Stepping up: Bridging local disability employment gaps

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1 Stepping up: Bridging local disability employment gaps July 2014

2 About Shaw Trust Shaw Trust is a leading national charity with a thirty year history of supporting disabled, disadvantaged and long term unemployed people to achieve sustainable employment, independence and social inclusion. Last year Shaw Trust delivered specialist services to over 50,000 people from 200 locations across the UK, supporting its beneficiaries to enter work and lead independent lives. In 2012 Shaw Trust merged with fellow employment services charity Careers Development Group (CDG). Shaw Trust is the largest voluntary sector provider for the Department for Work and Pensions. Through 16 prime contracts for Work Choice, the specialist disability employment programme, Shaw Trust has supported over 14,000 people with severe disabilities, health problems or impairments into employment since Our extensive experience of supporting people into sustainable employment also includes delivery of the Work Programme and its predecessor contracts as both a prime contractor and subcontractor. Shaw Trust further supports people to gain skills and progress into work through an expanding network of local social enterprise projects known as Shaw Trust Enterprises. In partnership with local government and others, Shaw Trust Enterprises offer unique stepping stone employment opportunities at community-based enterprises ranging from horticultural centres and wood recycling plants to catering services and community cafés. Shaw Trust also delivers a number of learning and skills contracts, operates 50 retail shops nationwide and runs a national volunteering programme. We are also an approved sponsor for academies through Shaw Education Trust; a multi-academy trust established to support special schools and mainstream schools serving disadvantaged communities. Stepping up: Bridging local disability employment gaps, July

3 Executive Summary Less than half of people with a disability, health problem or impairment are in work. Compared to nearly eighty per cent of those without a disability, this stubborn gap in employment between disabled and non-disabled people remains too large. This is a familiar element of the disability employment debate, but rightly so. Despite a return to economic growth and rising overall employment, in the past year the number of disabled people in work has fallen. 1 Wide variation between local areas illustrates the urgent need for new local solutions to complement national efforts to support more people with disabilities, health problems and impairments into work. On a local enterprise partnership (LEP) level, for example, only 27 per cent of disabled people in the Cumbria LEP area are in work compared to 52 per cent in the Buckinghamshire Thames Valley LEP area despite near-identical overall employment rates. 2 Even at the upper end of this scale, the proportion of disabled people in work is 25 per cent below the local average. If these local disability employment gaps could be bridged, more than two million people currently excluded from employment would have the chance to gain independence and reach their potential through work, generating huge social and economic returns. Through City Deals, the Single Local Growth Fund and new EU funds, at least 15 billion will be devolved to local economic areas in the next parliament, including funding for employment and skills. This represents a major new opportunity for local areas to address the wide variety of barriers to work faced by people with disabilities, health problems and impairments across the UK, promoting wide social and economic benefits. To successfully bridge local disability employment gaps, LEPs and local government leaders must take full advantage of new powers and funding. Clear plans to improve the employment prospects of people with disabilities, health problems and impairments must be placed at the heart of local economic strategies. This report shows that local social enterprises providing stepping stone employment opportunities have the potential to play a central role in achieving this aim. Bridging local disability employment gaps The gap in employment rates between disabled and non-disabled people remains too high across the country. Yet the proportion of disabled people in work varies widely between local areas; from 24 per cent to 52 per cent on a LEP level. 3 To effectively bridge local disability employment gaps, local barriers to work faced by people with disabilities, health problems and impairments must be accurately identified and addressed with robust policies to break them down. 1 The employment level of 16-64s classified as Equality Act core disabled and/or work-limiting disabled fell from 3,471,308 in Q1 2013/14 to 3,442,363 in Q4. Source: ONS Labour Force Survey, May ONS Annual Population Survey, Jan-Dec 2012 (latest available LEP-level data). Full data available at Annex A 3 Ibid Stepping up: Bridging local disability employment gaps, July

4 Executive Summary The opportunity for local solutions LEPs are preparing to access over 15 billion of pooled central funds in the next parliament. These new powers and funds available to local economic areas represent a major opportunity to remove barriers to work faced by people with disabilities, health problems and impairments on a local level. It is essential that local economic areas take full advantage of this opportunity to bridge local disability employment gaps; to promote a more inclusive society and realise their full economic potential. Robust policies to improve outcomes for people with disabilities, health problems and impairments must therefore be a central feature of new local economic strategies. New local solutions must be closely aligned with existing and future national specialist disability employment support, which remains essential as new local services are developed over time. Bridging local disability employment gaps: Shaw Trust Enterprises Community-based social enterprises have the potential to play a significant role in bridging local disability employment gaps, through the provision of unique stepping stone employment opportunities. This integrated approach currently being rolled out across an expanding network of local Shaw Trust Enterprises uniquely combines work placements, skills training and personalised employability support to progress individuals facing serious barriers to work into sustained mainstream employment. In this way a range of interlinking objectives can be realised. Research has shown that this model can successfully achieve not only sustainable employment outcomes in the mainstream labour market, but also improve participants confidence and social skills, reduce recidivism for ex-prisoners, and improve community wellbeing and the environment. 4 There is a further opportunity for local enterprises to be tailored to address local skills gaps and meet the needs of local job markets. A number of Shaw Trust Enterprises are developing and implementing this stepping stone approach across the UK, from Portsmouth to Perth. Business activities range from gardening and wood recycling to catering and community cafés. The early signs are positive: at Shaw Trust Enterprise Greater London, a wood recycling centre in Bromley, sixty per cent of trainees who have undertaken stepping stone opportunity have since progressed into mainstream employment. 5 Through strong local partnerships with local authorities, employers and others, social enterprises can make a significant contribution to bridging local disability employment gaps, promoting community wellbeing and driving local economic growth and prosperity. Shaw Trust Enterprise Catering Shaw Trust Enterprise Clamp Hill Shaw Trust Enterprise Greater London Shaw Trust Enterprise Hampshire Shaw Trust Enterprise Lowestoft Shaw Trust Enterprise North East Westbank Enterprises Perth Shaw Trust Industries Doncaster 4 Nockolds, D (2012), Exploring success for intermediate labour market social enterprises: a literature review, Brotherhood of St Laurence, pp Out of 28 paid trainees in the past year, 17 have since progressed to mainstream employment Stepping up: Bridging local disability employment gaps, July

5 Recommendations for action The potential benefits to be gained by bridging local disability employment gaps are substantial and wide-ranging: from creating a more inclusive society where everyone has a chance to gain independence and reach their potential through work, to realising huge financial savings and boosting local economic growth. But the opportunity for change must be seized with clear plans at the heart of local economic strategies aimed at improving outcomes for people with disabilities, health problems and impairments. 1. Local authorities and LEPs should carry out comprehensive local disability needs analyses to identify local barriers to work faced by people with disabilities, health problems and impairments, in order to underpin actions to break them down. 2. LEPs and local authorities should take full advantage of newly devolved powers and funding by placing robust policies for bridging local disability employment gaps at the heart of their economic strategies. This will be essential to ensure fulfilment of the public sector equality duty, as required by the Equality Act The design of new local solutions to bridge disability employment gaps must involve clear steps to integrate and align local and national provision, including joint working between agencies and co-design of services where appropriate. 4. Wide access to community-based stepping stone employment opportunities should be a central feature of local efforts to support more people with disabilities, health problems and impairments into work. 5. Public, private and voluntary sector organisations should commit to the further testing and evaluation of new approaches to bridge the disability employment gap, to build the evidence base on what works. The wide range of barriers to work faced by people with disabilities, health problems and impairments across the UK illustrates the urgent need for new local solutions to complement national provision. There is now a major opportunity and clear social and economic imperatives for local economic areas to step up to this challenge. Stepping up: Bridging local disability employment gaps, July

6 Chapter 1 Introduction Employment opportunities for people with disabilities, health problems and impairments remain too limited. Less than half of people with a disability in the UK are in work, compared to 79 per cent of non-disabled people: a stubborn gap of over thirty per cent. 6 We know a substantial proportion of those out of work do want a job, but are currently deprived of the opportunity to gain independence, empowerment and inclusion through employment. Our economy and society is further deprived of this significant potential contribution. The environment in which improved outcomes for people furthest from the labour market are sought is fast changing. This report argues that there now exists a major opportunity for local areas to exploit new powers and funds to bridge disability employment gaps locally, including through new stepping stone employment opportunities rooted in local communities. Chapter two shows that disability employment rates vary widely across the country on a local enterprise partnership level, suggesting a broad range of local barriers faced by people with disabilities, health problems and impairments across the country. Clearly, local solutions are needed to complement national efforts to address barriers to work. Chapter three argues that there is now a major opportunity to identify and break down local barriers through newly devolved powers and funding. Whilst 223 million has so far been devolved through City Deals, in the next parliament the major parties have pledged at least 15 billion to local economic areas through new combined funding pots. Crucially, this will include funds for employment and skills related provision. There is therefore clear potential for local areas to make significant progress in bridging disability employment gaps. This opportunity must be grasped with robust policies at the heart of local economic strategies, which effectively complement national provision. Chapter four presents a new model of community-based stepping stone support, exemplified by a new network of local Shaw Trust Enterprises, with the potential to play a central role in achieving this aim. With local authorities and local enterprise partnerships set to receive substantial new funds and powers within months contingent upon demonstrating clear plans to improve local outcomes the time to act is now. This report builds on Shaw Trust s major 2013 research project Making Work a Real Choice, (MWaRC) which laid out the case for improving specialist employment support for people with disabilities, health problems and impairments. 7 Since Shaw Trust published MWaRC, the Government has committed to maintaining and enhancing a distinct national specialist programme of personalised support for people with disabilities, health problems and impairments, and introducing a new needs assessment to better target provision; two key recommendations from the final report. Getting the detail of these proposals right in the coming months will be crucial. 8 This report represents a further contribution to the debate, at a time when all the major parties and newly empowered local economic areas are seeking new ways to improve the employment prospects of people with disabilities, health problems and impairments across the UK. 6 ONS Labour Force Survey, May 2014, Table A08 7 Shaw Trust (2013), Making Work a Real Choice: Where next for specialist disability employment support?, final report 8 Shaw Trust s response to DWP s Disability and Health Employment Strategy discussion paper is available at Stepping up: Bridging local disability employment gaps, July

7 Chapter 2 The local challenge: bridging disability employment gaps People with disabilities, health problems and impairments are not sharing in the economic recovery. As the UK economy has returned to growth the number of people in work increased by 722,000 in the year to March Yet people with disabilities or health problems have not shared in this upturn. In fact, whilst the overall workforce grew substantially in the past year, the number of people with disabilities or health problems in work has decreased by nearly 29, During this period the disability employment gap the gap in employment rates between disabled and non-disabled people widened by a percentage point. 11 Long-term unemployment amongst people with disabilities or health problems has also continued to rise. The number who have been claiming Employment Support Allowance in the work-related activity group for 12 months or longer almost doubled in the year to August 2013, to nearly 350, A recent analysis by Inclusion found that disabled people remain more likely to be long-term unemployed than their non-disabled peers, with substantially fewer unemployed for less than three months and more at the top end of the scale. 13 There are wide local variations in disability employment rates For this report Shaw Trust analysed the employment rate of people with disabilities or health problems on a local enterprise partnership (LEP) level new partnerships between local government and businesses assuming increasing influence over employment, skills and other growth-related policies. Figure A on the next page illustrates these findings, showing the disability employment rate of England s 39 LEPs alongside the devolved nations of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, 14 grouped into seven colour-coded bands. Full data is available in Annex A. 9 ONS Labour Force Survey, May ONS Labour Force Survey, May 2014, Table A08. The employment level of 16-64s classified as Equality Act core disabled and/or work-limiting disabled fell from 3,471,308 in Q1 2013/14 to 3,442,363 in Q4 11 Ibid. The gap in employment rates between 16-64s classified as Equality Act core disabled and/or work-limiting disabled and those not classified as such increased from 31 per cent in Q1 2013/14 to 32 per cent in Q4 12 Benefit claimants - employment and support allowance (WRAG phase), retrieved from Nomis in May Number claiming for one year or more increased from 185,500 in August 2012 to 347,060 in August 2013 (latest available data), an 87 per cent rise. 13 Purvis A, et al (July 2014), Fit for Purpose: Transforming employment support for disabled people and those with health conditions, Centre for Economic and Social Inclusion 14 Source: ONS Annual Population Survey, Jan-Dec 2012 (latest available data). Full data available at Annex A Stepping up: Bridging local disability employment gaps, July

8 Chapter 2 The local challenge: bridging disability employment gaps Figure A: Disability employment rates by local enterprise partnership area 1. Black Country LEP 2. Buckinghamshire Thames Valley LEP 3. Cheshire and Warrington LEP 4. Coast to Capital LEP 5. Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly LEP 6. Coventry and Warwickshire LEP 7. Cumbria LEP 8. Derby, Derbyshire, Nottingham and Nottinghamshire LEP 9. Dorset LEP 10. Enterprise M3 LEP 11. Gloucestershire LEP 12. Greater Birmingham and Solihull LEP 13. Greater Cambridge and Peterborough LEP 14. Greater Lincolnshire LEP 15. Greater Manchester LEP 16. Heart of the South West LEP 17. Hertfordshire LEP 18. Humber LEP 19. Lancashire LEP 20. Leeds City Region LEP 21. Leicester and Leicestershire LEP 22. Liverpool City Region LEP 23. London LEP 24. New Anglia LEP 25. North Eastern LEP 26. Northamptonshire LEP 27. Oxfordshire LEP 28. Sheffield City Region LEP 29. Solent LEP 30. South East LEP 31. South East Midlands LEP 32. Stoke-on-Trent and Staffordshire LEP 33. Swindon and Wiltshire LEP 34. Tees Valley LEP 35. Thames Valley Berkshire LEP 36. The Marches LEP 37. West of England LEP 38. Worcestershire LEP 39. York and North Yorkshire LEP 40. Northern Ireland* Wales* 42. Scotland* Key: Disability employment rate (%) 20 to to to to to to to *National-level data has been used for Northern Ireland, Wales and Scotland 5 Source: ONS Annual Population Survey, Jan-Dec Full data available in Annex A Stepping up: Bridging local disability employment gaps, July

9 The map at Figure A shows wide variations between LEP areas. By the most recent data available on an LEP level, the UK average disability employment rate is 33 per cent, compared to 71 per cent for the population at large. 15 However, on an LEP level the rate ranges from 24 per cent in the Liverpool City Region LEP area to 52 per cent for Buckinghamshire Thames Valley LEP and Hertfordshire LEP. 16 There are also some strong regional trends. A concentration of LEP areas in the lower range, where only per cent of people with disabilities are in work, are located in the North West (Liverpool; Cumbria; Greater Manchester), and the North East (Tees Valley; North Eastern). Sheffield City Region LEP and the Black Country LEP, as well as Northern Ireland and Wales, also fall into this lower band. Scotland displays a rate just above, at 31 per cent. LEPs in the East and South East of England generally display higher disability employment rates in the per cent range. However there are also wide variations within regions. For example in the West Midlands, the disability employment rate ranges from 29 per cent in the Black Country LEP area to 42 per cent for Worcestershire LEP. In the South East it also ranges by 14 per cent, and in the North West by 10 per cent. Figure B shows a selection of LEPs with an overall employment rate of 75 to 78 per cent. However, their disability employment rates range from 27 per cent in Cumbria LEP area to 52 per cent in Hertfordshire. It also shows, for example, that whilst Oxfordshire LEP area has a higher overall employment rate than neighbouring Buckinghamshire LEP, its disability employment rate is 12 percentage points lower. Clearly, variations in local disability employment rates cannot be easily explained by variations in overall labour market participation. Other local factors are at work. Figure B: LEP disability employment rates: sample selection Disability employment rate Overall employment rate Cumbria LEP Cheshire and Warrington LEP Dorset LEP Oxfordshire LEP Enterprise M3 LEP Buckinghamshire Thames Valley LEP Hertfordshire LEP 15 ONS Annual Population Survey, Jan-Dec 2012 (latest available data) s classified as DDA disabled, work-limiting disabled, or both. 16 For full data on LEP-level disability employment rates, see Annex A. Stepping up: Bridging local disability employment gaps, July

10 Chapter 2 The local challenge: bridging disability employment gaps Identifying local barriers to work Identifying locally-specific barriers to work faced by people with disabilities, health problems and impairments should therefore be a priority. This will be essential to ensure that local strategies can be tailored appropriately to bridge local disability employment gaps. On a national level, some evidence is available highlighting common barriers to work faced by people with disabilities, health problems and impairments. For example, Shaw Trust research carried out for the Making Work a Real Choice report, through consultation with almost 300 customers on Work Choice, the national specialist disability employment programme, found that the most valued areas of support were building confidence, one-to-one time with an adviser and CV assistance each cited by over a third of respondents. 17 The official evaluation of Work Choice for the Department of Work and Pensions (DWP) also highlighted that improved confidence and motivation was felt by both customers and providers to be a key impact of participation. 18 The combination of two quarters vision and only being able to read slowly are enough to knock my confidence, even though it may not look like there s anything wrong with me Neil, trainee gardening assistant at Westbank Enterprises, a partnership between Shaw Trust and Perth and Kinross Council Additionally, the recent ONS Life Opportunities Survey showed that a health condition, illness, impairment or disability were the most frequently cited barriers to work faced by respondents who were out of work throughout the research period. 19 It also showed that anxiety or lack of confidence was the most common barrier outside a disability or health condition. Family responsibilities, difficulty with transport, attitudes of employers and lack of qualifications, experience or skills made up the remainder of the five most common barriers outside of a health condition or disability. Similar conclusions were reached by a survey for DWP of over a thousand people with a disability claiming out-of-work benefits. This found the most common barriers were a lack of job opportunities; difficulty with transport; attitudes of employers; and a lack of qualifications, experience or skills. 20 Indeed, research shows that people with a disability are half as likely to have a degree, more likely to lack functional literacy, and twice as likely to have no qualifications compared to non-disabled people. 21 This national level of evidence serves to highlight the types of barriers that must be addressed by new localised employment and skills support in order to bridge local disability employment gaps. However, the prevalence and influence of these barriers on a local level is generally unknown. Identifying the relative local impact of certain barriers such as skills gaps, transport issues or accessibility to local services will be essential to ensure new provision can effectively bridge local disability employment gaps. 17 Shaw Trust (2013), Making Work a Real Choice: Interim report and consultation 18 DWP (2013), Evaluation of the Work Choice Specialist Disability Employment Programme: findings from the 2011 Early Implementation and 2012 Steady State Waves of the research, p ONS (2014), Life Opportunities Survey, Understanding Disability Wave Two, Part II Release, Reference tables for Chapter 3 20 DWP (2013), A survey of disabled working age benefit claimants. 21 Social Market Foundation (2007), Disability, Skills and Work: Raising our ambitions, p.5 Stepping up: Bridging local disability employment gaps, July

11 Local economic areas must therefore take clear steps to identify local needs and barriers including through direct consultation with disabled people, service providers, and others. Recommendation one: Local authorities and LEPs should carry out comprehensive local disability needs analyses to identify local barriers to work faced by people with disabilities, health problems and impairments, in order to underpin new local solutions. The case for improved outcomes for people with disabilities, health problems and impairments There are clear imperatives for local economic areas, alongside national policy-makers, to focus efforts and investment on bridging local disability employment gaps. Most importantly, whilst there are those who may not be able to work, research is clear that a large proportion of people with disabilities, health problems and impairments who are not in work do want a job. Research carried out for DWP found that over half of disabled people claiming benefits wanted to work, 22 whilst another study found disabled people are up to three times more likely than others to be without a job but want to work.23 There is a basic responsibility for the state, charities, local authorities and other key stakeholders to ensure all citizens have equal opportunity to achieve their potential and gain independence and inclusion through work, regardless of whether they have a disability, health problem, impairment or other disadvantage. The Equality Act 2010 and the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities further establish these principles into law. Crucially, the Equality Act s public sector equality duty obliges public bodies to advance equality of opportunity between people who share a protected characteristic and people who do not. 24 Ensuring equal opportunity for disabled people to gain work must be central to this aim. There are also powerful financial incentives to enable more people with disabilities, health problems and impairments to participate in local labour markets. The combined extra economic contribution, alongside reduced welfare costs and lessened demand on public services, would result in huge financial gains. This potential, of which local areas are currently deprived, is vast: the Social Market Foundation has calculated that raising the employment rate of people with disabilities, health problems and impairments to the national average would boost UK GDP by at least 13 billion. 25 As such, robust strategies to bridge local disability employment gaps are not only fundamental to achieving an inclusive society where everyone has the opportunity to achieve independence and reach their potential through work, but also to ensure local areas can realise their full economic potential and achieve local growth and prosperity. 22 DWP (2013), A survey of disabled working age benefit claimants, p Social Market Foundation (2007), Disability, Skills and Work: Raising our ambitions, p.7 24 Government Equalities Office (2011), Equality Act 2010: Public sector equality duty. What do i need to know? A quick start guide for public sector organisations, p.4 25 Ibid, p.1 Stepping up: Bridging local disability employment gaps, July

12 Chapter 3 An opportunity for local solutions The potential of new local powers New powers flowing to local economic areas represent a major opportunity to improve outcomes for people with disabilities, health problems and impairments through tailored local solutions. Underpinned by cross-party consensus, recent progress in the devolution of central government funds to local economic areas looks set to be followed by a substantial expansion in the next parliament. New powers are also flowing to the devolved administrations in Wales, Northern Ireland, and particularly Scotland, in the context of its upcoming referendum on independence. In England, 24 City Deals, agreements between city regions and central government for the devolution of new powers, have already been finalised. Yet whilst spending on City Deals totalled 223 million in their first four years, 26 local enterprise partnerships will be able to access funds worth at least 15 billion in the next parliament through pooled EU funds worth 6.2 billion 27 and a new Single Local Growth Fund worth at least 10 billion. 28 Labour, meanwhile, has written to local authorities and LEPs pledging access to at least 20 billion of pooled central funding in the next parliament, building on its plans for a new English Deal. 29 Though some national programmes are likely to remain, central to these efforts will be new local powers to control employment and skills provision. The Coalition has pledged to give LEPs real influence over local skills delivery, while Labour has promised local areas greater control over skills budgets, control of funding for apprenticeships and the power to lead on delivering the Work Programme. 30 There is therefore a major new opportunity for local economic areas to pro-actively break down barriers to employment faced by people with disabilities, health problems and impairments. The creation of new strategies for the adoption of devolved funds has already begun through LEPs Strategic Economic Plans and interlinked strategies for control of new EU Structural and Investment Funds. It is essential that these are built upon with robust policies to bridge local disability employment gaps. For the social and economic reasons laid out in chapter two and crucially to meet the terms of the public sector equality duty these policies should be at the heart of new local economic strategies. This will further enable LEPs and local authorities to demonstrate the necessary readiness to assume new powers, as areas are increasingly required by central government to earn autonomy through the presentation of robust plans for growth. Recommendation two: LEPs and local authorities should take full advantage of newly-devolved powers and funding by placing robust policies for bridging local disability employment gaps at the heart of their economic strategies. This will be essential to ensure fulfilment of the public sector equality duty, as required by the Equality Act Public Accounts Committee (2014), Sixtieth Report, Promoting economic growth locally, p.9 27 Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (June 2013), Written Statement to Parliament, European Regional Development Fund and European Social Fund: allocations 2014 to HM Treasury (2013), Investing in Britain s Future, p BBC News (April 2014), Labour pledges funding boost for English cities 30 Ed Miliband and Ed Balls letter to Local Government leaders & LEPs (April 2014), available at Stepping up: Bridging local disability employment gaps, July

13 What works? Designing interventions to bridge local disability employment gaps As highlighted in chapter two, new policies aimed at bridging local disability employment gaps must be underpinned by the identification of local needs and barriers to work faced by people with disabilities, health problems and impairments. But how can the wider evidence base further inform policy considerations? Evidence on what works to help more people with disabilities, health problems and impairments into work is limited. An independent review of the evidence by Inclusion, for Shaw Trust s Making Work a Real Choice report, highlighted a number of key constraints to clearly identifying what works. 31 Another review for DWP stressed that good evaluation evidence is scarce. 32 The matter is complicated by the range and complexity of needs exhibited by people with a wide variety of health problems facing serious barriers to work. There remains an urgent need for collective action to test and evaluate new approaches and build the evidence base for what works. However, research has highlighted some areas of good and promising practice that can effectively support more people with disabilities, health problems and impairments into sustainable employment. For example, elements of the Supported Employment model, including Individual Placement and Support (IPS), have been found to improve outcomes in some areas. 33 As explored below, the Intermediate Labour Market (ILM) approach has also shown strong results. Moreover, support has been found to be most effective when it is intensive and individually personalised, 34 and uses one-toone, adviser-led support to build confidence and motivation. 35 The independent evaluation of Work Choice, for example, found that improved confidence and motivation through personalised one-to-one and group support was a key impact of the programme according to both participants and providers. 36 Indeed over forty per cent of recent participants on Work Choice have moved into work, including those with the most severe barriers such as 36 per cent of individuals with a severe mental illness. 37 Intermediate Labour Markets and the use of social enterprises A number of studies have found Intermediate Labour Market (ILM) interventions to be particularly effective in helping the most disadvantaged jobseekers into mainstream employment. This approach provides individuals furthest from the labour market with a stepping stone to the world of work, through closely integrating temporary work placements with skills training and personalised employability support, with a clear focus on progression to sustained employment Shaw Trust (2013), Making Work a Real Choice final report, Annex One: an independent chapter by Inclusion 32 DWP (2013), What works for whom in helping disabled people into work?, p DWP (2013), What works for whom in helping disabled people into work?, p Purvis A, et al (July 2014), Fit for Purpose, Centre for Economic and Social Inclusion 35 Shaw Trust (2013), Making Work a Real Choice final report, Annex One: an independent chapter by Inclusion 36 DWP (2013), Evaluation of the Work Choice Specialist Disability Employment Programme, 37 DWP (2014), Work Choice official statistics: May 2014, p job outcomes from 560 programme starts. 38 Marshall B and Macfarlane R (2000), The Intermediate Labour Market: A tool for tackling long-term unemployment, Joseph Rowntree Foundation Stepping up: Bridging local disability employment gaps, July

14 Chapter 3 An opportunity for local solutions For example, a major study for DWP by Professor Paul Gregg highlighted ILMs as a particularly useful means of tackling barriers to work faced by those furthest from the labour market, and recommended their adoption by providers. 39 A study by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation further found a typical ILM programme to achieve at least fifty per cent higher job outcomes for the long-term unemployed than other programmes, and can provide at least as good or better value for money than alternatives. 40 ILMs were found to be particularly effective when they were progression-focused, provided transferable skills, closely mirrored real labour market conditions, and made jobsearch integral. 41 DWP s evaluation of the Future Jobs Fund, a major ILM programme for young people, also found a significant and enduring positive impact on the employment prospects of participants. 42 More recent research has highlighted strong results achieved by ILM social enterprises, which implement an ILM approach for the most disadvantaged jobseekers in social enterprises that both trade within local communities and provide additional social benefits. For example, a review of 143 academic studies from the UK, US and Australia highlighted that although more research is needed, available evidence consistently shows that ILM social enterprises can achieve their stated goals. 43 A number of evaluations shows these goals can include not only sustainable employment outcomes in the mainstream labour market, but also improving participants confidence and social skills; reducing recidivism for ex-prisoners; and improving community wellbeing and the environment. 44 Research has further highlighted that features integral to successful ILM social enterprises include the targeting of provision at the most disadvantaged, providing real work to aid progression, integrated and flexible training, jobsearch assistance, and other support from dedicated case-workers. 45 Social enterprises also provide extra community benefits through their sustainable business practices and reinvestment back into their communities. In designing policies to bridge local disability employment gaps, it is essential that local economic areas embrace interventions which the evidence indicates have the greatest chance of improving outcomes. This includes variations on ILM and social enterprise approaches, which successfully provide individuals furthest from the labour market with the experience, confidence, skills and personalised support needed for progression into sustainable employment. Chapter four outlines one example of this model being implemented on the ground across the UK by Shaw Trust, in the shape of eight community-based Shaw Trust Enterprises. However, it is firstly important to highlight an additional challenge which will be crucial to improving local outcomes for people with disabilities, health problems and impairments in the emerging environment. 39 Gregg, P (2008), Realising Potential: A Vision for Personalised Conditionality and Support, Department for Work and Pensions, p Marshall, B and Macfarlane, R (2000), The Intermediate Labour Market, p Ibid, p DWP (2012), Impacts and Costs and Benefits of the Future Jobs Fund 43 Nockolds, D (2012), Exploring success for intermediate labour market social enterprises, p.6 44 Ibid, pp Ibid, pp.7-9 Stepping up: Bridging local disability employment gaps, July

15 The funding spaghetti junction : joining up national and local New efforts by the Government to pool central employment and skills funds for devolution to local economic areas may help to reduce complexity in the array of initiatives aimed at improving outcomes of disadvantaged groups. However it remains likely that local areas will continue to confront a spaghetti junction of funding streams and programmes with similar and overlapping objectives, managed by a range of local and national agencies. A graphic illustrating this point is provided in Annex B. For example, an analysis by Shaw Trust identified at least fifteen separate major programmes to support young people not in employment, education or training (NEET) in London alone, not including local authority programmes. 46 These were run by three separate government departments, alongside another managed by the Greater London Authority. A further study by Inclusion identified 35 different national schemes aimed at tackling youth unemployment spanning 13 different age boundaries. 47 A lack of integration and flexibility between programmes with similar intentions can lead to duplication of services, confusion amongst stakeholders and service users, poor value for money, and ultimately diminished support for the intended beneficiaries. For example, for an initial three years Work Choice customers were not able to access Skills Funding Agency (SFA) funded provision as available to Work Programme customers. This has now been rectified, after Shaw Trust s Making Work a Real Choice report highlighted the discrepancy. 48 The Welsh Affairs Select Committee has also highlighted that Work Programme customers in Wales and Scotland have been unable to access ESF-funded support, available to customers in England. 49 However, the retention of a national specialist disability employment programme remains essential to avoid the risk of a postcode lottery, particularly where local markets in specialist disability employment services are very limited and will take time to develop. For example, a Shaw Trust analysis of one Work Choice contract package area (CPA) found 27 local specialist disability employment providers in one major part of the CPA, but only two in another (one of which was Shaw Trust) serving a population of 318, New local solutions to improve employment and skills outcomes must therefore complement and be clearly aligned with national initiatives and other schemes implemented locally. To avoid inconsistencies in provision and unnecessary duplication of services, local and national policymakers must work together to ensure flexibility and integration between programmes with similar objectives. This will require strong joint working, effective communication, and the co-design of services where appropriate. Recommendation three: The design of new local solutions to bridge disability employment gaps must involve clear steps to integrate and align local and national provision, through joint working between agencies and co-design of services where appropriate. This will be essential to avoid service duplication and inconsistencies in support for people with disabilities, health problems and impairments furthest from the labour market. 46 Careers Development Group (2012), Response to the Work and Pensions Select Committee Inquiry into the Youth Contract, p.7. Available at 47 Inclusion (2013), Hidden talents: national programmes for young people 48 Shaw Trust (2013), Making Work a Real Choice: interim report and consultation, p Welsh Affairs Committee, Third Report, The Work Programme in Wales, p In CPA16, 27 specialist providers were identified in the City of Manchester, compared to only two in Wigan. Latest population data from ONS mid-year population estimates Stepping up: Bridging local disability employment gaps, July

16 Chapter 4 Shaw Trust Enterprises: stepping stones to employment Bridging local disability employment gaps: Shaw Trust Enterprises Improving employment outcomes for people with disabilities, health problems and impairments in diverse local economic areas will require determined action to accurately identify local barriers to work. This must be followed up by robust, locally-tailored policies to effectively break them down, closely aligned with national provision. Within this context, community-based social enterprises have the potential to play a central role in bridging local disability employment gaps through the provision of unique stepping stone employment opportunities. The previous chapter outlined the available evidence on common barriers to employment alongside research on what works to support more people with disabilities, health problems and impairments into jobs. This highlighted positive findings from approaches which closely integrate work, skills training and personalised support with a clear focus on progression into mainstream employment. When operated out of social enterprises, the evidence shows strong results for achieving not only sustainable employment outcomes in the mainstream labour market, but also improving participants confidence and social skills; reducing recidivism for ex-prisoners; and improving community wellbeing and the environment. 51 Whilst at different stages of development since beginning to implement the stepping stone throughout the past year, each enterprise seeks to offer unique work placements with integrated training and support to individuals with disabilities, health problems and impairments facing severe barriers to work. They also have the potential to deliver additional social and environmental value through their trade and investment in local communities. The business activities of Shaw Trust Enterprises range from plant nurseries to grounds maintenance services and wood recycling, to kitchen catering services and community cafés. The early signs are positive: for example at Shaw Trust Enterprise Greater London in Bromley, a wood recycling centre, out of 28 participants with a disability, health problem or impairment who have so far undertaken a paid work placement with integrated training and support, 17 have progressed into external employment; a sixty per cent progression rate. A new and expanding network of Shaw Trust Enterprises is rolling this model out in communities across the UK. Eight Shaw Trust Enterprises have so far been established, as detailed in Figure D, embedded in local communities from Portsmouth to Perth. 51 Nockolds, D (2012), Exploring success for intermediate labour market social enterprises Stepping up: Bridging local disability employment gaps, July

17 Figure D: Shaw Trust Enterprises offering stepping stone employment opportunities Shaw Trust Enterprise Catering: Hounslow, Harrow and Brentford, London. Three community cafés and an additional kitchen providing local catering services. Shaw Trust Enterprise Clamp Hill: Stanmore, London. Garden centre and retail store. Shaw Trust Enterprise Greater London: Bromley, London. Wood recycling centre specialising in collecting wood waste, grading it and then either selling it on or using it to make items such as shelves and other furniture. Shaw Trust Enterprise Hampshire: Portsmouth and Basingstoke. Commercial grounds maintenance services, horticultural centre and retail shop. Shaw Trust Enterprise Lowestoft: Lowestoft, Suffolk Drinks and snacks delivery service to local schools, councils and businesses. Shaw Trust Enterprise North East: Stockton-on-Tees and County Durham. Two horticultural projects offering commercial grounds maintenance services, wood recycling and retail store. Westbank Enterprises: Perth, Scotland. Horticultural centre and plant nursery run in partnership with Perth and Kinross Council. Soon to offer additional grounds maintenance services, wood recycling, a retail store and community café. Shaw Trust Industries: Doncaster A supported business factory producing specialist plastic casings and other products. Stepping up: Bridging local disability employment gaps, July

18 Case study Lee s experience, Shaw Trust Enterprise Hampshire Lee Care, from Portsmouth, was referred to Shaw Trust Enterprise Hampshire by his Work Programme adviser. Lee had previously been a primary carer for his grandmother, who suffered from dementia, for twenty years. However, following her death, Lee struggled with severe depression. Shaken by the loss, he found it hard to return to employment, and as a result lost confidence in himself. After spending some time as a volunteer tending to local gardens, Lee s Work Programme adviser suggested he volunteer on Shaw Trust Enterprise Hampshire s 12-week work-based training programme. Lee successfully signed up and completed the work placement and training course, gaining a new qualification in the process. He was then interviewed for a six-month paid contract as a gardening assistant at the enterprise, and was successful. This involved assisting his colleagues and team members to provide grounds maintenance services to local schools, housing associations and hospitals, helping with regular garden care, clearances and landscaping. Before the end of his paid placement, Lee saw a carer role advertised at a local dementia home where he was looking after the garden. Lee applied for the role and was successful. He begins work at the care home shortly. Lee says: I ve learned so much from my time with the enterprise. I didn t do anything before, just stayed on the settee. The experience helped me to meet different people, get used to being in work, and improved my confidence. It s a very worthwhile scheme. It has brought me out of my shell. Stepping up: Bridging local disability employment gaps, July

19 Chapter 4 Shaw Trust Enterprises: stepping stones to employment A personalised stepping stone to work Initially launched at Shaw Trust Enterprise Hampshire and now being rolled out across all Shaw Trust s enterprises, stepping stone opportunities will be characterised by: Fixed-term employment opportunities These can include paid contracts of up to six months at most enterprises, as well as voluntary work experience and training placements. Referrals can be received from a wide range of sources; including local Work Choice and Work Programme providers, local authorities, mental health and learning disability teams, youth justice teams and others. Placements are aimed at individuals with a disability, health problem or impairment, or others facing severe barriers to work. For example, some enterprises work with ex-offenders. I ve always been able to ask questions and go at my own pace knowing the opportunity is there for me to learn as much as I want. My confidence has grown no end. Scott, administration assistant, Shaw Trust Enterprise Hampshire Skills, training and qualifications Shaw Trust Enterprise trainees quickly gain soft and transferable skills on the job such as teamwork, timekeeping, organisation and communication. Progression in these areas often represents a major achievement for individuals who may have been unemployed for many years. Shaw Trust Enterprises also offer rapid access to basic skills training such as IT or literacy, as well as formal vocational qualifications. For example, Shaw Trust Enterprise Greater London offers level one certificates in basic construction skills (carpentry and joinery) or retail, whilst at Shaw Trust Enterprise Hampshire trainees can work towards a level one City & Guilds qualification in practical horticultural skills. It gives me a piece of paper: people will now listen to me because I have a proper qualification Kriss, trainee gardening assistant, Shaw Trust Enterprise Hampshire Personalised employability support A third key strand is the provision of personalised employability support delivered both in one-to-one and group settings, alongside work placements and training. At Westbank Enterprises, for example, the on-site employment adviser supports trainees to overcome individual barriers to work such as low confidence, difficulty with jobsearching, or access to mental health services. We bring together a new group of people from a variety of backgrounds every three months. They each have their own story and issues and often have little or no experience in gardening. The work is hard and physical. But the reward is there at the end when we see how they have worked, seen their confidence grow and succeeded in passing the City & Guilds course. Kathee Pitt, project manager, Shaw Trust Enterprise Hampshire Stepping up: Bridging local disability employment gaps, July

20 Chapter 4 Shaw Trust Enterprises: stepping stones to employment This integrated and flexible stepping stone approach has the potential to make a considerable contribution towards bridging local disability employment gaps. Key to the model s success will be: Integrated, workplace-based support As noted in chapter three, research has highlighted the effectiveness of joining up support in one place to help individuals furthest from the labour market simultaneously gain the confidence, work experience, skills and technical expertise needed to move into sustainable mainstream employment. A personalised and flexible approach Support is focused on what participants can do, rather than what they can t. A wide range of lower and higher skilled job roles and qualifications will be available to suit the individual. There is also potential for enterprises to adapt to local labour market needs and address local skills gaps. Progression-focused There is a clear focus on progression into sustained mainstream employment. Trainees at Shaw Trust Enterprises experience conditions that closely mirror the open labour market. Staff members engage regularly with local employers to identify vacancies and build local relationships. I had to get used to getting up early in the morning and working in all weather. It s given me a huge amount of confidence to go out there and find work. My work at Hampshire is a stepping stone into permanent work. Neil, trainee gardening assistant, Shaw Trust Enterprise Hampshire Strong local partnerships Shaw Trust Enterprises seek to forge strong partnerships with local government and other agencies, employers and residents to encourage referrals, promote community engagement and contribute towards achieving interlinking social and economic aims. Westbank Enterprises in Perth, for example, has been designed, funded and remains managed through an active partnership between Shaw Trust and Perth and Kinross Council. Realising economic, social and environmental objectives The stepping stone model, provided at social enterprises embedded within local communities, holds clear potential for local areas to make significant progress in bridging local disability employment gaps, the core objective considered in this report. However there is also scope to realise a range of other interrelated social and economic benefits: Promoting a more inclusive society where people with disabilities, health problems and impairments, or others at significant disadvantage, can enjoy equal opportunity to gain independence and reach their potential through work. This is also required by the Equality Act s public sector equality duty. Driving local economic growth through narrowing the disability employment gap and widening labour market participation. The model also provides a unique opportunity to address local skills gaps and respond to local labour market needs. Promoting wider social and environmental benefits through the provision of goods and services of real community value, promoting environmental sustainability and continued investment in local communities. Joining up local and national provision through strong partnerships with a wide range of local and national agencies. For example, Shaw Trust Enterprises already work closely with national employment scheme providers, local authorities, NHS services and local probation trusts. Stepping up: Bridging local disability employment gaps, July

21 Enabling wide access to local stepping stone opportunities for people with disabilities, health problems and impairments at social enterprises embedded in local communities should therefore form a central part of new local strategies to bridge disability employment gaps. Doing so will not only improve employment outcomes for individuals furthest from the labour market, but also support the realisation of a range of social and economic objectives. Recommendation four: Wide access to stepping stone employment opportunities at community-based social enterprises should be a central feature of new local efforts to support more people with disabilities, health problems and impairments into work. This approach provides a unique opportunity to realise a range of interlinked economic and social objectives. Stepping up: Bridging local disability employment gaps, July

22 Case study Westbank Enterprises, Perth Westbank Enterprises is a new social enterprise in Perth, Scotland. Designed, funded and managed through a strong partnership between Shaw Trust and Perth and Kinross Council, the project is a fully functioning commercial plant nursery producing and selling hanging baskets, plants, internal displays and other items locally. However, it also provides unique stepping stone employment opportunities for local people with disabilities, health problems and impairments, and others facing disadvantage such as ex-offenders. By uniquely integrating work experience, training and support, participants with serious barriers to work are able to gain the confidence, skills and experience to move into mainstream employment. Opportunities are flexible and wideranging to account for individual needs: from low-skilled roles such as planting and picking, to higher skilled work such as machine operation, managing deliveries, commercial sales and environmental controls. Alongside on-the-job guidance and training from nursery supervisors, participants complete basic skills training courses and can work towards a formal horticultural qualification to bulk up their CV. Additional personalised support, such as confidence-building, CV-writing and jobsearch assistance is provided by the on-site employment adviser, Giovanna. Each trainee agrees an action plan with Giovanna, focused on progression into mainstream employment. As a social enterprise, Westbank also brings wider community benefits through the goods and services it provides to local businesses and residents, environmentally friendly operations, and its continued investment into the community. Future plans for expansion include a new community shop and café, grounds maintenance services, wood recycling and biomass heating all of which will grow Westbank s community impact and allow even more people in Perth and Kinross to access stepping stone opportunities and progress into work. Jamie s story Jamie Ferguson, from Perth, had been out of work for two years after being made redundant. His dyslexia and dyspraxia made writing a CV, cover letters and application forms very difficult, compounded by not having a reference from his previous job. Upon joining Westbank Enterprises Jamie carried out two days a week of work experience, completed an employability skills training course, and received extra support from Giovanna to write his CV and apply for jobs. Thanks to the experience, training and support received at Westbank, Jamie has since been successful in gaining a six-month job at the local council recycling centre, which he hopes to make permanent. Jamie says: Everyone at Westbank was very supportive and kind. The help applying for jobs was especially useful. I now know that there is support and help out there when applying for a job. Stepping up: Bridging local disability employment gaps, July

23 Chapter 4 Shaw Trust Enterprises: stepping stones to employment Investing to promote social value Local authorities and others have a further opportunity to promote social inclusion and economic growth by not only facilitating access to stepping stone opportunities, but also purchasing and procuring the goods and services of local social enterprises that provide them. For example, Shaw Trust Enterprise Hampshire has many years of experience successfully delivering commercial gardening services for the local authority at competitive rates in open competition with other local businesses. This, in turn, allows the enterprise to expand its operations and provide more stepping stone employment opportunities for local residents with disabilities, health problems and impairments, in a virtuous cycle. In this sense, social enterprises offering stepping stone employment opportunities provide an added opportunity for local authorities to meet their obligations to promote social, environmental and economic wellbeing through their procurement and commissioning. These obligations include the Social Value Act in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, the sustainable procurement duty in Scotland, and additional terms attached to EU funding. Building the evidence base As highlighted in chapter three, there remains a pressing need to build the evidence base on what works to help individuals with disabilities, health problems and impairments into work. The identification and dissemination of best practice will be essential to improving outcomes on a meaningful scale. Shaw Trust Enterprises demonstrates a new model of support with great potential to drive improved outcomes, and which Shaw Trust will evaluate in order to contribute towards this collective endeavour. Other public, voluntary sector and private sector organisations should embark on similar exercises in earnest. The facilitation of a best practice sharing database by central government, in conjunction with industry trade bodies and providers, is one way that the dissemination of effective interventions should be promoted. The evaluation of new programmes could also be promoted through conditions attached to contracts in the commissioning process. Recommendation five: Public, private and voluntary sector organisations should commit to further testing and evaluation of new approaches to bridge the disability employment gap, to build the evidence base on what works. The Government should facilitate this through the establishment of a best practice sharing database. Finally, there is strong potential for the use of the social enterprise stepping stone model with other disadvantaged groups facing severe barriers to work. For example, Shaw Trust Enterprises has begun to offer ex-offenders access to its stepping stone opportunities. Indeed research has highlighted that similar approaches can be successful in reducing reoffending rates of ex-offenders Nockolds, D (2012), Exploring success Stepping up: Bridging local disability employment gaps, July

24 Chapter 5 Conclusion and recommendations Rising employment across the UK is not filtering through to people with disabilities, health problems and impairments. Policy makers must take urgent action to ensure a return to economic growth benefits this wide-ranging group through clear strategies for bridging the disability employment gap. There is a clear moral imperative to break down the barriers to inclusion and independence currently faced by thousands of individuals with disabilities, health problems and impairments who want to work, while the economic and social advantages to be gained nationally and locally are too great to ignore. Local areas have a clear opportunity to capitalise on new powers over employment and skills provision. But this will require concerted efforts by local government leaders and LEPs to identify local barriers to work faced by people with disabilities, health problems and impairments. Robust policies to bridge local disability employment gaps must be placed at the heart of local economic strategies, closely aligned with national-level provision. Finally, there remains a pressing need to further build the evidence base to establish the most effective innovations to support people with disabilities, health problems and impairments into work. Research in this area remains insufficient, making the identification of best practice and its dissemination across the industry hard to achieve. Testing and evaluating different approaches, combining the collective efforts of the public, voluntary and private sectors, is therefore essential. This report highlights a clear opportunity to make significant progress on bridging local disability employment gaps. But it can only be realised through a major collaborative, crosssector effort to respond to local needs and enhance support for people with disabilities, health problems and impairments across the UK. This report makes the case that stepping stone employment opportunities at social enterprises rooted in local communities can play a central role in these efforts to bridge local disability employment gaps. As demonstrated by an expanding network of Shaw Trust Enterprises, this approach uniquely integrates work placements, training and personalised employability support to successfully build participants confidence, skills and experience necessary to progress into mainstream employment. In this way local areas are provided with a unique opportunity to achieve a range of interlinked social, environmental and economic objectives: from creating a more inclusive society where everyone has a chance to gain independence and reach their potential through work, to realising huge financial savings and boosting local economic growth. Stepping up: Bridging local disability employment gaps, July

25 Recommendations for action 1. Identifying local needs and barriers Local authorities and LEPs should carry out comprehensive local disability needs analyses to identify barriers to work faced by people with disabilities, health problems and impairments in their area, and to underpin local employment and skills strategies. This should involve direct consultation with disabled people and service providers. 2. Strengthening local economic strategies to bridge disability employment gaps LEPs and local authorities should take full advantage of newly devolved powers and funding by placing robust policies for bridging local disability employment gaps at the heart of their economic strategies. This will be essential to ensure fulfilment of the public sector equality duty, as required by the Equality Act Enabling access to stepping stone employment opportunities Wide access to stepping stone employment opportunities at social enterprises rooted in local communities should be a central feature of local efforts to support more people with disabilities, health problems and impairments into work. This approach provides a unique opportunity to realise a range of interlinked economic and social objectives. 5. Building the evidence base on what works Public, private and voluntary sector organisations should commit to the further testing and evaluation of new approaches to bridge local disability employment gaps, to build the evidence base on what works. The Government should facilitate this through the establishment of a best practice sharing database. 3. Integrating local and national provision The design of new local solutions to bridge local disability employment gaps must involve clear steps to integrate and align local and national provision, through joint working between agencies and co-design of services where appropriate. This will be essential to avoid service duplication and inconsistencies in support provided to people with disabilities, health problems and impairments furthest from the labour market. The variety of barriers to work faced by people with disabilities, health problems and impairments across the UK illustrates the urgent need for locally tailored solutions to complement national provision. There is now a major opportunity and clear social and economic imperatives for local economic areas to step up to this challenge. Stepping up: Bridging local disability employment gaps, July

26 Annex A: Disability employment rates by local enterprise partnership area Disability employment rate Overall employment rate Hertfordshire LEP Buckinghamshire Thames Valley LEP Thames Valley Berkshire LEP Enterprise M3 LEP Solent LEP New Anglia LEP Worcestershire LEP Greater Cambridge & Greater Peterborough LEP Gloucestershire LEP York, North Yorkshire and East Riding LEP Coast to Capital LEP Oxfordshire LEP West of England LEP Greater Lincolnshire LEP South East Midlands LEP Heart of the South West LEP Dorset LEP South East LEP Derby, Derbyshire, Nottingham and Nottinghamshire LEP Leicester and Leicestershire LEP Northamptonshire LEP Swindon and Wiltshire LEP Cornwall and Isles of Scilly LEP Stoke-on-Trent and Staffordshire LEP The Marches LEP Cheshire and Warrington LEP Humber LEP Leeds City Region LEP Lancashire LEP London LEP Scotland Greater Birmingham and Solihull LEP Coventry and Warwickshire LEP Sheffield City Region LEP Wales Black Country LEP Greater Manchester LEP Cumbria LEP North Eastern LEP Tees Valley LEP Northern Ireland* Liverpool City Region LEP Source: ONS Annual Population Survey, Jan-Dec 2012 (latest available data). The disability employment rate refers to the percentage of 16-to-64 year olds with a DDA-defined and/or work-limiting disability who are in work. Stepping up: Bridging local disability employment gaps, July

27 Annex B: The funding spaghetti junction Employment and skills initiatives Central government departments Pooled funding sources Flexible Support Fund Work Experience Programme Devolved nations Big Lottery Local authority and local enterprise partnerships Work Programme Work Choice Jobcentre Plus Sectorbased work academies ESF/SFA NEET contracts ESF Flexible fund for unemployed individuals Fair Chance Fund Local government-led employment pilots NOMS/ ESF contracts Troubled families programme Transforming Rehabilitation contracts Community Budgets Department for Communities and Local Government Ministry of Justice New pilots for ESA claimants Residential training colleges New Enterprise Allowance Department for Work and Pensions Help to Work Innovation Fund The funding spaghetti junction Employment and skills initiatives DWP/ESF Families contracts European Social Fund (ESF) programmes EU Structural and Investment Funds Local authority and LEP-led programmes Single Local Growth Fund Cabinet Office European Regional Development Fund Local employment and skills schemes such as IPS programmes, NEET provision and supported employment Youth Engagement Fund NHS and CCGs City Deals Local mental health employment programmes Youth Contract Jobs Growth Wales Big Lottery Department for Education Opportunities for All Scotland Community Jobs Scotland Devolved nations Scottish apprenticeship programme Talent Match Skills support for Work Programme leavers FE/training programmes Department for Business, Innovation and Skills/Skills Funding Agency Employee Ownership of Skills Apprenticeships and traineeships National Citizen Service National Careers Service Supported Internships Stepping up: Bridging local disability employment gaps, July

28 A Company Limited by Guarantee. Registered Number Registered Charity Number in England and Wales Registered Charity Number in Scotland SC

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