACHES

CHAPTER 2 LCCA APPROACHES 2.1 LCCA Basis CHAPTER 2 LCCA APPROACHES When making decisions about pavement design, LCCA: Compares pavement alternatives; and Identifies the best strategy based on current information as well as meeting

More information

Date: 10/10/2014 Initiated by: AAS-100

Date: 10/10/2014 Initiated by: AAS-100 U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Aviation Administration Advisory Circular Subject: Airport Pavement Management Program (PMP) Date: 10/10/2014 Initiated by: AAS-100 AC No: 150/5380-7B Change:

More information

Ohio Department of Transportation Division of Production Management Office of Geotechnical Engineering. Geotechnical Bulletin PLAN SUBGRADES

Ohio Department of Transportation Division of Production Management Office of Geotechnical Engineering. Geotechnical Bulletin PLAN SUBGRADES Ohio Department of Transportation Division of Production Management Office of Geotechnical Engineering Geotechnical Bulletin GB 1 PLAN SUBGRADES Geotechnical Bulletin GB1 was jointly developed by the Offices

More information

Rehabilitation for Concrete Pavements

Rehabilitation for Concrete Pavements Rehabilitation for Concrete Pavements www.asphaltalliance.com Overview Effective rehab for PCC Break PCC into small segments Overlay with Hot Mix Asphalt Road-userfriendly Rubblize and pave in off-peak

More information

University of Missouri Hospitals and Clinics. Structural Repair and Protection of Post-tensioned Parking Garage

University of Missouri Hospitals and Clinics. Structural Repair and Protection of Post-tensioned Parking Garage University of Missouri Hospitals and Clinics Structural Repair and Protection of Post-tensioned Parking Garage 1 University of Missouri Project The University of Missouri Health Care Patient and Visitor

More information

Designed and Engineered to Perform

Designed and Engineered to Perform History EARTH CONTACT PRODUCTS, L.L.C., is a family owned company, based in Olathe, Kansas. This company was built upon Don May s U.S. Patented fourth-generation Steel Piering System that has led to the

More information

Performance of Edge Drains in Concrete Pavements in California

Performance of Edge Drains in Concrete Pavements in California Performance of Edge Drains in Concrete Pavements in California Biplab B. Bhattacharya, 1 Michael P. Zola, 2 Shreenath Rao, 3 Karl Smith, 4 Craig Hannenian 5 ABSTRACT The California Department of Transportation

More information

Agenda. Strengthening with External Post-tensioning. Structural Strengthening Existing Structures STRUCTURAL. Strengthening Solutions

Agenda. Strengthening with External Post-tensioning. Structural Strengthening Existing Structures STRUCTURAL. Strengthening Solutions Agenda Strengthening with External ost-tensioning Clyde Ellis Vice resident Strengthening Division Introduction rimary vs. Supplemental strengthening Basic Concept using Ext. T Advantages Systems/Components

More information

TAB.3-13 Post-Tensioning Terminology (PTT)

TAB.3-13 Post-Tensioning Terminology (PTT) November 2013 TAB.3-13 Post-Tensioning Terminology (PTT) PTI Technical Advisory Board Page 0 of 36 The following Post-Tensioning Terminology (PTT) document contains the consensus definitions for terms

More information

State of Illinois Department Of Transportation CONSTRUCTION INSPECTOR S CHECKLIST FOR STORM SEWERS

State of Illinois Department Of Transportation CONSTRUCTION INSPECTOR S CHECKLIST FOR STORM SEWERS State of Illinois Department Of Transportation CONSTRUCTION INSPECTOR S CHECKLIST FOR STORM SEWERS While its use is not required, this checklist has been prepared to provide the field inspector a summary

More information

Guide for Design and Construction of New Jointed Plain Concrete Pavements (JPCPs)

Guide for Design and Construction of New Jointed Plain Concrete Pavements (JPCPs) DIVISION OF DESIGN Office of Pavement Design Pavement Design & Analysis Branch Guide for Design and Construction of New Jointed Plain Concrete Pavements (JPCPs) January 9, 2008 i TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0

More information

I-66 Pavement Rehabilitation

I-66 Pavement Rehabilitation I-66 Pavement Rehabilitation Fall Asphalt Conference Richmond, VA David Shiells, P.E. Virginia Department of Transportation David White Superior Paving Corporation October 2, 2012 Project Location 2 Goal

More information

CHAPTERS 600 670 PAVEMENT ENGINEERING CHAPTER 600 GENERAL ASPECTS

CHAPTERS 600 670 PAVEMENT ENGINEERING CHAPTER 600 GENERAL ASPECTS HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL 600-1 May 7, 2012 CHAPTERS 600 670 PAVEMENT ENGINEERING CHAPTER 600 GENERAL ASPECTS Topic 601 - Introduction Pavement engineering involves the determination of the type and thickness

More information

SELECTING REHABILITATION STRATEGIES FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS IN TEXAS. Andrew J. Wimsatt, Ph.D., P.E. Fort Worth District Pavement Engineer

SELECTING REHABILITATION STRATEGIES FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS IN TEXAS. Andrew J. Wimsatt, Ph.D., P.E. Fort Worth District Pavement Engineer SELECTING REHABILITATION STRATEGIES FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS IN TEXAS Andrew J. Wimsatt, Ph.D., P.E. Fort Worth District Pavement Engineer Texas Department of Transportation P.O. Box 6868 Fort Worth, TX

More information

STATE OF OHIO DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SUPPLEMENTAL SPECIFICATION 866 GROUND ANCHORS. October 19, 2012

STATE OF OHIO DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SUPPLEMENTAL SPECIFICATION 866 GROUND ANCHORS. October 19, 2012 STATE OF OHIO DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION 866.01 Description 866.02 Definitions 866.03 Materials 866.04 Design 866.05 Installation 866.06 Testing 866.07 Anchor Lock-off 866.08 Method of Measurement 866.09

More information

INDOT Standard Specifications, Section 402- Hot Mix Asphalt Pavements Part A (Materials and Mix Production)

INDOT Standard Specifications, Section 402- Hot Mix Asphalt Pavements Part A (Materials and Mix Production) GUIDE FOR SPECIFYING ASPHALT PAVEMENTS FOR LOCAL GOVERNMENTS (USING INDOT STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS SECTION 402) This Guide incorporates the latest asphalt pavement technologies. It attempts to present the

More information

Fly Ash Slurry Injection (FASI) of Bituminous Thermal Cracks

Fly Ash Slurry Injection (FASI) of Bituminous Thermal Cracks Fly Ash Slurry Injection (FASI) of Bituminous Thermal Cracks Schedule What is Fly Ash Slurry Injection (FASI) Thermal Cracks and Why They Depress Pavement Rehab Strategies Special Provisions Upcoming Projects

More information

SPECIAL NOTE FOR ASPHALT WATERPROOFING MIX FOR BRIDGE-DECK OVERLAYS AND ADJACENT APPROACHES

SPECIAL NOTE FOR ASPHALT WATERPROOFING MIX FOR BRIDGE-DECK OVERLAYS AND ADJACENT APPROACHES SPECIAL NOTE FOR ASPHALT WATERPROOFING MIX FOR BRIDGE-DECK OVERLAYS AND ADJACENT APPROACHES 1. DESCRIPTION. Asphalt Waterproofing Mix (AWM) is a highly elastomeric, polymermodified, impermeable asphalt

More information

CAPITAL PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE

CAPITAL PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE CAPITAL PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE 2003 EDITION April 8, 2010 CONSTRUCTION AND TECHNOLOGY DIVISION Attention Manual Holders This manual is to remain with the assigned user. If the user relocates within the

More information

CHAPTER 2 PAVEMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

CHAPTER 2 PAVEMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM CHAPTER 2 PAVEMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 2.1. INTRODUCTION TO PAVEMENT MANAGEMENT The ability of a pavement system to serve a society is largely a function of planning. Planning is the intersection between

More information

SPECIFICATION FOR CONSTRUCTION OF UNBOUND GRANULAR PAVEMENT LAYERS

SPECIFICATION FOR CONSTRUCTION OF UNBOUND GRANULAR PAVEMENT LAYERS TNZ B/02:2005 SPECIFICATION FOR CONSTRUCTION OF UNBOUND 1. SCOPE This specification shall apply to the construction of unbound granular pavement layers. The term pavement layer shall apply to any layer

More information

Case Studies - Concrete Overlays

Case Studies - Concrete Overlays Case Studies - Concrete Overlays Lessons Learned - Concrete Overlays Purdue Road School March 6, 2013 Today s Topic 1. Overlays 2. New Full-depth 3. Pervious 4. Roller Compacted 5. Full Depth Patching

More information

Carruthers & Wallace Limited

Carruthers & Wallace Limited Anchoring or Fastening To, or Drilling Through, the Structure Lester B. Pearson International Airport Parking Structure 1. General The Parking Garage is a cast-in-place concrete structure prestressed (post-tensioned)

More information

Chapter 3 Pre-Installation, Foundations and Piers

Chapter 3 Pre-Installation, Foundations and Piers Chapter 3 Pre-Installation, Foundations and Piers 3-1 Pre-Installation Establishes the minimum requirements for the siting, design, materials, access, and installation of manufactured dwellings, accessory

More information

RMS Guide for design of concrete pavements in areas of settlement. Version 1.0. Roads and Maritime Services www.rms.nsw.gov.au

RMS Guide for design of concrete pavements in areas of settlement. Version 1.0. Roads and Maritime Services www.rms.nsw.gov.au Guide for design of concrete pavements in areas of settlement Version 1.0 RMS Guide for design of concrete pavements in areas of settlement Version 1.0 Roads and Maritime Services www.rms.nsw.gov.au Title:

More information

Pavement Surface Evaluation and Rating. Manual RATING RATING RATING PASER RATING. Concrete Roads

Pavement Surface Evaluation and Rating. Manual RATING RATING RATING PASER RATING. Concrete Roads Pavement Surface Evaluation and Rating PASER Manual Concrete Roads RATING 10 RATING 7 RATING 4 RATING 1 Contents Introduction 2 Rigid pavement performance 2 Pavement conditions and defects 3 Evaluation

More information

Evaluating. A Case Study

Evaluating. A Case Study A Case Study Evaluating by Richard B. Stoddard, Washington State Department of Transportation In December 2002, a railroad tanker collision caused a fire under a prestressed concrete girder bridge crossing

More information

FWD/HWD Void Detection Beneath Concrete Pavements or Overlaid Concrete Pavements. SWIFT 2010 Calgary, AB

FWD/HWD Void Detection Beneath Concrete Pavements or Overlaid Concrete Pavements. SWIFT 2010 Calgary, AB FWD/HWD Void Detection Beneath Concrete Pavements or Overlaid Concrete Pavements SWIFT 2010 Calgary, AB Presentation Outline Voids what s the big deal? What causes them? How can we detect them? Oops Development

More information

High-Speed Nondestructive Testing and Intelligent Construction Systems

High-Speed Nondestructive Testing and Intelligent Construction Systems High-Speed Nondestructive Testing and Intelligent Construction Systems 1st International Conference on Transportation Construction Management February 9-11, 9 2008 Orlando, Florida Ted Ferragut, P.E. NDT

More information

CONCRETE REPAIR GUIDELINES. Concrete repairs can be broken down into four basic types, plus special repairs and planing.

CONCRETE REPAIR GUIDELINES. Concrete repairs can be broken down into four basic types, plus special repairs and planing. CONCRETE REPAIR GUIDELINES Concrete repairs can be broken down into four basic types, plus special repairs and planing. Note: It is recommended that investigation into soundness of pavement be performed

More information

SECTION 3.3 - PAVEMENT DESIGN

SECTION 3.3 - PAVEMENT DESIGN SECTION 3.3-3.3.1 GENERAL 3.3.2 SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE 3.3.3 DETERMINATION OF DESIGN TRAFFIC 3.3.4 SUBGRADE EVALUATION 3.3.5 PAVEMENT THICKNESS 3.3.5.1 GRANULAR PAVEMENTS WITH THIN BITUMINOUS SURFACING 3.3.5.2

More information

WATERPROOFING OF REINFORCED CONCRETE FLAT ROOF 12

WATERPROOFING OF REINFORCED CONCRETE FLAT ROOF 12 WATERPROOFING OF REINFORCED CONCRETE FLAT ROOF 12 87 88 GOOD INDUSTRY PRACTICES 12 WATERPROOFING OF REINFORCED CONCRETE FLAT ROOF 12.1 BACKGROUND Most roofs in Singapore are constructed using reinforced

More information

STRUCTURES. 1.1. Excavation and backfill for structures should conform to the topic EXCAVATION AND BACKFILL.

STRUCTURES. 1.1. Excavation and backfill for structures should conform to the topic EXCAVATION AND BACKFILL. STRUCTURES 1. General. Critical structures may impact the integrity of a flood control project in several manners such as the excavation for construction of the structure, the type of foundation, backfill

More information

Measuring the Condition of Prestressed Concrete Cylinder Pipe

Measuring the Condition of Prestressed Concrete Cylinder Pipe Measuring the Condition of Prestressed Concrete Cylinder Pipe John Marshall, P.E.I, I J.W. Marshall and Associates, and Paul S. Fisk, President NDT Corporation Introduction Prestressed Concrete Cylinder

More information

SECTION 724 PIPE CULVERTS

SECTION 724 PIPE CULVERTS SECTION 724 PIPE CULVERTS 724.1 Description. This work shall consist of providing pipe or pipe arch of the diameter or shape designated, laid upon a firm bed and backfilled as specified. Where appropriate

More information

Chapter 5 Bridge Deck Slabs. Bridge Engineering 1

Chapter 5 Bridge Deck Slabs. Bridge Engineering 1 Chapter 5 Bridge Deck Slabs Bridge Engineering 1 Basic types of bridge decks In-situ reinforced concrete deck- (most common type) Pre-cast concrete deck (minimize the use of local labor) Open steel grid

More information

State Study 173--Evaluation Of Preventive. Maintenance Treatments

State Study 173--Evaluation Of Preventive. Maintenance Treatments State Study 173--Evaluation Of Preventive Maintenance Treatments Randall L. Battey, P.E. Assistant Chief Engineer Operations Mississippi Department of Transportation September 2009 (Updated April 2012)

More information

Pavement Rehabilitation Selection Rehabilitation Techniques

Pavement Rehabilitation Selection Rehabilitation Techniques Pavement Rehabilitation Selection Rehabilitation Techniques Bituminous Pavement Rehabilitation Techniques Overlays Bituminous Concrete Pre-overlay Treatments Mill and Overlay Mill and Inlay Recycling Options

More information

Construction of Quality Hot Mix Asphalt Pavements

Construction of Quality Hot Mix Asphalt Pavements 59 th Annual Asphalt Paving Conference Outline Best Practices for Pavement Construction Placement Best Practices Surface Prep Project planning Understanding the paver Factors affecting the screed Screed

More information

Optimum proportions for the design of suspension bridge

Optimum proportions for the design of suspension bridge Journal of Civil Engineering (IEB), 34 (1) (26) 1-14 Optimum proportions for the design of suspension bridge Tanvir Manzur and Alamgir Habib Department of Civil Engineering Bangladesh University of Engineering

More information

SECTION 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

SECTION 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Page 1 of 6 SECTION 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 1. SCOPE OF WORK: The work to be performed under the provisions of these documents and the contract based thereon includes furnishing all labor, equipment, materials,

More information

INTERIM ADVICE NOTE 96 /07 Revision 1 GUIDANCE ON IMPLEMENTING RESULTS OF RESEARCH ON BRIDGE DECK WATERPROOFING

INTERIM ADVICE NOTE 96 /07 Revision 1 GUIDANCE ON IMPLEMENTING RESULTS OF RESEARCH ON BRIDGE DECK WATERPROOFING Interim Advice Note 96/07 INTERIM ADVICE NOTE 96 /07 Revision 1 GUIDANCE ON IMPLEMENTING RESULTS OF RESEARCH ON BRIDGE DECK WATERPROOFING Summary This interim advice note provides guidance on improving

More information

Pavement Patching Repair for AC and PCC Pavement Surfaces. Vern Thompson www.crafco.com

Pavement Patching Repair for AC and PCC Pavement Surfaces. Vern Thompson www.crafco.com Pavement Patching Repair for AC and PCC Pavement Surfaces Vern Thompson www.crafco.com Overview and Objective New Methods For Pavement Patching-Overview What are they How they are applied New Methods Secti

More information

Draft Table of Contents. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary ACI 318-14

Draft Table of Contents. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary ACI 318-14 Draft Table of Contents Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary ACI 318-14 BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL CONCRETE (ACI 318 14) Chapter 1 General 1.1 Scope of ACI 318

More information

SECTION 623 CONCRETE BONDING COMPOUND, EPOXY MORTAR AND EPOXY POLYMER CONCRETE OVERLAY SECTION 623.10 CONCRETE BONDING COMPOUND.

SECTION 623 CONCRETE BONDING COMPOUND, EPOXY MORTAR AND EPOXY POLYMER CONCRETE OVERLAY SECTION 623.10 CONCRETE BONDING COMPOUND. SECTION 623 CONCRETE BONDING COMPOUND, EPOXY MORTAR AND EPOXY POLYMER CONCRETE OVERLAY SECTION 623.10 CONCRETE BONDING COMPOUND. 623.10.1 Description. This work shall consist of preparing the surface,

More information

LOAD TESTING FOR BRIDGE RATING: DEAN S MILL OVER HANNACROIS CREEK

LOAD TESTING FOR BRIDGE RATING: DEAN S MILL OVER HANNACROIS CREEK REPORT FHWA/NY/SR-06/147 LOAD TESTING FOR BRIDGE RATING: DEAN S MILL OVER HANNACROIS CREEK OSMAN HAG-ELSAFI JONATHAN KUNIN SPECIAL REPORT 147 TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT BUREAU New York State

More information

The following sketches show the plans of the two cases of one-way slabs. The spanning direction in each case is shown by the double headed arrow.

The following sketches show the plans of the two cases of one-way slabs. The spanning direction in each case is shown by the double headed arrow. 9.2 One-way Slabs This section covers the following topics. Introduction Analysis and Design 9.2.1 Introduction Slabs are an important structural component where prestressing is applied. With increase

More information

АLGASLAB SOLUTIONS FOR POST-TENSIONED SLABS

АLGASLAB SOLUTIONS FOR POST-TENSIONED SLABS АLGASLAB SOLUTIONS FOR POST-TENSIONED SLABS ANTISEISMIC DEVICES BEARINGS EXPANSION JOINTS POST TENSIONING SYSTEMS STRUCTURAL REPAIR AND MAINTENANCE Re-development of Michelin complex ex-area, Trento -

More information

THIN ASPHALT OVERLAYS FOR PAVEMENT PRESERVATION

THIN ASPHALT OVERLAYS FOR PAVEMENT PRESERVATION THIN ASPHALT OVERLAYS FOR PAVEMENT PRESERVATION Why Thin Asphalt Overlays? Shift from new construction to renewal and preservation Functional improvements for safety and smoothness are needed more than

More information

ABSTRACT 1. INTRODUCTION 2. DESCRIPTION OF THE SEGMENTAL BEAM

ABSTRACT 1. INTRODUCTION 2. DESCRIPTION OF THE SEGMENTAL BEAM Ninth LACCEI Latin American and Caribbean Conference (LACCEI 11), Engineering for a Smart Planet, Innovation, Information Technology and Computational Tools for Sustainable Development, August 3-, 11,

More information

Field Damage Inspection and Static Load Test Analysis of Jiamusi Highway Prestressed Concrete Bridge in China

Field Damage Inspection and Static Load Test Analysis of Jiamusi Highway Prestressed Concrete Bridge in China Advanced Materials Research Vols. 163-167 (2011) pp 1147-1156 Online available since 2010/Dec/06 at www.scientific.net (2011) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/amr.163-167.1147

More information

SUPPLEMENTAL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS BI-DIRECTIONAL STATIC LOAD TESTING OF DRILLED SHAFTS

SUPPLEMENTAL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS BI-DIRECTIONAL STATIC LOAD TESTING OF DRILLED SHAFTS July 14, 2015 1.0 GENERAL BI-DIRECTIONAL STATIC LOAD TESTING OF DRILLED SHAFTS This work shall consist of furnishing all materials, equipment, labor, and incidentals necessary for conducting bi-directional

More information

Concrete Pavement Rehabilitation

Concrete Pavement Rehabilitation Concrete Pavement Rehabilitation Rehabilitating Concrete Pavements using CPR 3 Restoration Resurfacing Reconstruction By Tim Smith Director Transportation & Public Works Cement Association of Canada, April

More information

Wastewater Capital Projects Management Standard Construction Specification

Wastewater Capital Projects Management Standard Construction Specification CITY AND COUNTY OF DENVER ENGINEERING DIVISION Wastewater Capital Projects Management Standard Construction Specification 10.1 Precast Concrete Pipe 10.1.1 General This section covers material requirements,

More information

Step 11 Static Load Testing

Step 11 Static Load Testing Step 11 Static Load Testing Test loading is the most definitive method of determining load capacity of a pile. Testing a pile to failure provides valuable information to the design engineer and is recommended

More information

In-situ Load Testing to Evaluate New Repair Techniques

In-situ Load Testing to Evaluate New Repair Techniques In-situ Load Testing to Evaluate New Repair Techniques W.J. Gold 1 and A. Nanni 2 1 Assistant Research Engineer, Univ. of Missouri Rolla, Dept. of Civil Engineering 2 V&M Jones Professor, Univ. of Missouri

More information

3.1 Historical Considerations

3.1 Historical Considerations 3. Recommended Scope of Bridge improvements 3.1 Historical Considerations In the fall of 2000, an outside consultant, Fraser Design, suggested that the existing 4 th St. Bridge is potentially eligible

More information

FUTURE SLAB. PENETRATIONS and. DEMOLITION of POST-TENSIONED FLOORS

FUTURE SLAB. PENETRATIONS and. DEMOLITION of POST-TENSIONED FLOORS FUTURE SLAB PENETRATIONS and DEMOLITION of POST-TENSIONED FLOORS 1.0 INTRODUCTION Post-tensioned floor slabs in Australia and South East Asia are now universally regarded as the most cost effective form

More information

Standards for Specifying Construction Of Airports

Standards for Specifying Construction Of Airports Standards for Specifying Construction Of Airports FAA Standard Materials in FAARFIELD Thickness Design Presented to: X ALACPA Seminar on Airport Pavements and VIII FAA Workshop By: David R. Brill. P.E.,

More information