# Knuth-Morris-Pratt Algorithm

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1 December 18, 2011

2 outline Definition History Components of KMP Example Run-Time Analysis Advantages and Disadvantages References

3 Definition: Best known for linear time for exact matching. Compares from left to right. Shifts more than one position. Preprocessing approach of Pattern to avoid trivial comparisions. Avoids recomputing matches.

4 History: This algorithm was conceived by Donald Knuth and Vaughan Pratt and independently by James H.Morris in 1977.

5 History: Knuth, Morris and Pratt discovered first linear time string-matching algorithm by analysis of the naive algorithm. It keeps the information that naive approach wasted gathered during the scan of the text. By avoiding this waste of information, it achieves a running time of O(m + n). The implementation of algorithm is efficient because it minimizes the total number of comparisons of the pattern against the input string.

6 Components of KMP: The prefix-function : It preprocesses the pattern to find matches of prefixes of the pattern with the pattern itself. It is defined as the size of the largest prefix of P[0..j 1] that is also a suffix of P[1..j]. It also indicates how much of the last comparison can be reused if it fails. It enables avoiding backtracking on the string S.

7 m length[p] a[1] 0 k 0 for q 2 to m do while k > 0 and p[k + 1] p[q] do k a[k] end while if p[k + 1] = p[q] then k k + 1 end if a[q] k end for return Here a =

8 Computation of Prefix-function with example: Let us consider an example of how to compute for the pattern p. I n i t i a l l y : m = l e n g t h [ p ]= 7 [ 1 ] = 0 k=0 where m, [1], and k are the length of the pattern, prefix function and initial potential value respectively.

9 Step 1: q = 2, k = 0 [ 2 ] = 0 q p a b a b a c a 0 0 Step 2: q = 3, k = 0 [ 3 ] = 1 q p a b a b a c a 0 0 1

10 Step 3: q = 4, k = 1 [ 4 ] = 2 q p a b a b a c a Step 4: q = 5, k = 2 [ 5 ] = 3 q p a b a b a c a

11 Step 5: q = 6, k = 3 [ 6 ] = 1 q p a b a b a c a Step 6: q = 7, k = 1 [ 7 ] = 1 q p a b a b a c a

12 A f t e r i t e r a t i n g 6 times, the p r e f i x f u n c t i o n computations i s complete : q p a b A b a c a The running time of the prefix function is O(m).

13 Step 1: I n i t i a l i z e the i n p u t v a r i a b l e s : n = Length of the Text. m = Length of the Pattern. = Prefix function of pattern ( p ). q = Number of characters matched. Step 2: Define the variable : q=0, the beginning of the match. Step 3: Compare the f i r s t character of the pattern with f i r s t character of t e x t. I f match is not found, substitute the value of [ q ] to q. I f match is found, then increment the value of q by 1. Step 4: Check whether a l l the pattern elements are matched with the text elements. I f not, repeat the search process. I f yes, p r i n t the number of s h i f t s taken by the p a t t e r n. Step 5: look for the next match.

14 n length[s] m length[p] a Compute Prefix function q 0 for i 1 to n do while q > 0 and p[q + 1] S[i] do q a[q] if p[q + 1] = S[i] then q q + 1 end if if q == m then q a[q] end if end while end for Here a =

15 Example of KMP algorithm: Now let us consider an example so that the algorithm can be clearly understood. Let us execute the KMP algorithm to find whether p occurs in S.

16 I n i t i a l l y : n = size of S = 15; m = size of p=7 Step 1: i = 1, q = 0 comparing p [ 1 ] w ith S [ 1 ] P[1] does not match with S[1]. p will be shifted one position to the right. Step 2: i = 2, q = 0 comparing p [ 1 ] w ith S [ 2 ]

17 Step 3: i = 3, q = 1 comparing p [ 2 ] w ith S [ 3 ] p [ 2 ] does not match with S [ 3 ] Backtracking on p, comparing p [ 1 ] and S [ 3 ] Step 4: i = 4, q = 0 comparing p [ 1 ] w ith S [ 4 ] p [ 1 ] does not match with S [ 4 ]

18 Step 5: i = 5, q = 0 comparing p [ 1 ] w ith S [ 5 ] Step 6: i = 6, q = 1 comparing p [ 2 ] w ith S [ 6 ] p [ 2 ] matches with S [ 6 ]

19 Step 7: i = 7, q = 2 comparing p [ 3 ] w ith S [ 7 ] p [ 3 ] matches with S [ 7 ] Step 8: i = 8, q = 3 comparing p [ 4 ] w ith S [ 8 ] p [ 4 ] matches with S [ 8 ]

20 Step 9: i = 9, q = 4 comparing p [ 5 ] w ith S [ 9 ] p [ 5 ] matches with S [ 9 ] Step 10: i = 10, q = 5 comparing p [ 6 ] w ith S[ 1 0 ] p [ 6 ] doesn t matches with S[ 1 0 ] Backtracking on p, comparing p [ 4 ] with S[ 10] because after mismatch q = [ 5 ] = 3

21 Step 11: i = 11, q = 4 comparing p [ 5 ] with S[ 11] Step 12: i = 12, q = 5 comparing p [ 6 ] with S[ 12] p [ 6 ] matches with S[ 12]

22 Step 13: i = 13, q = 6 comparing p [ 7 ] with S[ 13] p [ 7 ] matches with S[ 13] pattern p has been found to completely occur in string S. The total number of shifts that took place for the match to be found are: i m = 13-7 = 6 shifts.

23 Run-Time analysis: O(m) - It is to compute the prefix function values. O(n) - It is to compare the pattern to the text. Total of O(n + m) run time.

24 Advantages and Disadvantages: Advantages: The running time of the KMP algorithm is optimal (O(m + n)), which is very fast. The algorithm never needs to move backwards in the input text T. It makes the algorithm good for processing very large files.

25 Advantages and Disadvantages: Disadvantages: Doesn t work so well as the size of the alphabets increases. By which more chances of mismatch occurs.

26 Graham A.Stephen, String Searching s, year = Donald Knuth, James H. Morris, Jr, Vaughan Pratt, Fast pattern matching in strings, year = Thomas H.Cormen; Charles E.Leiserson., Introduction to algorithms second edition, The, year = 2001.

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