Human Resource Planning and Succession Planning in Nigeria s Higher Education

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1 Human Resource Planning and Succession Planning in Nigeria s Higher Education Fapohunda, Tinuke. M. Dept. of Industrial Relations and Personnel Management, Lagos State University Ojo. Nigeria Abstract Human resource planning and succession planning have drawn substantial interest among researchers. Research reports designate deficiency of quality planning in the management of higher education in especially developing countries like Nigeria and this constitutes a foremost limitation to the effective management of higher education in most of the universities. Human resource and succession planning are fundamental to steady performance, sustainability and competitive advantage by a university. This paper studies the issue of human resource and succession planning in higher education and the challenges connected with its implementation. The study reveals that most public sector universities in Nigeria do not have any calculated attempts toward talent retention, human resource and succession planning of academic staff neither are they cultivated and developed for higher tasks; a situation that often results in placement of people in positions they are not suitable for, with depressing consequences on morale and general performance. Some of the institutions lack effective recruitment strategies therefore often time a significant number of the faculty fall within similar age groups and would retire at about the same time. The outcomes have included: talent and brain drain, crucial skill gaps as well as alterations in the culture and functioning of the institutions. Many face leadership succession tests, which negatively affects competitive advantage and organizational survival. Keywords Human Resource, Succession, Planning, Higher Education. I. Introduction UNESCO (2005) delineates higher education as programme of study or training for research at the post secondary level provided by universities or other educational institutions that are approved as institutions of higher education by the competent authorities or through registered accreditation systems. Higher education in Nigeria denotes post secondary education obtainable in universities, colleges of education, polytechnics, and monotechnics, embracing institutions providing correspondence courses. FRN (2004) asserts that higher education in Nigeria is intended to achieve the aims of: contributing to national development using high level pertinent human resource training; developing and inculcating suitable ideals for continued personal and societal subsistence; expanding people s academic potentials to recognize and value their local and external environment; attaining both physical and intellectual proficiencies that facilitate people to be independent and constructive components of the society; building and fortifying national unity; supporting and promoting erudition and community service; and advancing national and global recognition and relations. Achieving these lofty goals depend on superior outputs by way of high quality graduates which in itself relies on the availability of intellectuals with the ability to inspire a knowledge and information motivated economy and therefore national development. In sum, these higher education goals are only realizable if there is efficiency in the management offered by the institutions. Adesina (1990) observes that management in institutions of higher education involves the association and enlistment of all human, material and financial resources for the accomplishment of the higher education goals. The management of higher education institutions in Nigeria have often been indicted for failing in this regard. Employees quit their jobs due to retirement, new ambitions, sack or death. Consequently, the institutions are sometimes confronted with openings in headship and shortages or deficiencies in capabilities and competent successors to fill the openings. Charan et al. (2001) contends that it is crucial for organizations to prepare successors prior to the occurrence of openings. Human resource planning is put forward as a clear-cut and express idea, which does not deal with individuals or any particular employee. Conversely, succession planning entails a sub-level technique about particular employees on a personality basis, in case the incumbent quits his position at a time which is undecided and possibly imprecise. Organization survival requires effective human resource and succession plans for older and outgoing employees. While several higher education institutions fail to deal with the issues of human resource and succession planning in a logical way, it is nevertheless imperative for them to consider the subjects for various rationales. One is that higher education institutions like other organizations depend on their human resources for the achievement of their goals and missions. Again both human resource and succession planning are necessitated by the shifting truths and veracities of the workplace. Emerging realities of the workforce in higher education institutions include incidences of concurrent openings in significant positions and specifications of less suitable human resources available to fill them. Added to this is the fact that younger academics desiring to ascend the career ladders sometimes lack obligatory skills and experience due to inadequate coaching and mentoring. Through vigilant planning and groundwork by the institutions, variations emanating both from current changes and generational reassignment of control when important members of staff exit institutions of higher education can be effectively handled. While there are often disparities in the nature and scope of planning, all organizations must have some kind of human resource and succession plan, the success of which sustains organization strength and sustainability by guaranteeing a recognized procedure for handling recruitment obligations. Management of institutions of higher education must exhibit excellent control by instituting plans and procedures that guarantee easy changeovers, with modest disturbances to the institutions. Nigeria s higher education is confronted by crucial tests including a substantial growth in size and intricacy, an academic workforce that is getting old although they have added comprehensively to 59

2 ISSN : (Online) the scholarly and research productivity of the institutions. Besides, there are stakeholders convictions that the institutions need to build up additional commercial and innovative abilities and develop in the path of economic autonomy. Institutions of higher education in Nigeria seem to have been leisurely in embracing business methods of formal human resource and succession planning. This study examined significant subjects on the correlation between the human resource planning, succession planning and organizational development, employee turnover, talent retention, career development and continued existence in Nigeria s higher education. Furthermore, it proposed imperative outlooks for executing sufficient human resource and succession planning while reflecting on the option of more efficient and inclusive methods of getting subsequent generations of intellectuals in the country s higher education. II. Literature Review A. Human Resource Planning Human Resource Planning involves ensuring that organization objectives are achieved by developing and implementing a human resource strategy. It employs systematic and continuing processes of analyzing an organization s human resource needs under changing conditions and integrating the analysis with the development of human resource policies appropriate to meeting those needs. It goes beyond the development of policies on an individual basis by embracing as many aspects of managing people as possible with a crucial emphasis of planning to meet the skill and development needs of the future of an employee. French (1998) delineates human resource planning as the process of assessing an organization s human resource needs in the light of organizational goals and changing conditions and making plans to ensure that a competent workforce is employed. Bulla and Scot (1994) affirms that human resource planning is the process of ensuring that the human resource requirements of an organization are identified and plans are made for satisfying those requirements. Armstrong (2011) observes that Quinn (1983), refers to human resources planning as a decision making process that combines three important activities: identification and acquisition of the right number of people with the proper skills; stimulating them to attain high performance, and creation of interactive relationships between business objectives and peopleplanning activities. B. The Human Resource Planning Process Armstrong (2011) observes that the aims of human resource planning process in any organization typically include: attracting and retaining the required numbers of people with the appropriate skills, experience and capabilities; foreseeing the difficulty of prospective human resource surpluses or deficits; assembling a skilled and flexible workforce; reducing dependence on external recruitment when there are shortages in skills supply by formulating retention and human resource development schemes; advancing human resource employment by initiating more flexible work systems. While there is no generally accepted set of formula for carrying out the mechanics of the human resource planning process, there is agreement on its major processes and contents. Therefore, any meaningful human resource planning programme should include: establishing the goals and plans of the organization; assessing current human resources situation; conducting human resources forecast; developing implementation programmes and conducting audits and adjustments. C. Succession Planning A succession plan involves a documentation providing for the continuous operation of an organization when key members exit the organization owing to factors like termination, retirement, or death. It specifies the modifications that will occur in the transfer of leadership across generations. Succession plans can assist in retaining important employees, decreasing tax burdens, and preserving stock and assets value during management transitions. Despite the many benefits of having a succession plan in place, many higher education institutions neglect to develop one. While the financial costs of lack of succession planning are considerable, the human costs tend to be even larger. Collins (2009) asserts that succession planning is a method that can offer flawless leadership change across the organization. It entails strategic, systematic and planned attempts to extend capabilities in prospective leaders through anticipated learning incidents like objective rotations and educational training so as to occupy high-level positions without nepotism. Successful succession planning is compelled by several human resource demographic concerns. Variations in workforce demographics generate considerable organization hardships across industries including higher education where there is always necessity for qualified, erudite faculty. The significance of this need is enhanced when majority of those with experience may likely be retiring simultaneously. Institutions of higher education in Nigeria are now confronted by the rate at which the existing group of experienced academics and professors are leaving the workplace and this has resulted more than ever in the realization of the necessity to build up succession planning schemes. Succession planning is a procedure through which an organization guarantees that employees are recruited and developed for all important functions in the organization. A vigorous tracking succession plan guarantees continuous employee development to occupy required positions arising from organization expansion, loss of important employees or provision of promotional prospects. D. Models of Succession Planning 1. Scharmer s Theory U Model This model was proposed by Scharmer (2007) who contends that there is need for organization top management team to support and take steps towards executing succession plans. The model sees succession planning as starting from the instantaneous future. It also sustains a notion of a U process of five movements that can make transformation achievable. The first movement is co-initiating which entails an organization instituting a general rationale with all stakeholders regarding a potential occurrence. The second is co-sensing in which an organization distinguishes the need at hand jointly across borders. In addition, it entails the establishment of novel initiatives and originality by way of combined efforts. The third is referred to as presencing in which the organization management starts to perceive the outlook they foresee. The revolutionary plan creates a basis for change, thus impelling the organization to an anticipated conclusion. Moreover, the leadership lets loose unsettled previous concerns and progresses to a more pragmatic future at this stage. The fourth stage is the co-creating stage where Scharmer asserts that, organization management investigates the future and models what 2014, IJRMBS All Rights Reserved 60

3 it may resemble. Scharmer advocates that instead of dealing with immediate necessities of the organization, management must formulate succession planning as an enduring concept. The fifth stage of the model is co-evolving which is capable of not only assisting an organization in accepting change but also executing succession planning schemes within the background of a surfacing future. 2. Relay Succession Planning Model The Relay Succession Planning model was developed by Santorin (2004). Santorin suggests in the model that present business leaders of an organization must, over a long period of time; hand out the baton to a successor. Santorin documents that organizations that engage in relay succession plans boast better achievements since the successors were given business tests and they had the ability to manage them in the pre-succession period. The capability of the incumbent business leader to relinquish the baton in real time presents the successor the chance to assess the reins of management and simultaneously obtain training. In the same vein, since the understudies have been tried and tested and consequently have experience speaking for them, organizations that execute relay succession model tend to have superior achievements in the post-succession period. Nevertheless, while Santorin s research confirms that organizations with inhouse relay succession model boasted elevated proceeds from their investment on the long run, several organizations could favour external people to facilitate the introduction of new initiatives and dreams thus creating constructive transformation in the organization. E. Human Resource Planning and Succession Planning Human Resource Planning assesses present and future human resource requirements so as to achieve organizational goals; whereas succession planning spots important positions in the organization chain of command and trains successors to take over at the exit of the incumbent. Nevertheless, the foremost important distinction in the two is that human resource planning has a large-scale method involving the total workforce rather than individual or specific positions: whereas succession planning is a more small-scale and continuing method involving individual or specific positions concerning the contingency of the incumbent s exit from the organization which is futuristic and tentative. Moreover, as Smith, et al. (1992) contends succession planning is a constant and influenced procedure with the selection standards relying on organizational rules, capability, behavioural skills etc. In similar direction, succession planning prevents disruption of organizational policies, goals and objectives. However, Ojo (1998) affirms that both human resource planning and succession planning are vital to any organization and that overlooking any of them opens an organization to harsh human resource problems. Prospective organization leadership possibly constitutes a very fundamental part of its potential and persisting accomplishment and development. F. Higher Education in Nigeria Higher education represents a crucial way of human resources development for any nation. Better education is inclined to result in superior earnings; positions and quality of lives. Higher education embraces teaching, research and social service activities of tertiary institutions. Okojie (1990) affirms that higher education is extremely imperative to national economy, as a foundation of trained and educated human resources for the rest of the economy. Arising from the lack of high - level human resources and the requirement of the country to fulfil the demands of its developing economy after independence, the Nigerian government in April 1959, appointed the Ashby Commission to examine the country s requirements as regards post school certificate and higher education. The commission s report included several proposals like the establishment of more Universities in addition to the University College Ibadan, which was the only one in the country at the time. Consequently, four additional Universities were established namely University of Ife (now Obafemi Awolowo University), University of Lagos, University of Nigeria, and Ahmadu Bello University bringing the total number then to five. Concerted efforts have since been invested in the training of high level human resources. Resultantly, NUC (2014) observes that Nigeria now has 48 Federal Universities, 38 State Universities and 51 privately owned Universities. UNDP (2010) observes that Nigeria has more Universities, Polytechnics, Technical Institutions and other institutions of higher learning than the rest of Sub- Saharan Africa put together. G. Human Resource Planning and Succession Planning in Nigeria s Higher Education Higher education in Nigeria is at a turning point for leadership preparation and planning. NUC (2012) reports that 64% of sitting University Vice-Chancellors and Professors in Nigerian Universities are above 60 years of age. The current retirement age for Federal and State Government owned Universities is 70 and 65years respectively. This implies that if most of them retire in the next five to ten years, a significant number of such positions would turn out to be vacant. Without doubt there is need to arrange the new generation of academics and leaders for Nigeria s higher education. A means of preparing potential leaders to maintain higher education is by human resource and succession planning and the time is ripe to contemplate it critically. While succession planning has enjoyed significant and long standing endorsement as a solution to sustainable and competent changes in business environment, it has only newly received footing in higher education. Succession planning is probably not easy to welcome in higher education owing to the democratic environment of the academia. It tends to contradict the principle of mutual authority in higher education. Majority of the institutions of higher learning in Nigeria, are yet to assume schemes of formal succession planning for their executive and top leadership positions even though they teach such methods to students and corporate clients both in undergraduate and post graduate management courses and departments. Succession planning in institutions of higher education is imperative to sustenance of competitive advantage over competitors. A significant factor in a thriving succession plan for institutions of higher learning has to do with top management support since employees require top management positive support to expand their potentials. The existing tradition for changing university top management entails open searches, which are generally instigated when a sitting officer is close to retirement or the conclusion of a contract. The open search arrangement which is often vulnerable to extreme bias involves publicizing openings and a panel of stakeholders selecting applicants for interviews. A foremost denigration of the system is that academics at noticeably lower ranks in the organisation (typically lower than professorial cadres) are excluded 61

4 ISSN : (Online) in potential management channel or talent pool. Consequently, a lot of prospective faculty stay under exploited. H. Statement of Hypotheses H 1 : There is no significant relationship between human resource and succession planning and survival of public H2: There is no significant relationship between human resource planning and employee turnover in public H 3 : There is no significant relationship between human resource planning and career development of academic staff in public H4: There is no significant relationship between human resource planning and talent retention in public III. Methodology The research design for this study is the descriptive survey. The data for this study was collected through questionnaires and personal interviews in four public sector Universities located in Southwest Nigeria. Quota and random sampling techniques were adopted; sixty (60) questionnaires each were administered in each university making a total of two hundred and forty (240) questionnaires. A self-designed questionnaire was employed for data collection and this was done between January and March The questionnaire comprised two sections; the first addressed the biographic information of the respondents and the second focused on information on opinion of human resource planning and succession, organization survival, employee turnover, talent retention, career development. The questions were Likert type and respondents indicated their responses on a four -point Likert-type scale of 1(strongly disagree) to 4(strongly agree). The instrument had a reliability co-efficient of r = Cronbach s alpha after the pilot survey and the Pearson correlation was (p<0.001) indicating the reliability of the instrument. Eight 8(3.5%) of the returned questionnaires were excluded from the study because they were not properly completed. Therefore, only two hundred and thirty two (232) of them consisting of 86(37%) females and 146(63%) males were included in the analysis. Frequency distribution and percentages were employed in analyzing the data collected. The chi square was used to test the hypotheses. IV. Results and Discussion Public Universities in Nigeria have been leisurely in adopting the business approach to official human resource and succession planning. This study however found that the public universities are gradually realizing the necessity for effective human resource and succession planning. 213(91.8%) of the respondents testify that their institutions now engage in some sort of human resource and succession planning arising from the swift revelation that many incumbents of the significant posts are already qualified or would be qualified for retirement in the next few years and there are significant skill gaps. This has resulted in the gradual development of a complete management development plan in the universities. However, 198(91.8%) of the respondents agree that while the degree of consciousness of the necessity for human resource and succession planning seems to have improved in the recent past, it is constrained by issues like the custom of an inert management culture and size of the institution. 201(86.6%) of the respondents indicate that the lack of effective human resource and succession planning has often resulted in employee turnover. Owing to the current spate of establishment of private universities by individuals and religious institutions searching for talents in the same labour market as the public universities the competition is now very keen. Prospective in-house contenders for senior management spots are effortlessly being enticed by other offers since their university is unable to formulate any form of bold assurance. Again, the rate at which the public universities are producing PhDs is much slower than the rate of exit of the older academics. This can be very costly for universities and as Simeon (2012) observes succession planning checks disturbance of organizational policies, goals and objectives and stops the harmful results of employee turnover which may be occasioned by resignation or loss of talent in organizations. Public universities must be devoted to effective human resource and succession planning and senior academics must be encouraged to mentor junior ones to take their places. 97(41.8%) of the respondents affirm that there is some kind of ongoing opposition to succession planning schemes especially by older faculty members who feel threatened by the younger ones and refuse to replicate themselves even when they are close to retirement. Open searches continue to be an extremely-entrenched custom in public universities in Nigeria (especially as regards top management positions like that of the Vice-Chancellor) notwithstanding amplified appeals for succession planning but as Otuyelu (2010) contends the searches are largely helpful when universities are open to innovative initiatives and attach management benchmarks to schemes and traditions. 197(41.8%) of the respondents observe that especially for the principal officers of the university open searches are very much in use. Ajayi-Obe (2008) affirms that generally, public searches that incorporate every eligible applicant should be employed in filling management positions in public universities in order to attach reliability to the choice and to open the institution to novel plans and simultaneously permit personal assessment of the position and its goals. Furthermore, Jackson (2011) identifies three solutions to successful transitions. One is having strategic plans that are attached to present performance metrics and aspirations while being centred on enduring goals that have extensive support across the institution and for which there is logic of widespread cause and possession. The next involves building in-house aspirants for leadership positions to ensure constant high pattern of potentials inside the institution against which to evaluate the potentials of external applicants. Finally, it is imperative to boast a tradition that encourages a general sense of rationale and desires involving a real admiration of those that prioritize communal achievement ahead of personal acknowledgment. V. Test of Hypotheses Hypothesis 1- There is no significant relationship between human resource and succession planning and survival of public universities. Table 1- Human Resource and Succession Planning and Survival of Public Universities. SA A D SD Total (21.12) (9.12) (21.12) (18.76) x 2 cal x 2 crit 7.48 df 3 P Rem S 2014, IJRMBS All Rights Reserved 62

5 The results in Table 1 imply a significant relationship between human resource and succession planning and survival of public universities. The x 2 calculated value of was significant at 0.05 level of significance and 3df. The study found however, that the human resource and succession planning undertaken in many of the universities is not effective. Many of them have been leisurely in accepting the corporate approach to formal human resource and succession planning. Even where it is being practiced it seems to be targeted mostly at the top management. Nigeria s higher education is at a crossroads for leadership training and preparation. It is indisputable that preparation must be made for subsequent cadre of managers for higher education but many are not clear on the finest way of doing it. Okeola (2009) observes that a way of preparing potential leaders in the academia to uphold higher education is by effective human resource and succession planning; a method which must now more than ever be regarded critically. Okojie (2010) observes that while succession planning has for long been advocated as a means to maintainable and proficient management change in organization, its grip in Nigeria s higher education is quite new. Successful human resource and succession planning assists in achieving efficient management change and sustaining a university s drive in addition to guaranteeing basic support for the individual who appreciates the vigour and susceptibility and can consequently build up a joint vision that replicates the history and goals on the institution. While succession planning is significant at the top, human resource planning must also take precedence at all ranks of the university to guarantee a robust in-house talent pool that ensures the university maintains competitive edge and succeeds. This study reveals that most public sector universities in Nigeria do not have any calculated attempts toward human resource and succession planning and for those that have it is often jettisoned along the way for political considerations. Also academic staff are often not cultivated and developed for higher tasks. Seniority as opposed to performance aptitude decides the next succession. Furthermore, prior to assumption of higher placement, there is hardly any developmental assignment or training arranged for successors to show them the requirements of the new positions. Some of the universities are devoid of recruitment schemes, resulting in the fact that in some situations; over half of the faculty members fall within an age cluster and would consequently retire round about the same time. In addition there are no solid retention strategies consequently there is a lot of staff disloyalty and non commitment. With the competition from many of the over 50 private universities presently in the country many are opting to look elsewhere for greener pastures and the effects have included: capacity and brain drain, crucial skill gaps, alterations in the philosophy and vibrancy of the institutions, all of which do not augur well for organization survival. H 2 : There is no significant relationship between human resource and succession planning and employee turnover in public Table 2 : Human resource and succession planning and employee turnover. SA 102 A 86 D 32 SD 12 Total 232 (33. (13. (11. (36. 38) 52) 66) 48) x 2 cal x 2 crit 7.48 df 3 P Rem S The x 2 calculated value of was significant at 0.05 level of significance and 3df indicating a significant relationship between human resource and succession planning and employee turnover. This confirms the affirmation of Ojo (1998) that one of the major objectives of human resource planning is to foresee employee turnover and make arrangements for minimizing such turnover and filling up attendant vacancies. This is particularly significant because as earlier noted, with the establishment of several private universities in the country all shopping for human resources in the same labour market as the public sector universities added to the limited supply of PhDs, competition is quite keen and many of the academic staff in the public sector universities are now crossing to private universities where there are better opportunities and prospects. H 3 : There is no significant relationship between human resource planning and career development of academic staff in public Table 3 : Human resource planning and career development. SA A D SD Total (19.93) 86 (13.52) 28 (15.52) 26 (17.66) x 2 cal x 2 crit 7.48 df 3 P 0.05 Rem S For the third hypothesis the x 2 calculated value of was significant at 0.05 level of significance and 3df pointing at a significant relationship between human resource planning and career development of academic staff in public universities. Human resource planning entails the development and optimum utilization of human resources to achieve organizational goals. This aligns with Hanson (2010) which suggests that effective human resource plans go beyond mere management development programmes to developing a scheme that observes employee improvement. It develops procedures that need potentials to display their independence and accountability in order to assist in recognizing persons with competence to occupy vital positions. Universities must fashion career and management development plans that present knowledge or skill development in spheres that are not common to employees career plan consequently allowing employees to create context in their work. Mentors can be assigned to support younger academics to discover their prospects and find a career path within the institution since the prospects of moving within the university increases the depth of academic staff loyalty to the institution. Also a previous study by this author Fapohunda (2012) on Pay Disparity and Pay Satisfaction in Public and Private Universities in Nigeria found that academic staff in public sector universities have poorer opportunities than their counterparts in the private sector who have better opportunities of career training and development programmes provided in and outside the organisation, promotion and advancement etc. In that study, 71% of the respondents from the public sector universities indicated dissatisfaction with the personal career development programmes offered by their institutions while only about 18% of those from the private sector universities were dissatisfied with the personal career development programmes offered by their institutions. H 4 : There is no significant relationship between human resource and succession planning and talent retention in public universities. 63

6 ISSN : (Online) Table 4- Relationship between human resource and succession planning and talent retention. SA A D SD Total x 2 cal x 2 crit df P Rem 83 (10.76) 98 (27.59) 30 (13.52) 21 (23.60) S The x 2 calculated value of was significant at 0.05 level of significance and 3df implying a significant relationship between human resource and succession planning and talent retention in public universities. Talent management is a significant variable in succession planning. It is important as a competitive weapon of advantage and continued organization existence. A retention strategy that motivates employees and grows their commitment to the organization is very significant to the human resource and succession planning processes. Providing talented faculty with prospects that may be unobtainable elsewhere assists in retaining them and generating a sturdier and more dedicated cluster of potential faculty and simultaneously reduces costs for the institution in the area of recruiting and hiring. Public Universities must develop a tradition of sturdy leadership with faculty members displaying effective leadership at all levels and decreasing reliance on particular persons to facilitate an extremely flourishing transition. The study found that succession planning in public sector universities is often hampered by issues ranging from policy disturbances, unpredictability, politically stimulated geo-political pacts and sit tight mind-set of management incumbents. The foregoing implies that most public Universities do not have premeditated attempts toward human resource planning neither do they seem to be good in succession planning or spotting talents. Also, there is placement of staff in roles for which they may be unsuitable because faculty members are often not cultivated and developed for higher tasks. This portends depressing consequences for employee morale, loyalty and general performance. However, arising from current competition and the need to maintain competitive advantage, universities that fail to recognize their talent will have others do it and entice them away as several private universities in the country are now doing. Public universities must therefore seek effective methods of human resource and succession planning. It is imperative that they make the most of the talent within the universities while also attracting more from outside. There must be improved understanding, development and utilization of the talents that are presently available in the university by ensuring that human resource and succession planning added to the development of prospects become a central part of university process. Human resource planning and management succession involves getting ready the university s potential management, and consequently endeavouring to maintain its accomplishments especially in difficult times. Financial constraints and increased competition among other factors also imply a more intricate environment of leadership and management which necessitates an arrangement to guarantee the availability of the right people with the right skills and levels of toughness in place. It also involves efforts at optimizing the performances of incumbents and growing the management talents of the potentials. The most regular side of human resource and succession planning that universities will need to assume involve anticipating turnover at all levels over a period of time then recognizing and cultivating talent within the organization. Similarly, leadership transitions must be planned well ahead of the real event and methodologies such as internal promotions as opposed to open searches must be explored in filling significant management positions. Furthermore, procedures for induction and cultivation of new leaders that arrange and implement a smooth and successful change for them must be fashioned. With the present milieu for higher education, none can manage attracting, investing in and then losing high potential employees. Harrison & Hargrove (2006) suggests that the finest means of confronting this test is retaining and developing faculty who offer high-quality, value added performance. VI. Conclusion This paper concludes that the management of public universities in Nigeria must endeavour to make their institutions continuously significant and competitive by motivating employees towards increased effectiveness and efficiency. Also, there must be appropriate management of talented employees to reduce employee turnover rate. Effective human resource and succession planning will no doubt transform higher education in Nigeria. It will affect the functioning and the level of readiness to confront future difficulties. Comprehensive human resource and succession planning directs the development of various levels of materializing faculty that will indeed transform higher education. To reposition higher education for effective performance and service delivery, public universities must institute efficient human resource and succession planning to assemble teams of internal talents aimed at improving management continuity, ethics and philosophy of the institution. This will ease the growth of a sturdy talent reserve and be crucial in attracting and retaining superior talent to assist in the current and potential institutional development. References [1] Adesina, Y.O. (1990) Human Resources management, an overview. Concept Publication, Shomolu, Lagos. P [2] Ajayi-Obe, W.T. (2008) The Role of Training in charge Management Journal of the Institute of Personnel Management of Nigeria. Vol. 10, No 7 P [3] Armstrong, M. (2011).Armstrong s Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, 12th Ed. London, Kogan Page. [4] Bulla, D.N., & Scott, P.M. (1994) Manpower requirements forecasting: a case example, in Human Resource Forecasting and Modelling, ed D Ward, T P Bechet and RTripp, The Human Resource Planning Society, New York. [5] Charan, R., Drotter, S., & Noel, J. (2001).The Leadership Pipeline: How to Build the Leadership Powered Company. San Francisco, GA: Jossey-Bass (owned by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.) [6] Collins, J.K. (2009) Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the leap and others Don t. New York, Harper Business. [7] Fapohunda, T. M. (2012) Pay Disparity and Pay Satisfaction in Public and Private Universities in Nigeria. European Scientific Journal, Vol. 8.No. 28. December pp European Scientific Institute. [8] French W.L. (2008), The Personnel Management Process, 4th Edition Houghton MuffinCompany, Boston [9] FRN (2004) Education Today Vol. 8 No. 2 Sept. A Quarterly Journal of the Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja. [10] Greer, C.R., Jackson, D.L., & Fiorito, J.(2008). Adapting Human Resource Planning in a Changing Business Environment. Human Resource Management, 28(1): , IJRMBS All Rights Reserved 64

7 123. [11] Hanson, M.H (2010) Succession systems in large corporations; Characteristics and correlates of performance, Human Resource Management, 25(2), [12] Harrison, H.D. & M.J. Hargrove Aging faculty: Workforce challenges and issues facing higher education. Business Perspectives 18(2): [13] Jackson, M.P (2011) Evaluating The Practical Effectiveness of Human Resource Planning Applications. Human Resource Management, 74(13): [14] NUC (2012) Reports on Faculty Statistics in Nigeria Educational System. [15] Ojo, P.K. (1998) Human Resources Management, A Strategic Approach,. Human Resources Management 9 (4) [16] Okeola, G.O (2009) Revitalizing Education in Africa. Ibadan: Stirling-Horden Publishers (Nig.) Ltd. Pp [17] Okojie, P.O (1990) Higher Education in the Twenty First Century: Vision and Action. Frameworkfor priority action for change and development in higher education. World Conference on Higher Education, Paris 5-9 Oct., 1998, 32 pp. [18] Okojie, P.O (2010) Higher education in Developing Countries: Peril and Promise. The Task Force on Higher Education and Society. 135 pp. [19] Otuyelu, D.Y (2010) Sustainable Leadership, Phi Delta kappan 84(9): [20] Santorin, J.C. (2004). Passing the Baton. Academy of Management Executive, 18(4): [21] Scharmer, C.O. (2007). Theory U: Leading the Future at it Emerges. Cambridge, MA: The Society for Organizational Learning, Inc. [22] Simeon, M.G (2012) Linking Strategic Planning and Management Manpower Planning. California Management Review,25(1): [23] Smith, B.J., Boroski, J.W., & Davis, G.E.(1992). Human Resource Planning. Human Resource Management, 31(1/2): [24] UNESCO (2005). Recent developments and future prospects of higher education in the 21st century. Follow up to the World Conference on higher education, Meeting of higher education partners, Paris June, 2003, 24 pp. Author Profile Dr. Tinuke Fapohunda is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Industrial Relations and Personnel Management at the Lagos State University, Ojo. She holds the following Academic and Professional Qualifications OND Mass Communication (Ibadan) 1988, BA. Ed (Ibadan) 1991, M. Ed (Lagos) 1995, Ph. D (Ibadan) in Industrial Education, October She has been a member, of the Chartered Institute of Personnel Management of Nigeria (2003), a Fellow of the Certified Institute of Shipping of Nigeria since 2005 and a member, Academy of Management Sciences since Prior to joining the services of the Lagos State University she worked as a Research Assistant with the Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER). She taught many subjects at post primary schools from 1992 to 2002 and courses at university level since then. Tinuke Fapohunda has a rich experience in teaching, research and consulting. 65

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