# String Search. Brute force Rabin-Karp Knuth-Morris-Pratt Right-Left scan

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1 String Search Brute force Rabin-Karp Knuth-Morris-Pratt Right-Left scan

2 String Searching Text with N characters Pattern with M characters match existence: any occurence of pattern in text? enumerate: how many occurences? match: return index of any occurence all matches: return indices of all occurences Sample problem: find avoctdfytvv in apawlvliygjkmxorzeoafeoffbfxuhkzukeftnrfmocylculksedgrd ivayjpgkrtedehwhrvvbbltdkctq Assume that N >> M >> number of occurences Ex: N = 100,000; M = 100; five occurences focus of this lecture kvjlixapejrbxeenpphkhthbkwyrwamnugzhppfxiyjyanhapfwbghx mshrlyujfjhrsovkvveylnbxnawavgizyvmfohigeabgksfnbkmffxj ffqbualeytqrphyrbjqdjqavctgxjifqgfgydhoiwhrvwqbxgrixydz bpajnhopvlamhhfavoctdfytvvggikngkwzixgjtlxkozjlefilbrboi gnbzsudssvqymnapbpqvlubdoyxkkwhcoudvtkmikansgsutdjythzl 2

3 String searching context Find M-char pattern in N-char text Applications word processors virus scanning text information retrieval (ex: Lexis/Nexis) digital libraries computational biology web search engines Theoretical challenge: linear-time guarantee suffix-trie index costs ~NlgN Practical challenge: avoid BACKUP often no room or time to save input chars Fundamental algorithmic problem Now is the time for all people to come to the aid of their party.now is the time for all good people to come to the aid of theirparty.now is the time for manygood people to come to the aid of their party.now is the time for all good people to come to the aid of their party.now is the time for a lot of good people to come to the aid of their party.now is the time for all of the good people to come to the aid of their party.now is the time for all good people to come to the aid of their party. Now is the time for each good person to come to the aid of their party.now is the time for all good people to come to the aid of their party. Now is the time for all good Republicans to come to the aid of their party.now is the time for all good people to come to the aid of their party. Now is the time for many or all good people to come to the aid of their party. Now is the time for all good people to come to the aid of their party.now is the time for all good Democrats to come to the aid of their party. Now is the time for all people to come to the aid of their party.now is the time for all good people to come to the aid of theirparty.now is the time for manygood people to come to the aid of their party.now is the time for all good people to come to the aid of their party.now is the time for a lot of good people to come to the aid of their party.now is the time for all of the good people to come to the aid of their party.now is the time for all good people to come to the aid of theirattack at dawn party. Now is the time for each person to come to the aid of their party.now is the time for all good people to come to the aid of their party. Now is the time for all good Republicans to come to the aid of their party.now is the time for all good people to come to the aid of their party. Now is the time for many or all good people to come to the aid of their party. Now is the time for all good people to come to the aid of their party.now is the time for all good Democrats to come to the aid of their party. 3

4 Random pattern or text?? Modelling String Searching Sample problem 1: find unwillingly in kvjlixapejrbxeenpphkhthbkwyrwamnugzhppfxiyjyanhapfwbghx mshrlyujfjhrsovkvveylnbxnawavgizyvmfohigeabgksfnbkmffxj ffqbualeytqrphyrbjqdjqavctgxjifqgfgydhoiwhrvwqbxgrixydz bpajnhopvlamhhfavoctdfytvvggikngkwzixgjtlxkozjlefilbrboi gnbzsudssvqymnapbpqvlubdoyxkkwhcoudvtkmikansgsutdjythzl Sample problem 2: find avoctdfytvv in random pattern all the world s a stage and all the men and women merely players. They have their exits and their entrances, and one man in his time plays many parts. At first, the infant, mewling and puking in the nurse s arms. Then the whining schoolboy, with his satchel and shining morning face, creeping like snail unwillingly to school. And then the lover, sighing random text Simple, effective algorithm: return NOT FOUND probability of match is less than N/(alphabet size) M for sample problems Better to model fixed pattern in fixed text at random position swap patterns in sample problems 1 and 2 makes both OK use random perturbations to test mismatch 4

5 Brute-force string searching Check for pattern at every text position int brutesearch(char p[], char a[]) { } int i, j; for (i = 0; i < strlen(a); i++) for (j = 0; j < strlen(p); j++) if (a[i+j]!= p[j]) break; if (j == strlen(p)) return i; return strlen(a); mismatch using array to simplify alg descriptions online apps need getchar()-based implementation match text loop pattern loop returns i if leftmost pattern occurence starts at a[i] returns N if no match DO NOT USE THIS PROGRAM! 5

6 Problem with brute-force implementation for (i = 0; i < strlen(a); i++) In C, strlen takes time proportional to string length evaluated every time through loop running time is at least N 2 same problem for simpler programs (ex: count the blanks) PERFORMANCE BUG Textbook example: Performance matters in ADT design Exercise: implement string ADT with fast strlen need space to store length need to update length when changing string might slow down some other simple programs 6

7 Brute-force string searching (bug fixed) Check for pattern at every text position int brutesearch(char p[], char a[]) { int M = strlen(p), N = strlen(a); } int i, j; for (i = 0; i < N; i++) for (j = 0; j < M; j++) if (a[i+j]!= p[j]) break; if (j == M) return i; return N; lengths won t change; precompute them text loop pattern loop returns i if leftmost pattern occurence starts at a[i] returns N if no match 7

8 Brute-force typical case pattern: xkhthbkwy text: kvjlixkpejrbxeenppxkhthbkwy xk x xkhthbkwy character compares: N+3 Can we guarantee performance? 8

9 Brute-force worst case pattern: text: Backs up in text: need to retain M-char buffer character compares: MN Too slow when M and N are large 9

10 Rabin-Karp algorithm Idea 1: Use hashing compute hash function for each text position NO TABLE needed: just compare with pattern hash Example: search for in pattern hash: = 95 (mod 97) text hashes: = 84 (mod 97) = 94 (mod 97) = 76 (mod 97) = 18 (mod 97) = 95 (mod 97) Problem: Hash uses M characters, so running time is NM 10

11 Rabin-Karp algorithm (continued) Idea 2: Use hash for previous position to compute hash = ( ) mod 97 = (31415 mod mod 97) (mod 97) known from previous position precompute 9 = (mod 97) = ( ) (mod 97) = 579 mod 97 = 94 Key point: all ops involve small numbers No restriction on N and M Example: search for in pattern hash: = 95 (mod 97) text hashes for : mod 97 = mod 97 = (84-39) (mod 97) = mod 97 = (94-19) (mod 97) = mod 97 = (76-49) (mod 97) = mod 97 = (18-19) (mod 97) = 95 Slight problem: Still need full compare on collisions Easy fix: use giant (virtual) hash table. need table size >> N 2 (birthday paradox) 11

12 Implementation of Rabin-Karp algorithm #define q #define d 256 int rksearch(char p, char a) { int M = strlen(p), N = strlen(a); } int i, j, dm = 1, h1 = 0, h2 = 0; for (j = 1; j < M; j++) dm = (ddm) % q; for (j = 0; j < M; j++) h1 = (h1d + p[j]) % q; for (i = 0; i < M; i++) h2 = (h2d + a[i]) % q; for (i = M; i < N; i++) { } if (h1 == h2) return i-m; h2 = (h2 + dq - a[i-m]dm) % q; h2 = (h2d + a[i]) % q; return N; random q much larger than N 2 q much smaller than (alphabet size) M dq smaller than max integer 12 radix hash pattern hash initial text hash main search loop add dq to keep value positive Example for q = 97, d = (mod 97) = mod after each op (mod 97) = 95 Horner s method mod after each op (mod 97) = 84 Horner s method mod after each op (mod 97) = 84 95!= (mod 97) = (mod 97) = (mod 97) = 94

13 Randomized algorithms A randomized algorithm uses random numbers to gain efficiency quicksort with random partitioning element randomized BSTs Rabin-Karp Las Vegas algorithm expected to be fast guaranteed to be correct Examples: quicksort, randomized BSTs, Rabin-Karp with match check Monte Carlo algorithm guaranteed to be fast expected to be correct Example: Rabin-Karp without match check 13

14 String search implementations cost summary Search for an M-character pattern in an N-character text typical worst brute-force N NM Rabin-Karp N N Knuth-Morris-Pratt N N Right-left scan N/M N? assumes appropriate model assumes system can produce random numbers Do we need the assumptions? 14

15 Knuth-Morris-Pratt algorithm Observation: On mismatch at pattern char j we know the previous j-1 chars in the text (they are also in the pattern) Idea: precompute what to do on mismatch Example 1: mismatch when searching for in binary text text had compare next text char with last pattern char Example 2: mismatch 000 when searching for in binary text text had 0001 char to check is completely deduced from pattern compare next text char with first pattern char KMP algorithm precompute table of pattern char to check on mismatch, indexed by pattern position set pattern index from table in inner loop on mismatch instead of always resetting to 0 Surprising solution to open theoretical and practical problem (1970s) 15

16 KMP examples pattern: text: mismatch table pattern: text: mismatch table blue: match red: mismatch black: implicit N character compares in every case 16

17 KMP implementation Check for pattern at every text position int kmpsearch(char p[], char a[]) { int M = strlen(p), N = strlen(a); } int i, j; for (i = 0; i < N; i++) for (j = 0; j < M; j++) if (a[i+j]!= p[j]) break; if (j == M) return i; return N; lengths won t change; precompute them text loop pattern loop returns i if leftmost pattern occurence starts at a[i] returns N if no match 17

18 KMP implementation Check for pattern at every text position char match: increment both i and j char mismatch: set j to mismatch[j] (special case: j = 0, just increment i) int kmpsearch(char p[], char a[], int mismatch[]) { int M = strlen(p), N = strlen(a); } int i, j = 0; for (i = 0; i < N && j < M; i++) if (a[i] == p[j]) j++; else j = mismatch[j]; if (j == M) return i-m+1; else return N; Differs from brute-force in two very significant ways need to compute next table (stay tuned) text pointer never backs up 18

19 KMP mismatch table construction Table builds itself (!!) mismatch table Idea 1: Simulate restart ala brute-force Ex: mismatch[6] for if mismatch at then text was for x, x compares to p[2] note also: for x, x compares to p[1] Idea 2: Remember simulation for previous entry Ex: mismatch[7] for if mismatch at then text was just noted: for x, x compares to p[1] pattern: text: x pattern: text: x for x, x compares to p[1] for x, x compares to p[2] mismatch at p[1] match at p[1] 19

20 KMP mismatch table construction implementation mis[j]: index of pattern char to compare against next text char on mismatch on jth pattern character t: index of pattern char that brute-force algorithm would compare against next text char on iteration after mismatch To compute mis[j], compare p[j] with p[t] match: mismatch[j] = mismatch[t] since mismatch action same as for t t = t+1 since we know that brute-force algorithm will find match mismatch: opposite assignment t = 0; mismatch[0] = 0; for (int j = 1; j < M; j++) if (p[j] == p[t]) { mismatch[j] = mismatch[t]; t = t+1; } else { mismatch[j] = t+1; t = mismatch[t]; } Computation more complicated for nonbinary alphabet j t

21 Optimized KMP implementation Easy to create specialized program for given pattern (build in mismatch table) int kmpsearch(char a[]) { int i = 0; } pattern s0: if (a[i]!= '1') { i++; goto s0; } s1: if (a[i]!= '0') { i++; goto s1; } s2: if (a[i]!= '1') { i++; goto s0; } s3: if (a[i]!= '0') { i++; goto s1; } s4: if (a[i]!= '0') { i++; goto s3; } s5: if (a[i]!= '1') { i++; goto s0; } s6: if (a[i]!= '1') { i++; goto s2; } s7: if (a[i]!= '0') { i++; goto s1; } return i-8; mismatch table Ultimate search program for specific pattern: compile directly to machine code 21

22 String search implementations cost summary Search for an M-character pattern in an N-character text typical worst brute-force N NM Rabin-Karp N N Knuth-Morris-Pratt N N inner loop with several arithmetic instructions tiny inner loop Right-left scan N/M N? assumes appropriate model assumes system can produce random numbers KMP is optimal. Can we do better? 22

23 Sublinear algorithms move right to left in pattern move left to right in text Q: Does binary string have 9 consecutive 0s? pattern: text: Right-left pattern scan 0 0 A: No. (Needed to look at only 6 of 30 chars.) Idea effective for general patterns, larger alphabet Search time proportional to N/M for practical problems Time decreases as pattern length increases (!) 23

24 Right-left scan examples Text char not in pattern: skip forward M chars pattern: people text: now is the time for all good people e l p o e p Text char in pattern: skip to end of pattern pattern: people text: you can fool some of the people some of o e l p o e p Boyer-Moore algorithm: figure out best skip ala KMP 24

25 Implementation of right-left pattern scan initskip(char p) { int j, M = strlen(p); for (j = 0; j < 256; j++) skip[j] = M; for (j = 0; j < M; j++) skip[p[j]] = M-j-1; } #define max(a, B) (A > B)? A : B; int mischarsearch(char p, char a) { int M = strlen(p), N = strlen(a); } int i, j; initskip(p); for (i = M-1, j = M-1; j >= 0; i--, j--) while (a[i]!= p[j]) { } return i+1; i += max(m-j, skip[a[i]]); if (i >= N) return N; j = M-1; restart at right end of pattern 25 build skip table right-to-left scan main search loop

26 String search implementations cost summary Search for an M-character pattern in an N-character text typical worst brute-force N NM Rabin-Karp N N Knuth-Morris-Pratt N N Right-left scan N/M N assumes appropriate model assumes system can produce random numbers beats optimal by a factor of 100 for M =

27 String search summary Ingenious algorithms for a fundamental problem Rabin-Karp easy to implement extends to more general settings (ex: 2D search) Knuth-Morris-Pratt quintessential solution to theoretical problem works well in practice, too (no backup, tight inner loop) Right-left scan simple idea leads to dramatic speedup for long patterns Tip of the iceberg (stay tuned) multiple patterns? wild-card characters? 27

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