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1 U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report Police Departments May 00, NCJ in Large Cities, - By Brian A. Reaves, Ph.D. and Matthew J. Hickman BJS Statisticians From to, 6 local police departments cities with a population of 50,000 or more. During this time, the number of residents by these agencies increased by 10%, from 45 million to 49.4 million; their number of full-time employees by 0%, from 166,83 to 199,67; and their number of full-time sworn personnel by 17%, from 130,4 to 15,858. In contrast to the increases noted above, the volume of serious crime reported in these cities was substantially lower in than in. According to the FBI Uniform Crime Reports program, the number of violent Crime Index offenses declined by 34%, and the number of property Crime Index offenses by 31%. In addition to employment and crime trends, this report presents other data comparisons based on the and Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS) surveys. Topics include staffing levels, race and ethnicity of officers, officer education and training requirements, operating budgets, officer salaries and special pay, types of special units operated, drug enforcement activities, sidearm and armor policies, types of vehicles operated, and computerization. Highlights From to, in cities with 50,000 or more residents, the number of UCR violent crimes decreased 34%, the number of UCR property crimes decreased 31%, and the number of full-time local police officers increased 17% change from 0% 10% 0% -10% -0% -30% Number of full-time sworn personnel Number of UCR property crimes -40% The number of residents increased by 10%, accompanied by a 7% increase, from 89 to 310, in the number of full-time sworn personnel per,000 residents. The percentage of full-time sworn personnel who were members of a racial or ethnic minority increased from 30% to 38%. Hispanic representation among officers increased from 9% to 14%, blacks from 18% to 0%, and women from 1% to 16%. The percent of departments requiring new officers to have at least some college rose from 19% to 37%, and the percent requiring a -year or 4-year degree grew from 6% to 14%. Number of UCR violent crimes Among large city police departments, -, changes included Annual operating costs per resident rose 10%, from $4 to $66, but annual per officer costs increased by just %, from $83,814 to $85,786. The percent of departments using bicycles rose from 39% to 98%. The average number of bicycles in use went from 8 to 95. The percent of departments using in-field computers increased from 73% to 9%, the percent using automated fingerprint ID systems from 60% to 97%, and the percent with enhanced from 76% to 97%. The percent of departments with fulltime domestic violence units rose from 50% to 81%; with full-time victim assistance units, from 3% to 47%.

2 Staffing levels From to, the average number of full-time personnel in police departments serving cities with a population of 50,000 or more increased by 0%, from,691 to 3,0 (table 1). New York City s police department (NYPD), the Nation s largest, had about 53,000 full-time employees as of June. (See appendix table A for employment data for all 6 local police departments serving cities with a population of 50,000 or more.) In, police departments in large cities employed 404 full-time personnel per,000 residents. This represented an increase of 9% over the level of 370 per,000. On a land area basis, employment increased from 85 full-time personnel per 10 square miles in to 101 per 10 square miles in. From to the average number of full-time sworn personnel among police departments in large cities increased by 17%, from,101 to,465 (table ). The NYPD had more than 40,000 full-time sworn personnel as of June (see box below). This was about 3 times the next largest department in Chicago, with 13,466. Table 1. Number of full-time employees in police departments serving cities with a population of 50,000 or more, and Total Table. Number of full-time sworn personnel in police departments serving cities with a population of 50,000 or more, and Total Per agency,691 9,047,113 1, Per agency,101 7,113 1, ,0 11,67,349 1,334 1,068,465 8,717 1, In terms of land area, employment increased from 66 full-time sworn personnel per 10 square miles in to 78 per 10 square miles in. In these agencies employed 310 full-time sworn personnel per,000 residents. This represented an increase of 1 per,000, or 7%, compared to. Number of full-time employees Per,000 residents Number of full-time sworn personnel Per,000 residents Per 10 square miles Per 10 square miles The Washington (DC) Metropolitan Police Department continued to have the highest ratio, with 631 officers per,000 residents in, although this was down 15% from the ratio of 74 per 10,000. Other large city police departments with at least 500 full-time officers per,000 residents in were the Newark (NJ) Police (536) and the NYPD (505). Fifteen largest local police departments serving cities with a population of 50,000 or more, by number of full-time sworn personnel and number of full-time sworn personnel per,000 residents, and Number of full-time sworn personnel City City New York (NY) 31,36 New York (NY) Chicago (IL) 11,837 Chicago (IL) Los Angeles (CA) 8,95 Los Angeles (CA) Philadelphia (PA) 6,53 Philadelphia (PA) Detroit (MI) 4,595 Houston (TX) Washington (DC) 4,506 Detroit (MI) Houston (TX) 4,104 Washington (DC) Baltimore (MD),861 Baltimore (MD) Dallas (TX),635 Dallas (TX) Boston (MA),053 Phoenix (AZ) Phoenix (AZ) 1,949 San Francisco (CA) Milwaukee (WI) 1,866 Las Vegas (NV) San Diego (CA) 1,816 Boston (MA) Honolulu (HI) 1,781 San Diego (CA) San Francisco (CA) 1,777 Milwaukee (WI) 40,435 13,466 9,341 7,04 5,343 4,154 3,61 3,034,86,66,7,168,164,0 1,998 Number of full-time sworn personnel per,000 residents City City Washington (DC) 74 Washington (DC) 631 Detroit (MI) 447 Newark (NJ) 536 New York (NY) 47 New York (NY) 505 Chicago (IL) 45 Baltimore (MD) 466 Philadelphia (PA) 411 Chicago (IL) 465 Atlanta (GA) 396 Philadelphia (PA) 463 Baltimore (MD) 389 Detroit (MI) 437 St. Louis (MO) 389 St. Louis (MO) 48 Newark (NJ) 368 Cleveland (OH) 381 Boston (MA) 357 Boston (MA) 367 Cleveland (OH) 348 Atlanta (GA) 354 Buffalo (NY) 315 New Orleans (LA) 343 Pittsburgh (PA) 31 Milwaukee (WI) 335 Miami (FL) 310 Buffalo (NY) 317 Milwaukee (WI) 97 Cincinnati (OH) 311 Police Departments in Large Cities, -

3 Table 3. Female and minority representation among full-time sworn personnel in police departments serving cities with a population of 50,000 or more, and Total Any minority 9.8% 38.1% 7.6% 37.6% of full-time sworn personnel who were: Black, non-hispanic Hispanic, any race Asian/Pacific Islander 18.4% 0.1% 9.% 14.1%.0%.8% 15.1% 16.9% 11.4% 17.5% 0.9%.1% American Indian 0.3% 0.4% 0.% 0.3% Female 1.1% 16.3% 1.3% 16.8% Average ratio of percent minority local police officers to percent minority city residents, cities with a population of 50,000 or more, and Minority group Any minority Black/African American Hispanic/Latino Other minority Average officer-to-resident ratio Table 4. Mininum education requirement for new officers in police departments serving cities with a population of 50,000 or more, and Minimum of agencies requirement Total % % 4-year degree 1.6% 4.8% -year degree Some college* High school None *Non-degree requirements only. Figure 1 Minority and female representation Minority representation among local police officers in large cities increased from 9.8% in to 38.1% in (table 3). Hispanics recorded the greatest increase, from 9.% to 14.1%. Black representation also increased, from 18.4% in to 0.1% in. Asian and Pacific Islander representation was.8% in, up from.0% in. The percentage of female officers rose from 1.1% in to 16.3% in. (See appendix table B for minority and female officer percentages for all 6 local police departments serving cities with a population of 50,000 or more.) Using a ratio based on the percentage of sworn personnel who were members of a racial or ethnic minority relative to the percentage of city residents who were members of that minority group indicates that, on average, police departments in large cities were slightly more representative of the cities they in than in. From to, the average ratio increased from.59 to.63 for minorities overall (figure 1). That is, on average, police departments in large cities had 63 minority police officers for every minority residents in, compared to 59 for every in. For blacks or African Americans, the average ratio increased from.64 in to.74 in, for Hispanics or Latinos from.54 to.56, and for other minority groups (such as Asians and American Indians) from.6 to.37. Education and training requirements The percentage of police departments in large cities that required a 4-year degree of new officers rose from 1.6% in to 4.8% in (table 4). The percentage requiring a -year degree increased from 4.8% to 9.7% during this time, and the percentage with a non-degree college requirement went from 1.9% to.6%. Overall, about twice as many departments had some type of college education requirement for new officers in (37.1%) as did in (19.3%). Table 5. Mininum training requirement for new officers in police departments serving cities with a population of 50,000 or more, and Type of training and population Classroom training Field training Median number of training hours required , From to, the median number of classroom training hours required of new officer recruits in police departments in large cities increased from 760 to 880 (table 5). The median field training requirement also increased during this time from 50 hours to 600 hours. In, police departments in large cities had a median annual in-service training requirement for officers of 40 hours (data were not collected in ). Police Departments in Large Cities, - 3

4 Table 6. Annual operating budget of police departments serving cities with a population of 50,000 or more, and Total $176,134,761 $586,494, ,511,331 77,063,388 59,757,009 Per agency Note: All data are presented in dollars. $11,581,036 $695,64,91 165,117,65 99,818,601 71,9,731 Annual operating budget Per resident Per employee $4 $66 $64,493 $64,33 $7 $90 $64,04 $60, ,667 69, ,715 73, ,470 65,788 Per sworn employee $83,814 $85,786 $8,450 $79,804 84,109 91,17 91,35 10,539 81,747 89,364 Operating budgets The operating budgets of police departments serving cities with a population of 50,000 or more totaled about $13.1 billion in fiscal. Controlling for inflation (see methodological note on page 15), this was 0% more than in. The per agency average was nearly $1 million in compared to about $176 million in (table 6). Operating budgets for totaled $66 per resident, $4 higher than in. Per employee operating costs were $64,33 for, about the same as in ($64,493). The overall operating budget per sworn officer increased % during this period, from $83,814 to $85,786. In, departments serving 1 million or more residents had the highest per resident operating budget, $90. Departments serving a population of 350,000 to 499,999 had the highest per employee ($73,811), and per officer ($10,539) budgets. (See appendix table C for budgetary data for all 6 local police departments serving cities with a population of 50,000 or more.) Salaries and special pay From to, the average base starting salary for police chiefs in cities with a population of 50,000 or more increased by about %, from $95,393 to $97,15 (table 7). The average starting salary for chiefs was highest in departments serving 500,000 or more residents C about $105,500. Average starting salaries for sergeants or equivalent first-line supervisors Table 7. Minimum starting salaries in police departments serving cities with a population of 50,000 or more, and Position and population Chief Sergeant or equivalent $49,081 Entry-level patrol officer $35,00 Average minimum starting annual salary $95,393 $113,150 98,401 88,789 86,430 $50,444 49,04 48,79 49,143 $34,986 34,306 35,74 35,158 $97,15 $105,54 105,488 89,050 87,989 $50,541 $49,76 51,65 48,718 5,98 $34,556 $34,153 34,454 34,476 35,095 Note: All data are presented in dollars. increased by 3% from ($49,081) to ($50,541), while starting salaries for entry-level officers declined by about 1%, from $35,00 to $34,556. From to, the percentage of police departments in large cities that offered shift differential pay to officers increased from 66% to 76% (table 8). Nearly all (93%) of the departments serving 50,000 to 349,999 residents offered this type of special pay in. About 3 in 5 departments offered education incentive pay in (60%) and (61%). Those serving 50,000 to 349,999 residents (71%) were the most likely to offer it in. Table 8. Types of special pay for sworn personnel in police departments serving cities with a population of 50,000 or more, and Type of pay and population Shift differential pay Education incentive pay 60% Hazardous duty pay Merit pay of agencies: 66% 70% % % 50% % 60% % 80% % 60% % 50% % 50% From to, the percentage of departments offering hazardous duty pay declined slightly, from 56% to 50%. In, a majority of the departments serving 500,000 to 999,999 residents (57%) offered this type of special pay. The percentage of departments with merit pay in (34%) was about the same as in (35%). Those serving 1 million or more residents (50%) or 350,000 to 499,999 residents (47%) were the most likely to offer merit pay. 4 Police Departments in Large Cities, -

5 UCR violent crimes From to, according to the FBI s Uniform Crime Reports (UCR), the number of violent Crime Index offenses (murder, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault) reported to police departments in cities with 50,000 or more residents declined 34% C from an average of 13,091 per department to 8,686 (table 9). The drop in the rate of violent crimes per,000 residents was even larger, falling from a rate of 1,80 violent crimes per,000 residents in, to 1,091 per,000 in a reduction of 39%. Cities with 1 million or more residents had the largest decrease (46%), led by a 60% drop in New York City. (See appendix table D for UCR violent crime data for all 6 local police departments serving cities with a population of 50,000 or more.) Table 9. UCR violent crime index offenses reported to police departments serving cities with a population of 50,000 or more, and Per agency 13,091 44,13 9,154 6,579 4,739 Number of UCR violent crime index offenses Per,000 Per residents sworn personnel 8,686 6,558 7,083 4,696 3,171 1,80,056 1,506 1,710 1,553 1,091 1,108 1,07 1,115 1, Table 10. UCR property crime index offenses reported to police departments serving cities with a population of 50,000 or more, and Number of UCR property crime index offenses Per Per,000 Per agency residents sworn personnel 60,653 41,571 8,35 5,1,887 1,69 17, ,346 8,038 4,31,45 1,186 51,05 39,08 8,44 5,933 3,109,197 35,348 6,959 9,190 6,398 4,01,773 5,65 18,73 8,407 6,013 3,514,344 A large reduction in violent crime also occurred in the number reported per officer employed. In there were 353 violent crimes per sworn personnel, 43% fewer than the rate of 63 per. Among cities with 1 million or more residents, the decline was 51%, including 57% in New York. By specific type of violent crime, the number of murders per,000 residents declined from an average of 1 per city in to 13 in ; forcible rapes, from 84 to 5; robberies, from 671 to 399; and aggravated assaults, from 786 to 603 (figure ). UCR property crimes From to, the number of UCR property Crime Index offenses (larcenytheft, burglary, motor vehicle theft) in large cities decreased 31%, from an average of 60,563 per city to 41,571. In, there were 5,1 property crimes per,000 residents compared to 8,35 in, a decrease of 37%. In cities with 1 million or more residents, the drop was 46%, led by New York (64%). (See appendix table E for UCR property crime data for all 6 local police departments serving cities with a population of 50,000 or more.) There were 41% fewer reported UCR property crimes per sworn personnel in (1,69) than in (,887). Departments serving 1 million or more residents reported a drop in property crimes per officers that exceeded 50% (from,45 to 1,186), with a 69% drop in New York. The burglary rate in cities with a population of 50,000 or more declined from an average of,1 per,000 residents in, to 1,167 per,000 residents in (figure 3). For larceny-theft, the average rate declined from 5,08 to 3,798, and for motor vehicle theft from 1,59 to 1,005. UCR violent crime index offenses, cities with a population of 50,000 or more, and UCR property crime Index offenses, cities with a population of 50,000 or more, and Type of violent crime Type of property crime Murder Forcible rape Robbery Burglary Larceny-theft Motor vehicle theft Aggravated assault Average number per,000 residents Number per,000 residents Figure Figure 3 Police Departments in Large Cities, - 5

6 Special units Police departments in large cities operated various types of special units to address crime-related problems and to provide resources to those affected by crime. In and, more than three-fourths of departments had fulltime special units or part-time personnel assigned to general crime prevention, child abuse, juvenile crime, drug education in schools, missing children, drunk drivers, and gangs (table 11). In a majority of departments had personnel assigned full time to special units for gangs (84%), domestic violence (81%), child abuse (77%), crime prevention (76%), drug education in schools (73%), juvenile crime (68%), and missing children (66%). Seventy-one percent of departments operated a full-time unit or had parttime personnel assigned to victim assistance in compared to 45% in. The percentage with full-time victim assistance units rose from 3% to 47% during this time. Ninety-seven percent of departments operated either a full-time domestic violence unit or had personnel assigned part-time to deal with the problem in, compared to 61% in. The percentage with full-time units increased from 50% to 81% during this time. From to, the percentage with personnel assigned on at least a part-time basis to address gang-related Victim assistance Crime prevention Repeat offenders Prosecutor relations Domestic violence Child abuse Missing children Juvenile crime Gangs Drug education Drunk drivers Bias-related crimes 3% % problems rose from 89% to 98%, and the percentage with a full-time gang unit increased from 69% to 84%. The percentage of departments with personnel assigned at least part-time to handle bias-related crimes increased from 58% in to 71% in ; however, the percentage with a fulltime unit dropped from 34% to 6% during this time. Table 11. Special units operated by police departments serving cities with a population of 50,000 or more, and Type of special unit of agencies with: Full-time special unit: Full-time special unit or part-time personnel 45% % Community policing initiatives of police departments in large cities, Since the enactment of the 1994 Crime Act and the subsequent creation of the Department of Justice s Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), most police departments have taken steps to implement community policing. The COPS office facilitated this effort by providing funding to deploy community policing officers, facilitate problem solving efforts, encourage interactions with communities by officers, promote innovations in policing, and enhance existing technologies. Although such data were not collected in, the LEMAS survey provided several measures of large city police departments community policing efforts. For example, 94% of the departments provided all new officer recruits with at least 8 hours of community policing training during the 1-month period ending June 30,. Also, nearly all departments had fulltime sworn personnel serving as community policing officers with a mean of 1% and a median of 5% of all officers so assigned. Type of community policing activity during 1-month period ending June 30, Met at least quarterly with citizen groups to discuss crime-related problems Gave patrol officers responsibility for specific geographic areas/beats Conducted a citizen police academy Assigned detectives to cases based on geographic areas/beats Trained citizens in community policing techniques such as community mobilization and problem solving Actively encouraged patrol officers to engage in SARA-type problem-solving projects on their beats Upgraded technology to support community policing Conducted or sponsored a survey of citizens on crime or police-related topics Formed problem-solving partnerships through specialized contracts or written agreements Seventy-one percent of departments had a formal, written community policing plan, while 9% had an informal plan. Other indicators of community policing in large cities: of agencies % 90% 87% 84% 79% 77% 76% 63% 61% 6 Police Departments in Large Cities, -

7 Table 1. Officers assigned to a multi-agency drug task force by police departments serving cities with a population of 50,000 or more, and Table 13. Officers assigned to a special drug enforcement unit in police departments serving cities with a population of 50,000 or more, and Officers assigned full-time to drug task force: Average number Average percent Average number Average percent Officers assigned full-time to special drug unit Average number Average percent Average number Average percent % 0.3% % 0.7% % 3.5% % 3.6% Drug enforcement All but 1 of the 6 local police departments serving cities with a population of 50,000 or more reported in the LEMAS survey that they had receipts from a drug asset forfeiture program during the prior year, as did 60 departments in the survey. Although data on the value of the goods, money, and property received were not collected in, it totalled an estimated $108. million in 1999, or about $708 per sworn officer. Estimated value of drug asset forfeiture receipts, police departments serving cities with a population of 50,000 or more, 1999 Total Per (in millions) officer $108. $708 $58.7 $ , , , , , , Departments had an average of 15 fulltime officers each assigned to a multiagency drug enforcement task force in, compared to 13 in. As a percentage of all officers, the average decreased slightly, from 1.0% in to 0.9% in (table 1). From to, departments serving a population of 1 million or more increased their average number of officers assigned to a task force from an average of 1, or 0.3% of all officers, to an average of 48, or 0.7%. The average number of officers per department assigned to a special unit for drug enforcement increased from 86 in to 13 in ; however, the average percentage of all officers so assigned in (3.5%) was lower than in (4.4%) (table 13). The largest drop was among departments serving 350,000 to 499,999 residents C from an average of 6.3% of officers in to 3.4% in. Equipment In nearly all police departments serving 50,000 or more residents authorized the use of both semiautomatic (98%) and revolver (97%) sidearms; however, the percentage authorizing revolvers had dropped to 65% by (table 14). All departments authorized semiautomatic sidearms in. From to, the percentage of police departments in large cities requiring all patrol officers to wear protective body armor increased from 1% to 48%. During this time, the percentage of departments that required at least some patrol officers to wear armor rose from 31% to 69% (table 15). Departments serving 50,000 to 349,999 residents (43%) were the least likely to have a body armor requirement for patrol officers during. Table 14. Types of sidearms authorized by police departments serving cities with a population of 50,000 or more, and Table 15. Body armor policies for field/patrol officers in police departments serving cities with a population of 50,000 or more, and of agencies authorizing field/patrol officers to use semiautomatic sidearms or revolvers Semiautomatic Revolver 98% % 95 % % 97% 90% 95 65% 80% of agencies requiring field/patrol officers to wear protective body armor Total All Some Total All 31% 1% 10% 69% 48% 50% 30% 0% 70% 60% Some 1% 10% Police Departments in Large Cities, - 7

8 Vehicles In, 9% of police departments in large cities operated airplanes, about the same percentage as in (6%) (table 16). Nearly all departments with planes had just one, with no more than four operated by any department. In those serving a population of 1 million or more (50%) were the most likely to operate an airplane. Sixty-six percent of departments operated at least one helicopter in, compared to 55% in. The median number of helicopters operated was with a maximum of 19. Ninety percent of departments serving a population of 1 million or more operated helicopters during. From to, the percentage of departments using boats increased from 48% to 58%. Among those using boats in, the median number operated was 3, and the maximum was 7. About three-fourths of the departments serving a population of 500,000 or more used boats during. Among land vehicles, motorcycle use increased slightly, from 90% of departments in to 95% in. A much more substantial increase was ob for bicycles, with 98% of departments using them in, compared to 39% in (table 18). On average, departments operated 44 bicycles per 1,000 sworn personnel in compared to 3 per 1,000 in (figure 4). Police departments in large cities operated 307 marked cars per 1,000 sworn personnel in, 17% more than in (63). The ratio of unmarked cars also increased, from 188 per 1,000 sworn personnel in to 07 per 1,000 in. The percentage of departments allowing officers to drive marked vehicles between work and home increased from 39% in to 55% in (table 19). However, the percentage of departments allowing officers to use these vehicles for personal errands decreased from 4% to 13%. Table 16. Use of off-land vehicles by police departments serving cities with a population of 50,000 or more, and Total Table 17. Use of motorcycles by police departments serving cities with a population of 50,000 or more, and Number of vehicles per 1,000 sworn personnel operated by police departments in large cities, and Type of vehicle Marked cars Unmarked cars Figure 4 Motorcycles Bicycles Airplanes 6% 40% % 50% of agencies using motorcycles 90% 95% % % of agencies using: Helicopters 55% 80% % 90% Table 18. Use of bicycles by police departments serving cities with a population of 50,000 or more, and of agencies using bicycles 39% 98% 50% % Boats 48% 70% Average number operated per 1,000 sworn personnel Table 19. Marked vehicle use policies of police departments serving cities with a population of 50,000 or more, and Personal Personal use use not Total allowed allowed 39% 4% 15% 0% 0% 0% Note: Detail may not add to total because of rounding. Total 55% 10% Personal use allowed 13% 0% % 70% of agencies allowing officers to take marked vehicles home Personal use not allowed 4% 10% Police Departments in Large Cities, -

9 Table 0. Use of computer-aided dispatch by police departments serving cities with a population of 50,000 or more, and Table 1. Use of an enhanced system by police departments serving cities with a population of 50,000 or more, and Table. Use of in-field computers or terminals by police departments serving cities with a population of 50,000 or more, and of agencies using computeraided dispatch 90% % 90% % of agencies with enhanced % 97% 80% 90% of agencies using in-field computers or terminals 73% 90% % % Computers and information systems The increase in computerization among police departments in large cities from to was evident in a variety of areas. For example, all departments were using computeraided dispatch systems in, compared to 90% in (table 0). Participation in enhanced emergency systems, capable of pinpointing a caller s location automatically, increased from 76% of departments in to 97% in (table 1). In, all departments serving 50,000 to 999,999 residents were using enhanced Increases in the percentage of departments using in-field computers or terminals were also ob. Ninetytwo percent of police departments in large cities used them in, compared to 73% in (table ). All departments serving 500,000 or more residents were using in-field computers or terminals during. The use of Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) rose from 60% of departments in to 97% in (table 3). In all departments serving 350,000 or more residents had AFIS access. The percentage of departments with exclusive or shared ownership of an AFIS system increased from 57% to 71% during this time. Table 3. Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) capabilities of police departments serving cities with a population of 50,000 or more, and Owned Remote Total system terminal Total 60% 57% 3% 97% 60% 60% 0% % Note: System ownership may have been exclusive or shared. In terms of the technological measures provided by LEMAS, nearly all police departments in large cities had advanced capabilities in (figure 5). This included the use of computer-aided dispatch, enhanced 9-1-1, automated fingerprint identification, and in-field computers. of agencies with AFIS capability through Technological capabilities of police departments in large cities, and Figure 5 Computer-aided dispatch Enhanced Automated fingerprint ID In-field computers/terminals Owned system 71% 90% Remote terminal 0% 0% 40% 60% 80% % of agencies 6% 10% Police Departments in Large Cities, - 9

10 Appendix table A. Full-time employees of police departments serving cities with a population of 50,000 or more, and category and city New York (NY) Los Angeles (CA) Chicago (IL) Houston (TX) Philadelphia (PA) Phoenix (AZ) San Diego (CA) Dallas (TX) San Antonio (TX) Las Vegas (NV) 500,000 to 999,999 Detroit (MI) San Jose (CA) Honolulu (HI) San Francisco (CA) Indianapolis (IN) Jacksonville (FL) Columbus (OH) Austin (TX) Baltimore (MD) Memphis (TN) Charlotte (NC) Milwaukee (WI) Boston (MA) Washington (DC) Nashville (TN) El Paso (TX) Seattle (WA) Denver (CO) Fort Worth (TX) Portland (OR) Oklahoma City (OK) 350,000 to 499,999 Tucson (AZ) New Orleans (LA) Cleveland (OH) Long Beach (CA) Albuquerque (NM) Kansas City (MO) Fresno (CA) Virginia Beach (VA) Atlanta (GA) Sacramento (CA) Oakland (CA) Mesa (AZ) Tulsa (OK) Omaha (NE) Minneapolis (MN) Miami (FL) Colorado Springs (CO) 50,000 to 349,999 St. Louis (MO) Wichita (KS) Santa Ana (CA) Pittsburgh (PA) Arlington (TX) Cincinnati (OH) Anaheim (CA) Toledo (OH) Tampa (FL) Buffalo (NY) St. Paul (MN) Corpus Christi (TX) Newark (NJ) Louisville (KY) 39,398 10,695 14,909 5,579 7,354,584,498 3,487 1,91 1,78 5,03 1,465,0,566,113,080 1,74 1,08 3,414,09 1,01,74,741 5,59 1, ,775 1,558 1, , ,686, ,184 1, , , , , , ,083 1, ,60 81 Total number change 53,09 1,409 16,466 7,440 7,98 3,394,746 3,586,387 3,86 4,804 1,81,70,50,40,541,144 1,656 3,649,791 1,864,47 3,046 4,468 1,693 1,351 1,918 1,80 1,510 1,347 1,69 1,53,050,386 1,363 1,36 1,848 1, ,984 1,008 1,088 1, ,163 1, ,078 1, , , ,9 1, ,635 1,009 Full-time employees 34.6% % % % Per,000 residents change % % % % ,36 8,95 11,837 4,104 6,53 1,949 1,816,635 1,576 1,16 4,595 1,110 1,781 1,777 1,436 1,181 1, ,861 1, ,866,053 4,506 1, ,71 1, ,397 1, , , , , , , , Total number change 40,435 9,341 13,466 5,343 7,04,66,0,86 1,88,168 4,154 1,408 1,79,7 1,59 1,530 1,744 1,144 3,034 1,904 1,44 1,998,164 3,61 1,49 1,057 1,61 1,489 1,196 1,007 1, ,664 1, , , , , , , , Full-time sworn personnel 9.4% % % % Per,000 residents change % % % % Police Departments in Large Cities, -

11 Appendix table B. of full-time sworn personnel who are women and minorities, and ratio of minority officers to minority residents, in police departments serving cities with a population of 50,000 or more, and category and city Female of sworn personnel Any minority of Officer-tosworn personnel resident ratio, Black or African American of Officer-toresident sworn personnel ratio, Hispanic or Latino of Officer-toresident sworn personnel ratio, New York (NY) Los Angeles (CA) Chicago (IL) Houston (TX) Philadelphia (PA) Phoenix (AZ) San Diego (CA) Dallas (TX) San Antonio (TX) Las Vegas (NV) 1.3% % % % % % % % ,000 to 999,999 Detroit (MI) San Jose (CA) Honolulu (HI) San Francisco (CA) Indianapolis (IN) Jacksonville (FL) Columbus (OH) Austin (TX) Baltimore (MD) Memphis (TN) Charlotte (NC) Milwaukee (WI) Boston (MA) Washington (DC) Nashville (TN) El Paso (TX) Seattle (WA) Denver (CO) Fort Worth (TX) Portland (OR) Oklahoma City (OK) 0.0% % % % % % % % ,000 to 499,999 Tucson (AZ) New Orleans (LA) Cleveland (OH) Long Beach (CA) Albuquerque (NM) Kansas City (MO) Fresno (CA) Virginia Beach (VA) Atlanta (GA) Sacramento (CA) Oakland (CA) Mesa (AZ) Tulsa (OK) Omaha (NE) Minneapolis (MN) Miami (FL) Colorado Springs (CO) 1.% % % % % % % % ,000 to 349,999 St. Louis (MO) Wichita (KS) Santa Ana (CA) Pittsburgh (PA) Arlington (TX) Cincinnati (OH) Anaheim (CA) Toledo (OH) Tampa (FL) Buffalo (NY) St. Paul (MN) Corpus Christi (TX) Newark (NJ) Louisville (KY) 7.1% % % % % % % % Police Departments in Large Cities, - 11

12 Appendix table C. Annual operating budget of police departments serving cities with a population of 50,000 or more, and category and city New York (NY) Los Angeles (CA) Chicago (IL) Houston (TX) Philadelphia (PA) Phoenix (AZ) San Diego (CA) Dallas (TX) San Antonio (TX) Las Vegas (NV) 500,000 to 999,999 Detroit (MI) San Jose (CA) Honolulu (HI) San Francisco (CA) Indianapolis (IN) Jacksonville (FL) Columbus (OH) Austin (TX) Baltimore (MD) Memphis (TN) Charlotte (NC) Milwaukee (WI) Boston (MA) Washington (DC) Nashville (TN) El Paso (TX) Seattle (WA) Denver (CO) Fort Worth (TX) Portland (OR) Oklahoma City (OK) 350,000 to 499,999 Tucson (AZ) New Orleans (LA) Cleveland (OH) Long Beach (CA) Albuquerque (NM) Kansas City (MO) Fresno (CA) Virginia Beach (VA) Atlanta (GA) Sacramento (CA) Oakland (CA) Mesa (AZ) Tulsa (OK) Omaha (NE) Minneapolis (MN) Miami (FL) Colorado Springs (CO) 50,000 to 349,999 St. Louis (MO) Wichita (KS) Santa Ana (CA) Pittsburgh (PA) Arlington (TX) Cincinnati (OH) Anaheim (CA) Toledo (OH) Tampa (FL) Buffalo (NY) St. Paul (MN) Corpus Christi (TX) Newark (NJ) Louisville (KY) $,78,353,656 $3,10,000, ,646, ,679, ,85, ,000,000 99,064,866 45,867, ,153, ,65,94 184,396,384 17,617, ,99,058 3,910,664 03,703,864 46,000, ,910, ,013, ,18,76 40,714,303 $437,808,44 161,496,1 19,355,317 39,437, ,034,03 136,543,17 111,587,657 66,511,15 4,811,68 93,875,910 56,903, ,967, ,676,35 78,8,171 86,455,74 48,56, ,87, ,833,358 63,98,3 78,43,681 59,713,305 $61,914, ,768, ,1,06 108,313,041 6,636, ,96,917 61,407,976 47,703,647 93,699,59 74,70, ,871,167 38,777,844 59,854,715 37,453,397 61,355, ,88,805 38,587,451 $110,560,099 9,577,966 53,915,41 101,701,014 7,047,667 58,843,766 $49,977,30 55,377,750 65,98,033 87,801,103 51,57,595 8,85,33 70,650,798 45,080,533 Total $35,453,163 18,96,39 140,78,160 55,706, ,50, ,377, ,10, ,687,988 31,97, ,000, ,64, ,81,77 04,000, ,666,68 101,89,813 8,040, ,604,854 13,318, ,119, ,000,000 93,430,016 $88,406,70 10,000,000 5,000, ,574,459 76,068, ,445,917 75,786, 57,960, ,407,03 75,71,000 17,74,06 90,61,96 63,359,000 63,943,17 91,481,3 86,595,193 56,18,134 $114,000,000 48,000,000 80,75,086 65,45,306 44,900,000 78,148,540 65,848,988 64,18,050 89,570,060 64,510,4 63,607,453 38,531, ,991,157 64,71,454 change 17.7% % % % Annual operating budget (in dollars) $ $ $ $ Per resident change $ $ $ $ % % % % Per sworn employee change $87,346 78,800 83,660 7,87 59,046 94,611 89,9 77,307 74, ,73 $95,79 145,49 7, ,74 76,65 115,617 80,80 83,66 78,578 67,98 61,187 78,761 78,64 61,878 84,761 65,389 85,985 81,816 67,93 101,993 69,193 $83,107 7,848 75, ,450 77,51, ,14 79,906 60, , ,36,984 85,63 63,053 76,14 93,588 95,043 $71,606 69,94 141,139 88,06 75,977 6, ,407 81,080 80,075 85,079 96,349 78,543 69,744 71,556 $79,387 95,459 67,578 79,706 54,759 8, ,188 85, , ,031 $84,847 19,945 78, ,81 9, , ,61 94,133 76,35 73,59 77,368 74,981 94,70 87,671 81,59 77, ,538 8,819 99, ,857 9,413 $95,66 61,98 138, ,649 88, ,99 110,961 80,389 81, , ,893 15,887 77,361 84, ,41 78,014 95,874 $76,561 78, ,881 63,178 9,577 75,87 160,17 93,017 95,389 69, ,430 94,673 78,439 93, % % % % Police Departments in Large Cities, -

13 Appendix table D. UCR violent crime index offenses reported to police departments serving cities with a population of 50,000 or more, and category and city Total number change UCR violent crime index offenses Per,000 residents change Per sworn employees 1900 change New York (NY) Los Angeles (CA) Chicago (IL) Houston (TX) Philadelphia (PA) Phoenix (AZ) San Diego (CA) Dallas (TX) San Antonio (TX) Las Vegas (NV) 174,689 83,809 81,08,637 1,387 10,665 1,047 4,550 5,730 4,510 75,745 50,41 48,089 1,491,81 9,754 7,159 16,04 7,905 6, % ,386,405,917 1,388 1,349 1,084 1,085, ,360 1,661 1, 1, , % , % ,000 to 999,999 Detroit (MI) San Jose (CA) Honolulu (HI) San Francisco (CA) Indianapolis (IN) Jacksonville (FL) Columbus (OH) Austin (TX) Baltimore (MD) Memphis (TN) Charlotte (NC) Milwaukee (WI) Boston (MA) Washington (DC) Nashville (TN) El Paso (TX) Seattle (WA) Denver (CO) Fort Worth (TX) Portland (OR) Oklahoma City (OK) 7,747 4,698,41 1,388 7,113 11,654 7,0 3,36 17,94 9,08 9,531 6,8 13,664 14,919 6,886 5,111 7,780 4,05 7,86 7,836 4,813,11 4,98,30 6,499 6,843 8,06 5,998 3,069 16,003 9,610 7,515 5,711 7,3 8,65 8,901 4,396 4,333,885 3,815 5,698 3, % , ,711 1,007 1,835 1, ,438 1,488,07 1,000,379,458 1, , ,748 1,79 1,08, , ,458 1,478 1, ,43 1,508 1, , % , , % ,000 to 499,999 Tucson (AZ) New Orleans (LA) Cleveland (OH) Long Beach (CA) Albuquerque (NM) Kansas City (MO) Fresno (CA) Virginia Beach (VA) Atlanta (GA) Sacramento (CA) Oakland (CA) Mesa (AZ) Tulsa (OK) Omaha (NE) Minneapolis (MN) Miami (FL) Colorado Springs (CO) 3,680 11,7 9,190 8,403 5,11 11,087 4, ,097 3,978 5,845 1,74 4,898 3,139 5,367 15,607 1,184 4,54 5,330 6,041 3,16 5,136 7,179 3, ,583 3,117 5,038,393 4,411 3,164 4,404 7,877 1, % ,59 1,818 1,957 1,331,550 1,4 9 4,085 1,077 1, , ,457 4, , 1, ,145 1, , , , ,151, % , , , , % ,000 to 349,999 St. Louis (MO) Wichita (KS) Santa Ana (CA) Pittsburgh (PA) Arlington (TX) Cincinnati (OH) Anaheim (CA) Toledo (OH) Tampa (FL) Buffalo (NY) St. Paul (MN) Corpus Christi (TX) Newark (NJ) Louisville (KY) 13,68,189,663 4,893 1,876 4,476 1,80 3,541 8,608 5,75,763 1,607 10,684,81 7,936,081 1,89 3,67,157,671 1,413,380 6,381 3,657,393,104 4,09, % , , , ,064 3,074 1,608 1, ,88 848, ,103 1, , % , , % Police Departments in Large Cities, - 13

14 Appendix table E. UCR property crime index offenses reported to police departments serving cities with a population of 50,000 or more, and category and city New York (NY) Los Angeles (CA) Chicago (IL) Houston (TX) Philadelphia (PA) Phoenix (AZ) San Diego (CA) Dallas (TX) San Antonio (TX) Las Vegas (NV) 536,867 37,77 8,89 16,3 9,645 95,114 89, , ,044 39,434 Total number 1,63 130,97 169, ,0 75,188 87,744 39,199 89,008 78,44 41,059 change -60.4% UCR property crime index offenses Per,000 residents change 7,33 6,81 8,0 9,950 5,843 9,67 8,061 13,08 11,865 6,399,655 3,56 5,860 5,64 4,955 6,64 3,04 7,489 6,851 4, % Per sworn employees 1900 change 1,719,866 1,933 3,953 1,40 4,880 4,99 4,999 7,046 3, ,395 1,60,063 1,070 3,341 1,939 3,110 4,167 1, % ,000 to 999,999 Detroit (MI) San Jose (CA) Honolulu (HI) San Francisco (CA) Indianapolis (IN) Jacksonville (FL) Columbus (OH) Austin (TX) Baltimore (MD) Memphis (TN) Charlotte (NC) Milwaukee (WI) Boston (MA) Washington (DC) Nashville (TN) El Paso (TX) Seattle (WA) Denver (CO) Fort Worth (TX) Portland (OR) Oklahoma City (OK) 97,578 33,39 48,616 57,56 45,777 54,964 55,681 51,17 60,047 51,173 45,368 5,14 54,393 50,470 3,474 5,810 57,303 3,064 59,14 40,709 4,377 73,649 17,880 44,357 35,675 30,198 4,866 57,096 35,611 49,883 49,904 41,948 38,381 8,548 3,98 39,689 30,76 40,967 3,417 34,37 35,45 43, % ,49 4,69 5,814 7,951 6,484 8,653 8,798 11,000 8,158 8,384 9,865 8,99 9,471 8,316 6,500 10,48 11, 6,857 13,9 9,309 9,59 7,74 1,998 5,063 4,593 3,977 5,87 8,05 5,48 7,661 7,684 6,708 6,49 4,846 5,765 6,964 5,371 7,7 4, 6,40 6,661 8, % ,14 3,008,730 3,39 3,188 4,654 4,03 6,44,099 3,703 4,878,793,649 1,10 3,184 7,156 4,508,433 6,33 5,94 4,910 1,773 1,70,475 1,60 1,919,80 3,74 3,113 1,644,61,909 1,91 1, ,178,864 3,49 1,573,870 3,500 4, % ,000 to 499,999 Tucson (AZ) New Orleans (LA) Cleveland (OH) Long Beach (CA) Albuquerque (NM) Kansas City (MO) Fresno (CA) Virginia Beach (VA) Atlanta (GA) Sacramento (CA) Oakland (CA) Mesa (AZ) Tulsa (OK) Omaha (NE) Minneapolis (MN) Miami (FL) Colorado Springs (CO) 44,478 50,57 36,895 3,703 33,600 45,1 3,897 1,814 59,696 9,73 34,750 18,691 30,1 0,534 36,778 5,60 19,833 39,983 8,671 6,543 14,451 34,311 39,944 9,05 16,746 43,885 4,1 0,0 3,13,44 3,655 3,085 31,879 16, % ,97 10,177 7,97 7,615 8,733 10,403 9,88 5,550 15,151 8,049 9,335 6,488 8,01 6,115 9,984 14,671 7,054 8,15 5,916 5,548 3,131 7,648 9,046 6,787 3,938 10,537 5,951 5,01 5,836 5,710 6,065 6,033 8,795 4,70-5.1% ,970 3,60,095 5,086 4,158 3,939 7,668 3,654 3,87 4,964 5,641 4,867 4,91 3,457 4,563 4,739 4,885 4,309 1,73 1,457 1,640 3,994 3,188 4,50,30,977 3,76,80 3,6,740 3,154,559,87, % ,000 to 349,999 St. Louis (MO) Wichita (KS) Santa Ana (CA) Pittsburgh (PA) Arlington (TX) Cincinnati (OH) Anaheim (CA) Toledo (OH) Tampa (FL) Buffalo (NY) St. Paul (MN) Corpus Christi (TX) Newark (NJ) Louisville (KY) 44,517 4,95 19,68 7,493 0,433 3,031 17,94 8,453 36,05 3,906 19,381 4,98 34,055 15,004 4,717 19,588 8,63 16,189 19,33 18,975 8,496 1,643 7,85 16,591 16,36 17,905 15,571 13,0-4.0% , 8,08 6,68 7,433 7,807 6,37 6,49 8,546 1,875 7,86 7,119 9,683 1,374 5,576 1,68 5,689,551 4,839 5,803 5,78,590 6,901 8,99 5,669 5,686 6,453 5,69 5,08 9.3% ,883 5,899 5,138,384 5,740,455 5,07 4,166 4,375,316 3,643 6,79 3,36,38,869 3,16,134 1,563 3,984 1,84,140 3,137,906 1,788,834 4,399 1,06 1, % Police Departments in Large Cities, -

15 Methodological notes A large part of the data used in this report are from the Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS) surveys conducted in and. data are from the U.S. Census Bureau decennial census, and crime data are from the FBI s Uniform Crime Reports (UCR). Certain methodological issues arose during analysis and are discussed below. Jurisdictional issues The 6 cities included in this report were chosen because they had a population of at least 50,000 in both the and decennial censuses. In most cases the data used represent a city and the local police department that serves it. For certain cities, special circumstances existed and are noted below. Anaheim (CA) The Anaheim (CA) Police did not respond to the LEMAS survey. Although personnel counts were obtained from other sources, other values for were based on the agency s responses to the 1987 and 1993 surveys. Where data values for categorical variables differed, the data for 1993 were used. Continous variables such as number of personnel, operating budget, number of vehicles, and asset forfeiture receipts were averaged for the two years to arrive at an estimate for. Charlotte (NC) The Charlotte Police and Mecklenberg County Police merged on October 1, To provide comparability with data for the Charlotte-Mecklenberg Police, the data reported by the two original agencies for were aggregated for continuous variables. For categorical variables in, data from the Charlotte Police were used. Honolulu (HI) The jurisdiction of the Honolulu Police covers the City and County of Honolulu. Therefore, county population data were used for this report. Indianapolis (IN) The city of Indianapolis is by both the Indianapolis Police and the Marion County Sheriff s Department. Therefore, data from these two agencies were combined for both and. For categorical variables, data from the Indianapolis Police were used, and for continuous variables, the responses of the two agencies were aggregated. Las Vegas (NV) The city of Las Vegas is under the law enforcement jurisdiction of the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department. (LVMPD). The jurisdiction of the LVMPD extends beyond the city of Las Vegas to include significant portions of suburban Clark County. General population counts were available for the actual LVMPD jurisdictional area, however; race and ethnicity were not. Therefore, the population race and ethnicity data used are for all of Clark County. This includes the city of Las Vegas, and county areas inside and outside of LVMPD law enforcement jurisdiction. New York (NY) The New York City transit and housing police agencies were merged into the New York City Police Department (NYPD) on April 30, To provide comparability with the data reported by NYPD, data reported by the transit and housing police for were combined with NYPD data. For categorical variables, the responses of the NYPD were used. For continuous variables, data for the three original agencies were aggregated. Comparability issues All items that could be compared between the and surveys were included for analysis. Certain items asked in both surveys could not be included because of comparability issues. In some cases, items were included when the design of the questions had changed because it was determined to not affect comparability. These items included the following: Training requirements The LEMAS survey asked for the number of classroom and field training hours required while the survey asked for the number of academy and field hours. Operating costs The survey asked for the annual operating expenditure while the survey asked for the operating budget. All monetary data were converted to dollars by multiplying them by This factor was derived from annual Consumer Price Index averages published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bureau of Economic Analysis. UCR Crime data Changes in reporting methods at the State or local levels may affect the comparability of crime data for and. This has been documented for Tennessee, including the cities of Nashville and Memphis, which appear to have underreported certain crimes in. Comparability issues may exist in other jurisdictions as well, documented or not. Data on the number of forcible rapes in Chicago were not available for or. Estimates based on the number of other violent crimes were calculated for this report. When comparing crime rates between jurisdictions, the FBI suggests considering factors such as population density, degree of urbanization, demographic composition of the population, stability of the population, transportation modes and systems, economic conditions, cultural factors, family conditions, climate, effective strength of law enforcement agencies, administrative and investigative emphasis of law enforcement, criminal justice system policies, citizen attitudes, and citizen crime reporting practices. For more information on the Uniform Crime Reports see < ucr/ucr.htm>. Special units The survey asked if the agency operated a special unit with personnel Police Departments in Large Cities, - 15

16 assigned either full-time or part-time. The survey asked if the agency operated a unit with personnel assigned full-time or had specially designated personnel who dealt with the issue on a part-time basis. In-field computers The survey included the categories of laptop, car-mounted digital terminal, hand-held digital terminal and other. The survey included the four specific categories of laptop, mobile digital/data computer, mobile digital/data terminal, and other within two general categories of vehiclemounted and portable. Minority representation ratio The officer-to-resident ratios used to measure minority representation in figure 1 and appendix table B were calculated by dividing the percent of an agency s full-time sworn personnel who were members of a racial or ethnic group by the percentage in the population who belonged to that group. In some instances this resulted in a value greater than 1 (that is, a group was over represented). Such values are included in table B; however, for the purposes of calculating the average ratios used in figure 1, these values were truncated to This was done so that average ratios would not be artificially inflated by overrepresentation in certain agencies. By definition the overrepresentation of one group is accompanied by the under representation of one or more other groups. Ideally, all groups would have an officer-to-resident ratio of 1. This report in portable document format and in ASCII, its tables, and related statistical data are available at the BJS website < usdoj.gov/bjs>. If you wish to receive s notifying you about BJS releases, please follow the instructions provided at < usdoj.gov/bjs/juststats.htm>. The Bureau of Justice Statistics is the statistical agency of the U.S. Department of Justice. Lawrence A. Greenfeld is acting director. Brian Reaves and Matthew Hickman, BJS statisticians, prepared this report. The Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) provided partial funding for the LEMAS survey. Debra Cohen and Matthew Scheider of COPS assisted with questionnaire development. More information on COPS can be obtained at their website <www. usdoj.gov/cops>. Data were collected and processed by the U.S. Census Bureau under the supervision of Latrice Brogsdale-Davis and Charlene Sebold. Project staff included Theresa Reitz, Martha Greene, Patricia Torreyson, Bill Bryner, and Paula Kinard. Jayne Robinson, BJS, administered final report production. May 00, NCJ Police Departments in Large Cities, -

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