1 .., ' April 1, 1993 MEMORANDUM FOR AITORNEY GENERAL JANET RENO FROM: SUBJECT: BRUCE REED, DEPUTY ASSISTANT TO THE PRESIDENT JOSE CERDA III, SENIOR POLICY ANALYST DOMESTIC POLICY COUNCIL WHITE HOUSE PRIORITIES ON CRIME This memorandum outlines for you the Domestic Policy Council's priorities on crime policy issues. These priorities are based on President Clinton's major campaign promises and are generally consistent with the provisions contained in the various Democratic crime proposals considered during the past two Congresses. They reflect the main themes at the heart of President Clinton's broad economic and domestic agenda: personal responsibility; community empowerment; prevention and early intervention; and restoring the fundamental promise of America so that people who work hard and play by the rules can get ahead. As you know, the President is enthusiastic about the innovative ways you have promoted these themes in South Florida, and will support your efforts to advance them at the national level. I. White House Priorities The President has told Senator Biden, Rep. Brooks and other Members of Congress that he would like to see a crime bill as soon as they can pass one. Howard Paster has urged the Judiciary Committees to go forward, in conjunction with the White House and the Justice Department. We will work with your policy and legislative affairs departments in the coming months to present a unified front in these negotiations. The following proposals reflect the core of President Cl!nton's crime agenda, and we would like them to be the centerpiece of the criij1e bill. A. 100,000 New Police Officers The President's budget includes $2.8 billion 1 to fund comprehensive crime legislation. We support using as much of this money as possible to meet the 1 All budget numbers reflect four-year funding levels, unles~,otherwise noted. -. I
2 . o } --~.. ~., ,000 new police officers pledge. OMB has already allocated $775 million for community policing/cops on the beat grants and $450 million for a still-tobe-determined Police Corps (with law enforcement scholarships). Preliminary estimates indicate that these two components would put approximately 35,000 new police officers on the street over four years. We will look to other sources for more police as well: the Department of Housing and Urban Development, the Department of Education, National Service, Weed and Seed/enterprise zones, and defense conversion funds to provide outgoing military personnel with l~w enforcement training. These proposals are detailed at the end of this memorandum. B. Brady Bill We strongly support passage of the Brady Bill as part of a larger crime package. OMB has allocated a small portion of the crime bill funds to help states upgrade their criminal justice records. C. Community Boot Camps We are committed to expanding the availability of community "boot camps" to non-violent, first-time offenders at the state and federal level, and support the state-federal boot camps and Certainty of Punishment grants in last year's crime bill. D. Drug Treatment on Demand We support using a portion of the unallocated monies in the $2.8 billion crime initiative to fund a drug treatment and testing program within the criminal justice system. This proposal has not been outlined, but we foresee.it being an integral part of the President's National Drug Control Policy. II. White House Positions op Other Major Crime Issues A. Death Penalty We support the enactment of a federal death penalty for crimes with a federal nexus but have not taken a position on enacting a federal death penalty for non-homicidal crimes. We would defer to Senator Biden and other Hill leaders to negotiate some form of last year's death penalty language. '
3 -3- B. Habeas Corpus Reform We would defer to Senator Biden and other Hill leaders on what Habeas provisions are acceptable. If habeas reform proves too difficult, we would support appointing a blue-ribbon commission to study the matter and make recommendation. We believe the AGs and DAs would be willing to accept such a proposal. C. Assault Weapons We support a ban on semiautomatic assault weapons and prefer the language developed by Rep. Schumer. We also support language to limit high-capacity ammunition. clips and to increase gun penalties. D. Anti-Gang Initiative We support an anti-gang initiative similar to one included in last year's crime bill. E. Violence Against Women Act We support the Violence Against Women Act, either as stand-alone legislation or as part of a larger crime bill. F. White Collar Crime Initiative We believe a White Collar crime initiative is an essential component of a comprehensive crime bill. We would look to the Justice Department to work -with Congress in developing one. III. Anti-Crime Efforts at Other Agencies A. Drug Treatment on Demand The President's budget includes $1.5 billion for HHS to implement drug treatment and prevention initiatives. The Health Care Task Force is examining what type of drug treatment benefit should be considered as part of national health care reform legislation. B. Safe Schools The Department of Education is developing a $375 million Safe Schools initiative that will help schools add metal detectors and video surveillance
4 . -4- equipment, hire professional security personnel, and adopt anti-violence and anti-drug curricula. C. HUD Crime Initiative HUD is in the process of developing a comprehensive anti-crime initiative for public housing complexes. The plan will be a "partnership" with local housing authorities that allows them to use funds to increase law enforcement or security personnel, to implement community policing, to expand community crime prevention efforts and more. HUD will also soon announce that its $2.5 billion in Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) stimulus funds can be used for certain anti-crime initiatives -- including hiring law enforcement or security personnel, installing security devices and relocating the residency of police officers to high-crime areas. D. National Service "Non-Sworn" Law Enforcement Personnel The National Service Trust Fund estimates that some 20,000 of its participants will serve in law enforcement/public safety roles. These "community service officers" could be used to assist police departments in the broad areas of community policing and crime prevention. They could take reports, staff telephone crime reporting units and administer citizen crime prevention surveys. Relieving officers from these time-consuming duties would potentially free more police officers to become cops "on the beat", and the support work will make officers more effective in their crime-fighting.
5 CRIME BILL CONFERENCE :..._ SUMMARY OF MAJOR PROVISIONS DEATH PENALTY Provides the largest-ever expansion of the Federal death penalty to cover 53 offenses. Included in the bill: assassination of the President; murder in the course of rape; murder for hire; drive-by-shootings. Provides the death penalty for killing a federal law enforcement officer and for killing state officers in the course of cooperative investigations with federal agencies. Provides the death penalty for "drug king pins" who are convicted of trafficking in massive amounts of drugs. THE BRADY BILL Imposes a national, five-day waiting period for the purchase of handguns. Requires police background checks for gun buyers to keep weapons out of the hands of convicted criminals. Authorizes $100 million for the development of a national "instant check" system for gun purchasers. HABEAS CORPUS REFORM Limits time for filing a habeas petition to one year after conviction becomes final. No time limit currently exists. Limits the number of petitions allowed to one except for certain narrow exceptions such as newlv.' discovered evidence or state interference. Under current law there is no limit on the number of petitions. Sets certain performance and qualification standards for trial and appellate counsel representing indigents. Before the Supreme Court adopted the Teague v. Lane doctrine in 1989, a prisoner could challenge his sentence in a habeas petition based on a favorable new court ruling that post-dated his trial and appeal. Teague significantly narrowed retroactive applications. The crime bill narrows Teague by never allowing new rules of law to be applied retroactively, but it also restores a narrower, pre-teague definition of a new rule.
6 :s :n PENALTIES FOR DRUG AND VIOLENT CRIMES Provides 56 new criminal offenses or penalty increases, including serious violent crime, drug trafficking and firearms offenses. Imposes four ~ mandatory federal prison sentences. They are: using minors to sell drugs in a drug-free zones; closing the loophole for the importation of small quantities of drugs; possessing or distributing drugs in a federal prison; and drug-related violations in newly created drug-free truck stops. GANG VIOLENCE Launches a major new anti-gang initiative, including expanded juvenile courts, new law enforcement efforts, and gang violence prevention programs (e.g~, Boys/Girls Clubs in housing projects). Creates a new federal offense for serious gang-related drug trafficking and violent cnmes. Provides the death penalty for drive-by-shootings, one of the most common and serious types of gang crimes. VICIJMS OF CRIME Increased federal aid to the victims of crime by removing the "cap" on the Crime Victims Fund and barred attempts by the previous administration to use the Crime Victims Fund to pay for expenses currently covered by Medicare and other federal programs. 3 Grants crime victims the right to speak at the sentencing phase of federal criminal trials, including death penalty. RURAL LAW ENFORCEMENT Provides $50 million in aid to rural law enforcement agencies. Establishes federal-state-local Rural Law Enforcement Task Forces in~ federal judicial district with significant rural areas. - Yrhese provisions were enacted separately when the crime bill failed last year.
7 Specifically, these allocations are: - $45 million to hire and train 350 new DEA agents; - $25 million to expand DEA state and local task forces; -:- $5 million for special agents to investigate violations of the Controlled Substances Act relating to anabolic steroids; - $9 million for FBI drug trafficking investigations; - $500 million to hire and train.500 new border patrol officers; - $10 million for the U.S. Marshals Service; ' - $15 million for BATF to hire train 100 special agents to investigate firearms violations committed by drug trafficking organizations; - $20 million for U.S. Courts to address case overload; - $12 million for federal defender services-: EXCLUSIONARY RULE Codifies current law providing "good faith" exception to the exclusionary rule where police have a warrant. CHILD ABUSE Creates a national system for background checks for workers in day care centers. Imposes the death penalty for child abuse murders.
8 MEMO TO: JOSE FROM: SWAT! RE: POLICING SHORTAGES Attached is a list of communities that have recently experienced shortages in law enforcement personnel. I have alphabetized the list by state. The states included on the list areca, CT, FL, ME, MD, MA, MI, NH, NY, TX, VT, and D.C. The citation refers to the article(s) from which the information was obtained. Also attached is a list of the number of sworn officers in the largest 50 U.S. departments. The list includes percentage change figures comparing 1991 to 1985 U ',-.,,.,'t t-b - 1- T lc' n"..-.. hr\lt'"'lt 'l hn,.,.,... -r.,,,,,... 'Y'\1~,.-,.,t,f ~-- ')t th,.., 4 reason for the changes is inluded. /
9 I..,.. I!. POLICING SHORTAGES 1. California 2. Berkeley, CA 3. Los Angeles, CA 4. Oakland, CA 5. Sacramento, CA 6. San Diego County, CA - State police force ordered to "trim its spending by nearly a third" - May lose 144 of 306 police officer slots T '1 ' 1, ""'-- - ""'"' ' ' 1 /1 - -U'-' 0 ~.:Hal.~ V C!.J llh.t:ju~cu. cjl 4, 4 Hll!UUH I.AJl.dl l.!le agency must cut from its $28 million budget - The San Francisco Chronicle. Sept. 17, police positions cut in the last 3 years -San Francisco Chronicle, June 12,.&3 - A number of key reforms proposed by the Christopher Commission (formed in response to LA riots) including "those bolstering internal.:... :.rr: r ~;_: ~~..J '-h~=> "'uhlif'... J. ~,_,e ~..... c.. L. _. l""..,... _ coinplaint process" deferred as a result ot budget constraints - The Los Angeles Times, March 31, "Despite last year's (1991) record murder rate, the city's budget deficit makes it impossible to hire many more police officers" - $5 million in reductions in the District Attorney's office, which could mean a cut of 40% in the criminal attorney staff - The New York Times, April 15, % or 5.5 million cut from police budget in Feb. - Plans to cut another 72 officers -Sacramento Bee, May 19, 93 - Sheriff Jim Roach stated that there were just.48 patrol deputies for every 1,000 residents -Will lose SWAT team if budget cuts implemented
10 - LA Times, Sep. 4, San Fernando Valley, CA 8. San Francisco, CA 9. San Jose, CA - Budget cuts - LA Times, Mar 7, 92,. -Department short 116 uniformed police officers - Shortage resulted from unfilled vacancies and the number of officers on long term disability leave ~.!!d temporary assignments - C::nn Ti'mnri8rn r:hrnnirlp. 8fmf R 97 - Plans for layoffs/cutting fire and police departments by 6% -May have to lay off as many as 40 officers -San Francisco Chronicle, March 26, 93 - J:l, rl rrot f'll tc: tn -rorl11f'o c:t~ ffi,., rr ~,., rl t-r::l i,., i,., O" ~ ~ ~ - Hrtfd. Courant, June 30, Washington, D.C. - Between 44% and 54 % of the 138 patrol cars in the city out of service during the month of August -:- The Washington Times, Aug. 1, 92 - "Tf.e narcotic branch... is not beginni!"lb" any new drug investigations because of the shortage of surveil' " 12. St. Petersburg, FL -Policing shortages &. i'-l rr U.:>HI-IL(5t-Uii.i-U.:>t- 1 ~r.1.uy.i ::IV - Shortage of bilingual (in Spanish) police officers -Washington Times, May 10, Mail1t:! -"Budget and personnel cutbacks have forced state police commanders to take their troopers off the highways or to assign individual troopers such long stretches of highway that motorists can travel 100 miles or more and never see a police car" -The Boston Globe, February 21, Baltimore, MD - School police personpol d ~:: :_: - Daily Report Card, Feb. 28, Prince George's Cnt., MD -An early retirement program for police has
11 Boston, MA 17. Brockton, MA 18. Detroit, MI 19. New Hampshire 20. Babylon, NY 21. Buffalo, NY 22. Nassau County, NY contributed to a shortage of officers patrolling the streets - Washington Times, June 15, 93 -Community policing program is narrow in scope because of shortage of officers - Boston Police Department's superintendent in chief needs nearly 250 more than the current level into place - The Boston Globe, Aug; 'l, 92 - Police staffmg shortages - Cannot give greater protection to potential victims of domestic violence -Boston Globe, May28, 92 - Detroit police department employed nearly 1000 less police in 1991 than Corporate Detroit Mag., 91 -Cutbacks I similar to those in Maine and Vermont...1 Sparse patrol of interstates -The Boston Globe, February 21, Police cutbacks - Police patrols at historic low - Newsday, Aug 28, 92 - Officials said that recent attacks on police are indicitive of a staffmg shortage - Buffalo News, Dec. 7, 92 - $4.6 million budget cut imposed on county jail - Estimated to necessitate 260 layoffs from a staff of 900 correction officers -The New York Times, March 3, police cut in another 250 police cut in The New York Times, Jan 12, 92 - $10 million budget cut in force March 1, 91
12 ... ' J ~ J..,. -.. ~..., Houston, TX - Vice chairman of Citizens on Patrol said his group depends on volunteer deputies to fill the gap left by Houston Police ~epartment's manpower - Houston Chronicle, March Vermont - Because of cuts, there is no regular patrol of interstates 89 and 91 -The Boston Globe, February 21, 93 / /
13 '[. Cl Um; I 0nv rdta 6-.2S-S3 3:01pm p. Z of 2 i ',\;.. TOTAL SWORN POLICE OFFICERS LARGEST 50 DEPARTMENTS :-;I OCTOBER 1979 THRU OCTOBER!991 ' _:.. ~-. <: :-~_:.:~~t:.~ ;.~.:,._! RANK DEPARTMENT XCHANGE I 01 New York City.. 28,012 26,073 26,856 ; ;:_:;' Chicago 13,393 11,871 12, Los Angeles 6,669 7,051 8, Philadelphia 7,903 6,966 6, Washington, D.C. 4,034 3,837 4, Houston 3,012 4,363 4,077.: Detroit 5,006 4,640 3, Baltimore 3,171 2,965 2, Dallas 2,031 2,170 2, Boston 2,187 1,829 1, Phoenix 1,597 1,273 1, Milwaukee 2,029 2,041 1, Honolulu 1,475 1,639 1, San Diego 1,306 1,407 1, San Francisco 1,554 1,929 1, Cleveland 1,864 1,742 1, San Antonio 1,238 1,273 1, Atlanta 996 1,278 1, New Orleans 1,482 1,378 1, St. Louis 2,002 1,627 1, Columbus, OH 914 1,223 1, Memphis 1,265 1,154 1,390 +9~ Denver 1,403 1,349 1, Jacksonville , Seattle 1,300 1,039 1, ?h C:.,n ''""CO 7h? i = : -L. 28 Pittsburgh 1,366 1,210 1, Newark 1,198 1,122 1, Nashville Las Vegas 847 }~ Indianapolis 996 / Buffalo 1, Cincinnati Ft. Worth Oklahoma City Charlotte Tampa Minneapolis Jersey City El Paso Birmingham Norfolk Oakland Toledo Lon~ Beach Roc ester Baton Rouge Omaha St. Paul
14 April 27, 1993 MEMORANDUM FOR THE PRESIDENT FROM: SUBJECT': BRUCE REED, DEPUTY ASSISTANT TO THE PRESIDENT JOSE CERDA III, SENIOR POLICY ANALYST CRIME BILL CONSIDERATIONS In structuring a proposal that meets your pledge to put 100,000 new police officers on the street, Domestic Policy has combined a series of crime-related initiatives. Inadequate funding caused us to take this piecemeal. approach and to include Enterprise Zones, HUD's crime initiative, Safe Schools legislation and National Service participants in the 100,000 calculation. But the crime bill component of this plan has always been the central "-- and most credible -- clement of our new police proposal. Last year's crime bill conference report does not really include monies for hiring new law enforcement personnel. The bill's Cop on the Beat program does not allow funds to be used for new personnel, an<;l the increase in funding for the Edward Byrne Memorial State and Local Law Enforcement Assistance Programs was enacted as part of separate legislation after the crime bill conference report failed last year. The Police Corps, as included in last year's bill, only offers scholarship assistance and provides no direct funding to put police on the streets. Moreover, given the scarcity of resources for the policing initiative, we do not believe the Police Corps is a cost effective means for increasing police force levels. Thus, without changes to the language and funding levels for these programs, the crime bill will not put more police on our streets. So that the crime bill properly reflects your commitment to the 100,000 police pledge, we have been structuring a proposal, the Police on Our Streets Act, that would combine the Justice Department's spending for new programs and use that $2.299 billion in budget authority to fund a single match grant program. We would then have a singie direct funding source for the majority of our new police personnel. We have spoken to Senator Biden's and Congressman Schumer's staff about such an approach, and they believe a "Police on Our Streets Act" could easily be incorporated as Title I of a new crime bill. We have not spoken to Chairman Brooks' staff about this specific proposal, but we believe he would be open to the idea. Chairman Brooks has been a critic of the large scale Police Corps included in the crime bill, and he may support scaling back the. program. A summary of the major provisions in the crime bill is attached.
15 : ' May 20, 1993 MEMORANDUM FOR THE PRESIDENT FROM: SUBJECT: BRUCE REED, DEPUTY ASSISTANT TO THE PRESIDENT JOSE CERDA III, SENIOR POLICY ANALYST UPDATE ON 100,000 NEW POLICE Carol Rasco passed along your request for an update on the status of the Administration's plans to put 100,000 cops on the street. We have been working with the Justice Department and OMB on a credible proposal to meet your campaign promise. Although funds are tight, we believe the Administration can claim credit for up to 100,000 new law enforcement personnel from the following sources: Crime Bill Jobs Package Enterprise Zones HUD's Compac ED's Safe Schools National ServiCe Troops to Cops - 50,000 $3-5 billion over 5 years - 10,000 $200 million over 2 years - 15,000 $500 million over 2 years - 5,000 $750 million over 5 years $235 million over 5 years - 20, no set amount - to be determined Total Cops 100,100 I. Revised Crime Bill -- Community Policing/Cop on the Beat The Domestic Policy Council and the Justice Department recommend that our main vehicle for putting more cops on the street should be a modified version of last year's crime bill, with a new Administration-backed title on community policing. There is widespread support on the Hill for more cops. Senator Biden is working with the state attorneys general on habeas corpus reform, the main sticking point from last year. The rest of last. year's conference report would remain largely unchanged. The Brady Bill would still be included.
16 -2- Senator Biden is concerned that we work this out quickly because he believes that Gramm and the GOP could introduce their own crime bill any. day. He would like the Senate to take up this issue in June, before the July 4th recess. We will be ready to proceed as soon as the economic plan clears the House. The linchpin of the 100,000 new police proposal should be a single grant program administered by the Justice Department that helps states and localities put police on the street by providing a source of direct funding. TOTAL NEW POLICE-- 50,000 II..Jobs Package -- Re-Hire/New Hire Proposal Per your request, the new jobs bill now contains $200 million to re-hire or hire additional police officers, perhaps as many as 10,000. These funds could also be used to redeploy police officers onto the streets in community policing roles. If passed, DOJ would have to spend $44 million of this money in FY 1993 through its current discretionary authority. The Attorney General has considerable flexibility in awarding these funds. Hopefully, if we move quickly on a crime bill, the remainder of the funds could be spent under the authorizing language to be included in the Biden!Brooks crime bill.- TOTAL NEW POLICE-- 10,000 III. Empowerment Zones -- Community Investment Program The Empowerment Zone legislation authorizes $250 million in FY 1994 (already appropriated) and $250 million in FY 1995 for community policing grants to these 110 areas selected by the Enterprise Board. The Attorney General has broad discretion to make these grants: they can be made under the general language in the legislation; they can be made under current Justice programs; or they can be made under authorizing language passed in a new crime bill. TOTAL NEW POLICE : 15,000 IV. Department of Housing and Urban Development-- COMPAC To help housing authorities fight against crime, HUD has proposed restructuring its current Drug Elimination Grant Program into a considerably more flexible Community Partnership Against Crime (COMPAC). The program is budgeted for $265 million next year,
17 -3- and $1.5 billion over the next five years. HUD expects that about $150 million of these funds per year will be spent on law enforcement or security personnel, including communitybased policing efforts that would increase police presence on public housing complexes. TOTAL NEW POLICE-- 5,000 V. Department of Education -- Safe Schools We have amended the Department of Education's draft of Safe Schools legislation to allow the program's monies to be used for "sworn" police officers, not only professional security personnel. While hiring "sworn" police personnel may prove too expensive to use them in the same round-the-clock manner as security guards, they can be used more costeffectively in community policing roles, including schools as part of their "beat". TOTAL NEW POLICE VI. National Service -- National Service Officers The National Service Trust Fund estimates that some 20,000 of its participants will serve in law enforcement/public safety roles. These "national service officers" could be used to assist police departments in the broad areas of community policing and crime prevention. They could take reports, staff telephone crime reporting units and administer citizen crime prevention surveys. Relieving officers from these time-consuming duties would potentially free more police officers to become cops "on the beat", and the support work will make officers more effective in their crime-fighting. With direct funding available for most of the new police, we believe it is credible to use National Service members serving in public safety/law enforcement roles in our 100,000 count. TOTAL NEW NSOs -- 20,000 VII. Military/Labor ~- Troops to Cops Demonstration Programs We are working with the Labor and Defense Departments to define these proposals. However, substantial funds are not available from these sources. As we understand it, monies available under Senator Nunn's "Troop to Teachers" initiative are not available for a "Troops to Cops" initiative without new authorizing language. Currently, this DoD account has about $65 million in it, $20 million of which could probably be used for a cops initiative.
18 -4- Perhaps as much as $75 million may be available through the Department of Labor if we develop appropriate demonstration projects under amendments to the Job Training Partnership Act. Authority to undertake such projects was enacted in the 1991 Defense Department Authorization. TOTAL NEW POLICE"-- TO BE DETERMINED
19 May 26, 1993 MEMORANDUM. FOR THE PRESIDENT FROM: SUBJECT: BRUCE REED, DEPUTY ASSISTANT TO THE PRESIDENT JOSE CERDA III, SENIOR POLICY ANALYST RANA SAMPSON, WHITE HOUSE FELLOW THE ATTORNEY GENERAL'S MEMORANDUM ON POLICING As you know, we have been working with the Justice Department and OMB on a credible proposal to meet your campaign promise of putting 100,000 new law enforcement personnel on the street. At least half of these.new cops will have to come from a modified version of last year's crime bill. We are close to agreement on the basic policing provisions of this bill. However, the Attorney General's May 24 memorandum raises a few outstanding issues on which we would like your guidance. 1. How Much to Spend on Community Policing Versus "Multidisciplinary and Early Intervention" First, the Attorney General would like to be able to use 40% of the policing funds for "multidisciplinary-early intervention teams and other innovative ideas for community groups or local agencies." OMB has already calculated that it will be difficult to meet your 100,000 pledge even if we use 100 percent of the funds available for new hires; you are guaranteed to not be able to meet it by using only 60% of the funds. We are interested in the Attorney General's innovative approaches to policing and other public safety and social services and agree that simply putting more police on the streets in not enough~ But rather than compromise your 100,000 pledge, we would focus on prevention through community policing. As you know, community policing is a partnership between police and neighborhood residents, between police and other agencies of government, and between police and the private sector. It allows police, who under the emergency response model deal with the same problems on a day-to-day basis, to work with neighborhood residents and others to actually solve problems and prevent crimes from happening in the first place.
20 -2- Community policing works. But as is evident from Lee Brown's experience in Houston and New York, community policing has spread slowly, on a city-by-city basis. Its implementation is dependent on progressive police chiefs, friendly city councils and the availability of local funds. Your 100,000 new police proposal ought to be the mechanism by which the nation's police forces convert to community policing. Equally important, dramatically increasing community policing will do much more than prevent crimes; it will. help establish a community policing infrastructure to which other prevention and early intervention strategies can be grafted. Without first establishing an increased police presence in certain neighborhoods, police will still be tied to the "tyranny of 911" reactive policing -- and unable to find the time to build partnerships with social workers, treatment providers and others coming in to offer their services. It would be possible to earmark a small amount of funds -- say, $10 million -- that the Attorney General could use for demonstration projects in these areas. But we believe the empowerment zone proposal already gives her the opportunity to work with other agencies and local communities to develop the kind of comprehensive approaches she describes in her memorandum. 2. Community Involvement and Local Matching Funds The Attorney General suggests that cities may not be able to provide any matching funds. We believe that some local match is essential in order to make the most of limited federal funds, ensure that communities have a stake in the program, and sec;: that cities make a commitment to community policing that continues long after federal dollars are gone. We recommend that the legislation require a partial match. 3. Police Corps The Attorney General would like to restructure the Police Corps to make the program more workable for states and localities. Essentially, she would like to make the Corps more locally-based, in keeping with your National Service proposal. On pure policy grounds, we like the Justice Department's proposed changes to the Police Corps. As included in last year's crime bill, we believe the Corps is not a cost effective means for increasing police force levels because it pays for college education and some police training but does nothing to help communities afford to hire more police. It replicates a much smaller program that has already been included in the National Service legislation. (The National Service program will also enable young people to serve as "community service officers," rather than sworn police officers.)