SAP DBA COCKPIT Flight Plans for DB2 LUW Database Administrators

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1 SAP DBA COCKPIT Flight Plans for DB2 LUW Database Administrators DB2 is now the database most recommended for use with SAP applications, and DB2 skills are now critical for all SAP technical professionals. The most important tool within SAP for database administration is the SAP DBA Cockpit, which provides a more extensive administrative interface on DB2 than any other database. This book steps through every aspect of the SAP DBA Cockpit for DB2. Readers will quickly learn how to use the SAP DBA Cockpit to perform powerful DB2 administration tasks and performance analysis. This book provides both DB2 beginners and experts an invaluable reference for the abundance of information accessible from within the SAP DBA Cockpit for DB2. It makes it easy for SAP NetWeaver administrators, consultants, and DBAs to understand the strengths of DB2 for SAP, and how to leverage those strengths within their own unique application environments. EDUARDO AKISUE LIWEN YEOW Certified DB2 9 Administrator Certified Technology Associate System Administration (DB2) for SAP NetWeaver 7.0 Certified Informix Administrator Certified SAP Technology Consultant SAP Certified OS/DB Migration Consultant JEREMY BROUGHTON SAP Certified Basis Consultant for DB2 on NetWeaver 2004 SAP Certified OS/DB Migration Consultant MC Press Online, LP 125 N. Woodland Trail Lewisville, TX SAP Certified Technology Consultant for DB/OS Migration PATRICK ZENG Certified DB2 Solutions Expert Certified SAP Technology Consultant

2 SAP DBA Cockpit Flight Plans for DB2 LUW Database Administrators Eduardo Akisue Jeremy Broughton Liwen Yeow Patrick Zeng Foreword by Torsten Ziegler

3 SAP DBA Cockpit: Flight Plans for DB2 LUW Database Administrators Eduardo Akisue, Jeremy Broughton, Liwen Yeow, Patrick Zeng Foreword by Torsten Ziegler October IBM Corporation. All rights reserved. Portions MC Press Online, LP. Every attempt has been made to provide correct information. However, the publisher and the author do not guarantee the accuracy of the book and do not assume responsibility for information included in or omitted from it. IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation in the United States, other countries, or both. DB2 is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation in the United States, other countries, or both. All other product names are trademarked or copyrighted by their respective manufacturers. This publication is protected by copyright, and permission must be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permissions or special orders, please contact: MC Press Corporate Offices 125 N. Woodland Trail Lewisville, TX USA For information regarding sales and/or customer service, please contact: MC Press P.O. Box 4300 Big Sandy, TX USA ISBN:

4 About the Authors Eduardo Akisue is a member of the WW DB2 SAP Technical Sales Enablement and Support team. Previous to his current role, he worked for many years supporting DB2 and Informix customers in the Latin America region. He is a Certified DB2 9 Administrator, a Certified Informix Administrator, and an Informix dial-up Engineer. He is also a Certified SAP Technology Consultant and an SAP Certified OS/DB Migration Consultant. Eduardo can be reached at Jeremy Broughton is a Technical Enablement Specialist for IBM DB2 and SAP. He has worked within the IBM DB2 Development Lab for 10 years, first developing infrastructure and tooling for DB2 development, and then rewriting internal DB2 code to optimize compilation performance and development agility. For the past three years, Jeremy has been dedicated to helping SAP professionals leverage the strengths of DB2 within SAP implementations. He has assisted with proofs of concept, provided consulting to customers implementing SAP on DB2, and presented numerous workshops around the world teaching DB2 administration and migration methodology for SAP systems. He is an SAP Certified Basis Consultant for DB2 on NetWeaver 2004, and an SAP Certified OS/DB Migration Consultant. Jeremy can be reached at

5 Liwen Yeow is the WW SAP Technical Sales Manager for DB2 Distributed Platforms. He has been with IBM since 1988 and has worked in the SAP field since 1995 in multiple capacities: as part of DB2 Service, as an SAP Consultant for DB2, as a Customer Advocate for many of the large SAP-DB2 customers, and as Manager of the IBM-SAP Integration and Support Center. In his current role, he is responsible for the enablement of the Technical Pre-Sales teams and provides guidance to the Sales teams in SAP sales opportunities. He is a Certified Technology Associate System Administration (DB2) for SAP NetWeaver 7.0, and an SAP Certified Technology Consultant for DB/OS Migration. Liwen can be reached at Patrick Zeng was a member of the WW DB2 SAP Technical Sales Enablement and Support team and currently works as a DBA at Bank of America. He has many years worth of experience supporting SAP and DB2 customers. He is a Certified DB2 Solutions Expert and a Certified SAP Technology Consultant. Patrick can be reached at Torsten Ziegler has been the Development Manager for SAP NetWeaver on IBM DB2 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows since After having worked in other industries, he joined SAP as a developer in In his current role, he is responsible for development, maintenance, and development support for all DB2-specific components of SAP NetWeaver and applications based on NetWeaver. He can be reached at

6 Acknowledgments The authors would like to express their gratitude for the technical contributions received by the following colleagues: At IBM: Guiyun Cao Martin Mezger Karl Fleckenstein At SAP AG: Torsten Ziegler Ralf Stauffer Andreas Zimmermann Steffen Siegmund Britta Bachert

7 Contents Foreword by Torsten Ziegler vi Chapter 1: The SAP DBA Cockpit Central Monitoring of Remote Systems Summary Chapter 2: Performance Monitoring Performance: Partition Overview Performance: Database Snapshot The Buffer Pool The Catalog Cache and Package Cache Asynchronous I/O Direct I/O Real-Time Statistics (RTS) Locks and Deadlocks Logging Calls Sorts XML Storage Performance: Schemas Performance: Buffer Pool Snapshot Performance: Tablespace Snapshot Performance: Table Snapshot Performance: Application Snapshot Performance: SQL Cache Snapshot Performance: Lock Waits and Deadlocks i

8 Performance: Active Inplace Table Reorganizations Performance: History Database Performance: History Tables Performance Warehouse Summary Chapter 3: Storage Management Automatic Storage Table Spaces The Technical Settings Tab The Storage Parameters Tab The Containers Tab DMS/SMS Table Spaces Containers Tables and Indexes Single Table Analysis The Table Tab The Indexes Tab The Table Structures Tab The RUNSTATS Control Tab The Index Structures Tab The RUNSTATS Profile Tab The Table Status Tab The Compression Status Tab Virtual Tables Historical Analysis The Database and Table Spaces Tables and Indexes Summary Chapter 4: Job Scheduling The Central Calendar The DBA Planning Calendar REORGCHK for All Tables Scheduling Backups Archiving Log Files to a Tape Device ii

9 Updating Statistics Table Reorganization Custom Job Scripts The DBA Log Back-end Configuration SQL Script Maintenance Summary Chapter 5: Backup and Recovery The Backup Strategy Utility Throttling Scheduling Backups in the DBA Cockpit Multi-partition Databases Advanced Backup Technology The DB2 Recovery History File The Backup and Recovery Overview Screen The Database Backup Tab The Archived Log Files Tab Logging Parameters The Log Directory The ARCHMETH1 Tab Summary Chapter 6: Configuration The Overview Screen The Database Manager The Database Registry Variables Environment Variables Registry Variables Parameter Changes Database Partition Groups Buffer Pools Special Tables Regarding RUNSTATS File Systems Data Classes iii

10 Monitoring Settings Automatic Maintenance Settings Automatic Backups Automatic RUNSTATS Automatic REORG Summary Chapter 7: The Alert Monitor The Alert Monitor The Alert Message Log Alert Configuration Summary Chapter 8: Database Diagnostics The Audit Log The EXPLAIN Option The New Version of EXPLAIN Missing Tables and Indexes The Deadlock Monitor Creating the Deadlock Monitor Enabling the Deadlock Monitor Analyzing the Information Collected Stopping the Deadlock Monitor Resetting or Dropping the Deadlock Monitor The SQL Command Line The Index Advisor Indexes Recommended by DB Creating Virtual Indexes The Cumulative SQL Trace The DBSL Trace Directory The Sequential DBSL Trace The Deadlock Trace Trace Status The Database Notification Log The Database Diagnostic Log DB2 Logs iv

11 The Dump Directory The DB2 Help Center Summary Chapter 9: New Features Workload Management (WLM) Workloads and Service Classes Critical Activities BI Administration BI Data Distribution The MDC Advisor Summary v

12 Foreword This is a remarkable book, written by IBM experts who have in-depth knowledge about SAP on DB2. The authors have their profound experience not only from their work with many customers who adopted DB2 for their SAP applications, but also from their very close cooperation with SAP development. Based on the analogy of a pilot s need to know about the controls of his aircraft, this book takes you through the entire world of DB2 monitoring and administration. You will find it a useful introduction if you are new to SAP on DB2, and you will also be able to use it as a reference if you are an experienced DBA. The SAP DBA Cockpit is one of many visible proof points of the excellent integration of SAP solutions with IBM DB2. This book will familiarize you with everything you need to know to operate IBM DB2 optimally with your SAP solution. In a tutorial-like, easy to read style it takes you from the basic controls to advanced monitoring and tuning, and at the same time provides you with useful background information about DB2. And even more, it is just fun to read. I hope you will find it as useful and enjoyable as I did. Torsten Ziegler SAP Manager DB2 LUW Platform Development vi

13 Chapter 1 The SAP DBA Cockpit A Pilot Must Know the Controls Like a pilot must know the aircraft cockpit, a database administrator must know the SAP database administration tools. The SAP DBA Cockpit is the central database administration interface for SAP systems on all databases. The DBA Cockpit for DB2 provides administrators with a more comprehensive administration and monitoring tool for SAP databases. Piloting a large commercial aircraft requires a great deal of skill. Pilots must understand how the adjustments they make to the aircraft components affect the flight of the airplane. Balancing lift and drag, speed and altitude, yaw and wind are all important parts of a safe, comfortable flight. However, a huge amount of technology also operates and manages the individual aircraft components. A pilot who flew the aircraft without knowing what the technology does could disrupt automated flight operations. Similarly, if the technology were not leveraged specifically for the aircraft flight requirements, flight operations could become more difficult. To ensure an efficient and comfortable flight, an adept pilot must understand both the high-level operation of the aircraft and the underlying technology that operates the components. 1

14 CHAPTER 1: The SAP DBA Cockpit Considering the operation of the database technology within an SAP application, administrators and pilots have similar skill requirements. Operating SAP applications without considering the optimizations within the database technology can cause inefficiencies, and configuring the database without considering the unique SAP application workload characteristics can produce unstable, sub-optimal performance results. Adept SAP administrators must understand how to best leverage the database technology specifically for the workloads of their SAP systems. Traditionally, this is where administrative consoles have come up short. Database administration consoles were too generic to focus on application-specific requirements, and application administration consoles were not specific enough to fully leverage the database. SAP and IBM took huge steps to bridge this gap, though, with the development of the SAP DBA Cockpit for DB2. The result is a complete graphical interface for monitoring and administering the database, all within a single transaction in the SAP application. Administrators can now easily access all of the database key performance indicators (KPIs) and make changes to improve system performance from within the same dialog screens. The most important information for SAP administrators is now at their fingertips, and the database administrative tasks can often be executed with a few simple mouse clicks. This single DBA Cockpit interface simplifies monitoring and maintenance tasks, and can reduce the overall time spent on database administration. The DBA Cockpit contains two main sections: a large detailed display on the right, and a small navigation menu on the left. Figure 1.1 shows the System Configuration screen, which is the initial dialog screen displayed by running the DBACOCKPIT transaction. This can also be displayed at any time by clicking the System Configuration button, just above the left navigation menu. 2

15 CHAPTER 1: The SAP DBA Cockpit Figure 1.1: The SAP DBA Cockpit for DB2 has a large display area on the right and a small navigation menu on the left. The right display window contains a list of all the database systems that are configured for monitoring from the DBA Cockpit. The left navigation menu contains the following folders for navigating into database function groups: Performance Display performance statistics for monitoring database memory, disk I/O, application resource usage, query execution, and more. Space Review historical and real-time storage usage for table spaces, containers, and individual tables, and perform administrative functions to alter the logical and physical storage layout of the SAP database. Backup and Recovery Operations Review historical backup and log archival information, and real-time log file system statistics. Database Configuration Display and update database configuration parameters, configure partition groups and buffer pools, and adjust monitoring and automatic maintenance settings. 3

16 CHAPTER 1: The SAP DBA Cockpit Job Scheduling Create, schedule, and monitor periodic jobs from a planning calendar. Alert Monitoring View key database health alert statuses and messages, and enable notification for database alert threshold violations. Diagnostic Functions View and filter messages from the database diagnostic logs, view optimizer access plans and recommended indexes for SQL statements, run SQL commands, view DB2 online help, and more. Workload Management Set up, maintain, and monitor the different workloads and service classes configured for the SAP system in DB2 s Workload Management. BW Administration Change data distribution and analyze Multi-Dimensional Clustering in partitioned SAP NetWeaver BW databases. The left navigation frame of SAP Enhancement Package 1 for SAP NetWeaver 7.0 contains two additional screens. The first entry links the user directly into the DB2 LUW main web page in the SAP Developers Network (SDN), allowing the user to browse the SDN from directly within the SAP GUI. The other screen launches the new web browser-based DBA Cockpit. Several of the new features of the DBA Cockpit are now launched as WebDynpro browser applications. When one of these is clicked in the SAP GUI-based DBA Cockpit, the corresponding WebDynpro screen will automatically launch in the browser. The Start WebDynpro GUI menu entry launches the main page of the web browser-based DBA Cockpit, similar to the DBACOCKPIT transaction in the SAP GUI. The contents of the left navigation menu may differ slightly among different versions of SAP BASIS, in order to leverage new functionality available in the latest releases of SAP and DB2. This book illustrates the latest features available in the DBA Cockpit in SAP Enhancement Package 1 for SAP NetWeaver

17 CHAPTER 1: The SAP DBA Cockpit Central Monitoring of Remote Systems The DBA Cockpit allows administrators to configure connections to every SAP system from a single DBA Cockpit session. A Solution Manager instance or a standalone SAP NetWeaver instance can be installed for administrators to use for central monitoring and administration. You should keep this SAP system at the most current SAP release level, to maximize backward compatibility and make the most advanced DBA Cockpit features available for all systems. Remote connections can be established using the database information from the System Landscape Directory (SLD). Alternatively, they can be configured manually from within the DBA Cockpit, using the DB Connections button at the top of the left navigation menu. From the System Configuration screen, simply click the SLD System Import button. This provides a graphical interface to select and register the unregistered SAP systems into the cockpit. This allows the entire SAP system landscape to be centrally managed in the SLD, and provides a simple way to register any new or changed systems in your central DBA Cockpit. Alternatively, click the Add button to manually register new databases into the cockpit. This allows administrators to register even non-sap systems. Therefore, the DBA Cockpit can provide a single administrative GUI for every SAP and non-sap database in your IT landscape. Summary The SAP DBA Cockpit for DB2 is a powerful interface for SAP pilots to centrally manage the DB2 database operations of their SAP systems. It provides a single point of administration for every DB2 database in your organization. The SAP DBA Cockpit for DB2 gives administrators fast and easy access to all of the most important DB2 database information, all from within the familiar look and feel of SAP GUI. 5

18 Chapter 2 Performance Monitoring Are You Flying a Glider or a Jet? The DBA Cockpit performance monitors provide a simple interface to easily access all of the key performance data for the DB2 database. By understanding the DBA Cockpit information and integrating it with the other performance data available within SAP, administrators can more effectively optimize the performance of their SAP systems. Performance tuning can be a very complicated task, involving many different areas of the SAP application. The database is one of the key areas, and the SAP DBA Cockpit for DB2 can greatly reduce the effort of monitoring and tuning it. The DBACOCKPIT transaction efficiently organizes the database performance statistics into the following sections, containing easily accessible screens and tabs for important, related information: Performance: Partition Overview Performance: Database Snapshot Performance: Schemas Performance: Buffer Pool Snapshot Performance: Tablespace Snapshot 6

19 CHAPTER 2: Performance Monitoring Performance: Table Snapshot Performance: Application Snapshot Performance: SQL Cache Snapshot Performance: Lock Waits and Deadlocks Performance: Active Inplace Table Reorganizations Performance: History Database Performance: History Tables Everything needed by a database administrator is only a click or two away. Performance: Partition Overview Database Partitioning Feature (DPF) is one of the key DB2 features for improving the performance of SAP NetWeaver BW systems. DPF allows a SAP NetWeaver BW database to scale out incrementally on lower-cost hardware, or grow massive data warehouses across multiple, large servers. The goal of database partitioning is to divide the database workload evenly across multiple partitions, perhaps on different physical machines, so that long-running SQL statements can be divided and conquered. If the workload is balanced evenly across all partitions, all then operate on an equal share of the data and process their intermediate results sets in about the same amount of time. This equal division of processing minimizes the overall response time and maximizes performance. To access the partition overview, shown in Figure 2.1, click Performance Partitions in the navigation frame of the DBA Cockpit. This displays the most important performance statistics for each active partition in the current SAP NetWeaver BW system. For each partition, this overview shows the total number and size of the buffer pools, key I/O read and write characteristics, SQL statement executions, and package cache statistics. Ideally, a well-balanced system will have similar values on each partition for all of these characteristics. Probably the most important performance indicator is buffer pool hit ratio. This can be calculated by comparing the number of logical and physical reads. Alternatively, it can be displayed by double-clicking one of the partitions to view 7

20 CHAPTER 2: Performance Monitoring the database snapshot data from that partition. On each partition, the index hit ratio should be about 98 percent, and the data hit ratio should be 95 to 98 percent. Figure 2.1: The performance characteristics of the DB2 database partitions are shown in the Performance: Partition Overview screen. Administrators should try to balance I/O as evenly as possible across all partitions in the system. The easiest way to achieve this is to distribute all large or heavily accessed tables across all partitions. However, for very large systems with a very high number of partitions, it might be impractical to distribute tables thinly across all partitions. In this case, heavily accessed tables can be balanced equally across subsets of partitions. For example, one heavily accessed InfoCube can reside on partitions 1 through 9, and another heavily accessed InfoCube can reside on partitions 10 through 19. The most important point is to try to keep database size and I/O activity as balanced as possible across all partitions, so that the database leverages the full processing capacity of all partitions equally. 8

21 CHAPTER 2: Performance Monitoring Partitioned SAP NetWeaver BW databases have unique package cache requirements. Since all application servers connect to the Administration Partition (partition 0), all SAP basis function-related SQL statements will only be compiled and performed on partition 0. Therefore, the Administration Partition requires a bigger package cache than other data partitions. Package cache quality should be 95 to 98 percent on each partition. Performance: Database Snapshot The database performance dialog of the DBA Cockpit is the equivalent of running the ST04 transaction code. This screen, shown in Figure 2.2, contains tabs for each of the following key database performance indicators (KPIs): Buffer pool Cache Asynchronous I/O Direct I/O Real-time statistics Locks and deadlocks Logging Calls Sorts XML storage By default, the database performance monitor displays database statistics since the last system reset. The system can be manually reset at any time by clicking the Reset button at the top of the screen. To the right of the Reset button, you will find a Since Reset button and a Since DBM Start button. These toggle the statistics between the values since the last reset, and the values since the start of the database manager (the DB2 instance). 9

22 CHAPTER 2: Performance Monitoring Figure 2.2: This tab of the database snapshot dialog displays statistics about the buffer pool. The Buffer Pool Disk I/O is relatively slow compared to other types of database operations. Therefore, if a database reduces disk I/O and performs most disk I/O operations in the background (asynchronous), performance generally improves. On the other hand, if an SQL statement is forced to wait for disk I/O (synchronous), performance generally declines. Administrators should strive for high buffer quality, fast physical I/O, and few synchronous reads. All of this information is available in the DBA Cockpit buffer pool statistics, shown in Figure 2.2. High buffer quality is probably one of the most important criteria for performance. If an agent can find the pages it needs already in memory, I/O wait is reduced and response time improves. For peak performance, overall buffer quality for the entire database should be above 95 percent, with data hit ratios above 95 percent and indexes hit ratios above 98 percent. Hit ratios can be improved by increasing buffer pool size, compressing the database, improving cluster ratios for SAP NetWeaver BW, or by optimizing buffer pool allocation, which can be done automatically by the DB2 Self Tuning Memory Manager (STMM). 10

23 CHAPTER 2: Performance Monitoring Buffer pool hit ratios depend on the ratio of logical and physical reads. Each request for a page of table or index data is referred to as a logical read. In a well-tuned system, the majority of logical read requests will be satisfied from the buffer pool, resulting in buffer pool hits. If a page is not in the buffer pool, a buffer pool miss occurs, and the page must be read from disk, which is called a physical read. The buffer pool quality is the ratio of the number of page requests found in the buffer pool to the total number of logical read requests. Physical reads and writes are unavoidable, because new transactions are always reading and writing new data to the database. However, a properly configured database will perform most disk I/O asynchronously and in parallel, thereby minimizing the I/O wait experienced by the client and maintaining high buffer quality. Physical reads and writes can either be synchronous or asynchronous, depending on which DB2 agent (process or thread) performs the I/O operation. Synchronous I/O is performed directly by the database agent working on behalf of the client connection, and asynchronous I/O is performed by the DB2 prefetchers and page cleaners. The statistic labeled Average Time for the Physical Reads and Physical Writes on the DBA Cockpit indicates the I/O subsystem performance. An average physical read time above 10ms and/or an average physical write time above 5ms indicates an I/O subsystem that is not performing optimally. Asynchronous reads are performed in the background by the DB2 prefetchers, which anticipate the needs of the applications, and load, from disk into buffer pools, the pages that are likely to be required. In most cases, the prefetchers read these pages just before they are needed. For example, during a full table select, the prefetchers will populate the buffer pool with all of the pages containing data for that table, so that when the agent tries to access that data, it is already available in memory. Synchronous reads occur when an agent reads a page of data from disk itself, rather than signaling the prefetchers to read the page asynchronously. This occurs most frequently during random requests for single pages, which are common in OLTP applications operating on single rows of data via an index. However, this may also occur if the prefetchers are all busy with other prefetch requests. 11

24 CHAPTER 2: Performance Monitoring Each synchronous read request results in I/O wait at the client, because the agent processing the SQL statement must directly perform a read from disk before it can continue query processing. For single-row access, it is just as efficient for the agent to read the single page itself. However, for prefetch requests involving multiple pages, it is far more efficient to have the prefetchers read these pages in the background. A properly configured system performs most read operations asynchronously and minimizes overall system I/O wait. If a large percentage of read operations are synchronous, it might indicate that the prefetchers are not doing their job effectively. This might be due to slow disks or an inefficient database layout, or the system might just require more prefetchers to satisfy the database workload. The physical writes specify the number of pages written from buffer pool to disk. Similar to a read, a write can be either synchronous or asynchronous, depending on the agent that performs it. Asynchronous writes are performed in the background by the DB2 page cleaners at specific checkpoints. These are far more efficient than synchronous writes, which are performed directly by the DB2 agents to make room in the buffer pool for new data pages being accessed by that agent. DB2 can perform page cleaning in two different ways: Standard Page Cleaning or Pro-Active Page Cleaning. By default, all new SAP installations use Standard Page Cleaning. Standard Page Cleaning Using Standard Page Cleaning, page cleaners will asynchronously write data to disk whenever one of the following occurs: CHNGPGS_THRESH is exceeded. The database configuration parameter CHNGPGS_THRESH specifies the maximum percentage of changed pages allowed within a DB2 buffer pool. Once a buffer pool reaches this percentage of changed pages, the DB2 page cleaners are signaled to write those changed pages to disk in the table space containers. This parameter is set to 40 percent by SAPinst. To find it in the cockpit, click Configuration Database Optimization. 12

25 CHAPTER 2: Performance Monitoring SOFTMAX is exceeded. The database configuration parameter SOFTMAX specifies the maximum total size of changed pages in the buffer pool that have not yet been written to disk. You can find this parameter in the cockpit by clicking Configuration Database Logging. It is specified as a percentage of one log file in size, and is set to 300 by SAPinst. This means that the buffer pool can contain a maximum of three log files worth of changes (300 percent of one log file). Once this parameter is exceeded, the database enters a log sequence number (LSN) gap situation, and the page cleaners are signaled to begin writing those changed pages from buffer pool to disk in the table space containers. Whenever the above two thresholds are exceeded, the DB2 page cleaners begin writing changed pages from the buffer pool(s) to disk. This avoids LSN gap situations, and ensures that there is room in the buffer pool for future prefetch requests. Proactive Page Cleaning DB2 also has another method of page cleaning, Proactive Page Cleaning, which is not currently used by default by SAP. Performance testing has indicated that Standard Page Cleaning currently performs marginally better for most SAP workloads. However, for OLTP systems with very update-intensive workloads, performance might improve slightly by enabling Proactive Page Cleaning in the DB2 profile registry: db2set DB2_USE_ALTERNATE_PAGE_CLEANING=ON Using Proactive Page Cleaning, the page cleaners no longer respond to the CHNGPGS_THRESH parameter. Rather than keeping a percentage of the buffer pool clean, this alternate method only uses SOFTMAX, and DB2 keeps track of good victim pages and their locations in the buffer pool. Good victim pages include those that have been recently written to disk and are unlikely to be read again soon. If either a LSN gap occurs, or the number of good victim pages drops below an acceptable threshold, the page cleaners are triggered. They proceed to search the buffer pool, write out pages, and keep track of these new good victim pages. The page cleaners will not only write out pages in a LSN gap situation, 13

26 CHAPTER 2: Performance Monitoring but will also write pages that are likely to enter a LSN gap situation soon, based on the current level of activity. When the database agents need to read new data into the buffer pool, the prefetchers read the list of good victim pages, rather than searching through the buffer pool for victims. This tends to spread writes more evenly, by writing smaller amounts more frequently. By spreading the page cleaner write operations over a greater period of time, and avoiding buffer pool searches for victim pages, high-update workloads might see performance improvements. Since most SAP workloads on DB2 9.5 have been found to perform marginally better using Standard Page Cleaning, we recommend using it for all SAP applications. Future changes to Proactive Page Cleaning might increase its usage within SAP. For now, though, if you have a uniquely heavy-update workload that you think might benefit from Proactive Page Cleaning, test the change thoroughly to determine the effect on performance before enabling it in the production system. The No Victim Buffers element in the DBA Cockpit can help evaluate whether you have enough page cleaners when using Proactive Page Cleaning. This element displays the number of times a database agent was unable to find pre-selected victim pages in the buffer pool during a prefetch request, and instead, needed to search through the buffer pool for suitable victim pages. If this element is high relative to the number of logical reads, the database page cleaners are not keeping up with the changes occurring in the database, and more page cleaners are likely required. If Proactive Page Cleaning is off, and you are using Standard Page Cleaning, the No Victim Buffers monitor element can be safely ignored. In the default configuration, Standard Page Cleaning is triggered by CHNGPGS_THRESH and SOFTMAX, and the prefetchers will usually search the buffer pool to find suitable victim pages. Therefore, you can expect this monitor element to be large. Synchronous Writes If the database must read data from disk into a buffer pool, and there are no free pages remaining in the buffer pool, DB2 must make room, by replacing existing 14

27 CHAPTER 2: Performance Monitoring data pages (victims) with the data pages being read. If these victim buffer pool pages contain changed data, these pages must be written to disk before they are swapped out of memory. In this case, the pages are written to disk synchronously by the DB2 agent processing the SQL statement. Synchronous writes always result in I/O wait at the client, because the write operation must occur synchronously, before the buffer pool page can be victimized (replaced with a new page from disk). A large percentage of synchronous write operations indicates that the DB2 page cleaners are not operating effectively. This might be due to slow disks or unbalanced I/O in the storage system, or the system might require more page cleaners to handle the system workload. Temporary Table Space I/O The DBA Cockpit also contains I/O characteristics for the temporary table spaces, displaying the temporary logical and physical reads for both data and indexes. The logical reads display the total number of read requests for temporary table space data. The physical reads display the number of read requests that were not satisfied from the buffer pool, and therefore, had to be read physically from disk. For most transactional systems, temporary table space I/O should be fairly low, since most calculations should be performed in memory. SAP NetWeaver BW systems might show larger temporary table space I/O, but large values here might still indicate inefficient queries or a need to create higher-level aggregates to improve query performance. The Catalog Cache and Package Cache The second tab in the DBA Cockpit database performance monitor is the Cache tab, shown in Figure 2.3. This tab displays the details for the database catalog cache and the package cache. 15

28 CHAPTER 2: Performance Monitoring Figure 2.3: The Cache tab displays the Catalog Cache and Package Cache statistics. The Catalog Cache The catalog cache is a portion of database memory that is dedicated to caching access to table descriptor and authorization information from the database system catalog tables. These table descriptors include the table information used by DB2 during query optimization. When this data is accessed, it is first read from disk into the catalog cache, and then the database agents requesting this data read it from memory. Therefore, high hit ratios on this buffer are important for performance. If the most frequently accessed system catalog details can be cached in memory, unnecessary disk reads can be avoided. A high catalog cache hit ratio is even more important in multi-partition SAP NetWeaver BW systems. In a partitioned SAP NetWeaver BW system, the system catalog tables all reside on the Administration Partition (partition 0). Therefore, if other partitions need to read system catalog information from disk, they must request this information from partition 0, which inserts into the catalog cache on partition 0, and then sends the information to the catalog cache on the other partition. Caching most of the system catalog information at each partition avoids both disk I/O and network I/O, and reduces the workload on the Administration Partition. All of these contribute to better performance. The default catalog cache size in new SAP installations is 2,560 4KB pages. Well-configured systems should have a hit ratio of 98 percent and experience no overflows. If overflows occur, DB2 must allocate more memory from database shared memory into the catalog cache. Then, when some table descriptor and authorization information is no longer needed for active transactions, it is removed 16

29 CHAPTER 2: Performance Monitoring from memory, and the cache is reduced to its configured size. This involves extra overhead in the system, and should be avoided by increasing the catalog cache size. The total number of overflows and the high-water mark can be used together with the cache quality to determine whether or not the default size is adequate for your workload. The catalog cache size is set by the CATALOGCACHE_SZ database configuration parameter. To view or change this parameter in the DBA Cockpit, click Configuration Database Database Memory. The Package Cache The package cache is another important area of database memory. It is dedicated to caching compiled static and dynamic SQL statements and optimizer access plans. When a new dynamic SQL statement is executed, the DB2 optimizer compiles it, computes an access plan for reading the data pages required to satisfy the query, and then caches this information in the package cache. The database agents executing SQL statements then read this access plan from memory. If the same query is executed multiple times, the access plan can be read from memory, which avoids repeating the compilation and optimization phase of query processing. Static SQL statements are embedded in application programs. These statements must be precompiled and bound into a package, which gets stored in the DB2 system catalog tables. SAP does not use static SQL, so this will not be discussed further. By default, the package cache size in new SAP installations is dynamically configured and adjusted by DB2, as part of its Self Tuning Memory Manager (STMM) feature. This allows DB2 to adjust the size of this cache to optimize overall performance, based on your changing workload. Package cache hit ratio should remain above 98 percent, and overflows should not occur. The package cache size is set by the PCKCACHESZ database configuration parameter. To view or change the package cache size in the DBA Cockpit, click Configuration Database Self-Tuning Memory Manager. Larger catalog and package cache sizes might be required if the workload involves a large number of SQL statements accessing many different database objects. However, in most cases, it is recommended that you keep the package 17

30 CHAPTER 2: Performance Monitoring cache size set to AUTOMATIC, and let DB2 STMM configure the size based on your current available memory and optimal overall system performance. Asynchronous I/O The third tab in the Database Performance Monitor is Asynchronous I/O, shown in Figure 2.4. This displays information on the I/O reads and writes that use background read and write operations to perform disk I/O to and from the DB2 buffer pools, using the DB2 prefetchers and page cleaners. Asynchronous I/O operations anticipate application I/O requirements, and operate in the background to minimize I/O wait. Therefore, well-performing systems should perform the majority of disk I/O asynchronously. Asynchronous I/O is performed by the DB2 prefetchers and page cleaners. The number of prefetchers and page cleaners should be configured to drive the physical disks in underlying storage system to full capacity. This is set by two database configuration parameters: NUM_IOSERVERS for prefetchers and NUM_IOCLEANERS for page cleaners. Both are found in the cockpit under Configuration Database I/O. New SAP installations default both of these parameters to automatic. This allows DB2 to calculate the optimal number of prefetchers and page cleaners, when the database is activated, based on the following formulae: NUM_IOSERVERS = MAX( MAX over all table spaces ( parallelism setting MAX # of containers in a stripe set ), 3 ) NUM_IOCLEANERS = MAX( CEIL( # CPUs / # local logical partitions ) 1, 1 ) The parallelism setting for prefetchers refers to the DB2_PARALLEL_IO registry variable, which tells DB2 the number of physical disks assembled into the containers in each table space. This ensures that the number of prefetchers is always greater or equal to the number of disks available to any one table space, which enables asynchronous prefetch requests to drive every available disk in parallel. 18

31 CHAPTER 2: Performance Monitoring The formula for page cleaners ensures that they are evenly distributed across all partitions in a partitioned SAP NetWeaver BW system, and that there are never more page cleaners than CPUs. This prevents asynchronous page cleaning from affecting normal transaction processing performance. Ideally, both asynchronous read and write times should be less than 5 ms. Figure 2.4: The Asynchronous I/O tab shows statistics for background disk I/O performed by the DB2 prefetchers and page cleaners. Direct I/O Direct I/O is involved whenever a DB2 agent reads from disk or writes to disk, without using the DB2 buffer pools. Direct I/O is performed in units, the smallest being a 512-byte disk sector. Direct reads always occur when the database reads LONG or LOB data, and when a database backup is performed. Direct writes always occur when LONG or LOB data is written to disk, and when database restore and load operations are performed. The Direct I/O tab of the DBA Cockpit screen is shown in Figure 2.5. Direct I/O should be extremely fast, because it operates on entire disk sectors. Therefore, read and write times should generally be under 2ms. The average I/O per request should be proportional to the average size of the LOB columns in the database. 19

32 CHAPTER 2: Performance Monitoring Figure 2.5: The Direct I/O tab displays statistics for database disk I/O that is not buffered in memory by the DB2 buffer pools. Real-Time Statistics (RTS) The concept of Real-Time Statistics (RTS) was first introduced in DB SAP Enhancement Package 1 for SAP NetWeaver 7.0 now contains a performance monitoring screen for this new DB2 feature. RTS allows DB2 to trigger either statistics collection or estimation during query compilation, if table statistics are either absent or stale. If statistics collection would exceed 5 seconds, it is done in the background. Otherwise, it may even be done synchronously during query compilation, depending on the cost of the query relative to the cost of the statistics collection. This feature ensures that recent statistics are always available for queries, and that performance is never excessively bad due to stale statistics. The information available in the DBA Cockpit, shown in Figure 2.6, is valuable for determining the performance impact of RTS. It might suggest the need for more structured statistics collection for some tables in the system. Figure 2.6: The Real-Time Statistics tab shows details related to RTS statistics collection. 20

33 CHAPTER 2: Performance Monitoring The statistics cache is a portion of the catalog cache used to store real-time statistics information. If RTS is being frequently triggered, a larger catalog cache might be required. Asynchronously collected statistics occur when synchronous statistics collection during query compilation would take longer than 5 seconds. Rather than consuming this time synchronously during query compilation, statistics collection is instead started as a background job, so that subsequent queries will benefit from newer statistics. Synchronous statistics collection occurs when a RUNSTATS is triggered to collect statistics during query compilation. This RUNSTATS may or may not be sampled, depending on the RUNSTATS profile for the table and the time estimate for statistics collection. The end user might experience a maximum of 5 seconds extra time running this query, due to the synchronous RUNSTATS. The number of synchronous RUNSTATS occurrences and the total time consumed by those occurrences are displayed in the cockpit. The final piece of data for RTS is based on statistics fabrication (or statistics estimation). If a sampled RUNSTATS table or index scan consumes too much time, then new metadata stored in the data and index manager system catalog tables is used to estimate the current table statistics. Those statistics are immediately made available in memory for all other queries to use until a RUNSTATS is performed on the table. In the cockpit, statistics estimation is displayed by the number of statistics collections during query compilation, and the time spent during query compilation. Locks and Deadlocks Whenever table records are accessed, DB2 places locks on those records to maintain transaction integrity and ensure that two transactions cannot update the same data at the same time. The type of lock used by DB2 depends on the isolation level defined for the application accessing those records. Traditional DB2 locking involves the following isolation levels, ordered by increasingly restrictive locking: 21

34 CHAPTER 2: Performance Monitoring UR (Uncommitted Read) Read operations do not acquire any locks. Uncommitted updates of other transactions can be read immediately. CS (Cursor Stability) Read-only locks are placed on the current record being accessed by a cursor. If that record contains an uncommitted update, the read of that row must wait until that update is committed. This ensures that the application cannot read uncommitted data, and that the current position of the cursor cannot be changed while the application is accessing it. RS (Read Stability) Read-only locks are placed on the entire result set retrieved within a unit of work, and those locks are held until the unit of work is committed or rolled back. This ensures that any row read during a unit of work (UOW) remains unchanged until the UOW commits, and that the application cannot read uncommitted changes from other transactions. RR (Repeatable Read) Read-only locks are placed on all records referenced during the processing of the current UOW. This includes all rows in the result set, plus any rows evaluated and excluded due to WHERE clause restrictions in the query. This ensures that new rows do not appear in the result set, existing rows remain unchanged, and uncommitted updates from other transactions cannot be read. The default isolation level for most SAP applications is Uncommitted Read, which allows the highest level of concurrency within the database. SAP transaction integrity is managed within the SAP application. One SAP transaction may involve multiple database transactions, each of which is committed into the SAP update tables. While one SAP transaction updates data in the update tables, other SAP transactions are reading committed data from the tables containing the permanent, committed data. Therefore, concurrent SAP transactions always read committed data. When an SAP transaction is finally committed, those update table records are applied to the target database tables by the SAP update work processes, and other transactions then see the committed changes from the entire SAP transaction. 22

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