IT Infrastructure and Platforms

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1 Chapter 6 IT Infrastructure and Platforms by Prentice Hall

2 OBJECTIVES Define IT infrastructure and describe the components and levels of IT infrastructure Identify and describe the stages of IT infrastructure evolution Identify and describe the technology drivers of IT infrastructure evolution by Prentice Hall

3 OBJECTIVES (Continued) Assess contemporary computer hardware platform trends Assess contemporary software platform trends by Prentice Hall

4 IT INFRASTRUCTURE Defining IT Infrastructure Includes hardware, software, and services A set of physical devices and software applications that are required to operate the entire enterprise Your firm is largely dependent on its infrastructure for delivering services to customers, employees, and suppliers. You can think of infrastructure as digital plumbing, but its much more than that! by Prentice Hall

5 IT INFRASTRUCTURE The Connection between the Firm, IT Infrastructure, and Business Capabilities by Prentice Hall

6 IT INFRASTRUCTURE Levels of IT Infrastructure Three major levels of infrastructure: Public Enterprise Business unit by Prentice Hall

7 IT INFRASTRUCTURE A Multitiered Client/Server Network (N-tier) by Prentice Hall

8 INFRASTRUCTURE COMPONENTS Seven Key Infrastructure Components Computer Hardware Platforms Operating System Platforms Enterprise Software Applications Data Management and Storage by Prentice Hall

9 INFRASTRUCTURE COMPONENTS Seven Key Infrastructure Components (Continued) Networking/Telecommunications Platforms Internet Platforms Consulting and System Integration Services by Prentice Hall

10 INFRASTRUCTURE COMPONENTS The IT Infrastructure Ecosystem by Prentice Hall

11 INFRASTRUCTURE COMPONENTS Computer Hardware Platforms $110 billion annually spent in the United States Dominance of Intel, AMD, and IBM 32-bit processor chips at the client level Server market increasingly dominated by inexpensive generic processors from the same manufacturers by Prentice Hall

12 INFRASTRUCTURE COMPONENTS Computer Hardware Platforms (Continued) Strong server market growth for 64 bit generic processors from AMD, Intel and IBM Blade servers replace box servers Mainframes continue as a presence working as very large servers by Prentice Hall

13 INFRASTRUCTURE COMPONENTS Operating System Platforms $100 billion annually spent in the United States Continued dominance of Microsoft OS in the client (95%) and handheld market (45%) Growing dominance of Linux (UNIX) in the corporate server market (85%) Windows 2002 and 2003 Server remains strong in smaller enterprises and workgroup networks by Prentice Hall

14 INFRASTRUCTURE COMPONENTS Enterprise Software Applications $165 billion annually spent in the United States for basic enterprise software infrastructure SAP, Oracle, PeopleSoft (now Oracle), and Siebel dominate this market. Middleware firms like BEA and JD Edwards serve smaller firms, and work also in the Web services space by Prentice Hall

15 INFRASTRUCTURE COMPONENTS Enterprise Software Applications (Continued) The enterprise market is consolidating around a few huge firms that have gained significant market share such as SAP and Oracle. Microsoft is expanding into smaller firm enterprise systems where it can build on its Windows server-installed base by Prentice Hall

16 INFRASTRUCTURE COMPONENTS Data Management and Storage $70 billion annually spent in the United States. Oracle and IBM continue to dominate the database software market. Microsoft (SQL Server) and Sybase tend to serve smaller firms. Open source Linux MySQL now supported by HP and most consulting firms as an inexpensive, powerful database used mostly in small to midsize firms by Prentice Hall

17 INFRASTRUCTURE COMPONENTS Data Management and Storage (Continued) $35 billion annually spent in the United States for physical hard disk storage The hard disk market is consolidating around a few huge firms like EMC and smaller PC hard disk firms like Seagate, Maxtor, and Western Digital by Prentice Hall

18 INFRASTRUCTURE COMPONENTS Networking/Telecommunications Platforms $150 billion annually spent on networking and telecommunications hardware $700 billion annually spent on telecommunications services, e.g. phone and Internet connectivity Local area networking still dominated by Microsoft Server (about 75%) but strong growth of Linux challenges this dominance by Prentice Hall

19 INFRASTRUCTURE COMPONENTS Internet Platforms $32 billion annually spent on Internet infrastructure in the United States Internet hardware server market concentrated in Dell, HP, and IBM Prices falling rapidly by up to 50% in a single year for low-power servers by Prentice Hall

20 INFRASTRUCTURE COMPONENTS Internet Platforms (Continued) Open-source Apache remains the dominant Web server software, followed by Microsoft s IIS server. Sun s Java grows as the most widely used tool for interactive Web applications. Microsoft and Sun settle a long-standing law suit and agree to support a common Java by Prentice Hall

21 CONTEMPORARY HARDWARE PLATFORM TRENDS The Integration of Computing and Telecommunications Platforms (Continued) Server level: The integration of voice telephone and the Internet bring together two historically separate and distinct global networks. The network in many respects is the source of computing power by Prentice Hall

22 Grid Computing: CONTEMPORARY HARDWARE PLATFORM TRENDS Involves connecting geographically remote computers into a single network capable of working in parallel on business problems that require short-term access to large computational capacity Rather than purchase huge mainframes or super computers, firms can chain together thousands of smaller desktop clients into a single computing grid by Prentice Hall

23 CONTEMPORARY HARDWARE PLATFORM TRENDS Grid Computing (Continued) Most computers in the world are loafing, and at night they are sleeping. It is estimated that from 25% - 50% of the computing power in the United States is unused. Grid computing saves infrastructure spending, increases speed of computing, and increases the agility of firms. Examples: Royal Dutch/Shell Group and the National Digital Mammography Archive by Prentice Hall

24 CONTEMPORARY HARDWARE PLATFORM TRENDS On-Demand (Utility) Computing: Firms off-loading peak demand for computing power to remote, large-scale data processing centers Developed by IBM, SUN, and HP Firms pay only for the computing power they use, as with an electrical utility by Prentice Hall

25 CONTEMPORARY HARDWARE PLATFORM TRENDS On-Demand (Utility) Computing: (Continued) Excellent for firms with spiked demand curves caused by seasonal variations in consumer demand, e.g. holiday shopping Example: Harry and David use IBM s On-Demand computing Saves firms from purchasing excessive levels of infrastructure by Prentice Hall

26 CONTEMPORARY HARDWARE PLATFORM TRENDS Autonomic Computing: Computer systems (both hardware and software) have become so complex that the cost of managing them has risen. Thirty to fifty percent of a company s IT budget is spent preventing or recovering from system crashes. Operator error is the most common cause of crashes by Prentice Hall

27 Edge Computing: CONTEMPORARY HARDWARE PLATFORM TRENDS Edge computing is a multitier, load-balancing scheme for Web-based applications. Processing load is distributed closer to the user and handled by lower-cost servers. Lowers cost of hardware by Prentice Hall

28 CONTEMPORARY HARDWARE PLATFORM TRENDS Edge Computing: (Continued) Increases service levels Provides firm greater flexibility in responding to service requests Seasonal spikes in demand can be off-loaded to other edge servers by Prentice Hall

29 The four major themes in contemporary software platform evolution: Linux and open-source software Java CONTEMPORARY SOFTWARE PLATFORM TRENDS Web services and service-oriented architecture Software outsourcing by Prentice Hall

30 CONTEMPORARY SOFTWARE PLATFORM TRENDS The Rise of Linux and Open-Source Software Open-source software is free and can be modified by users. Developed and maintained by a worldwide network of programmers and designers under the management of user communities by Prentice Hall

31 CONTEMPORARY SOFTWARE PLATFORM TRENDS Java Is Everywhere Java: An operating system Independent, processorindependent, object-oriented programming language Applications written in Java can run on any hardware for which a Java virtual machine has been defined. Java is embedded in PDAs, cell phones, and browsers. Java is a leading interactive programming environment for the Web by Prentice Hall

32 CONTEMPORARY SOFTWARE PLATFORM TRENDS Software for Enterprise Integration: One of the most important software trends of the last decade is the growth of enterprise in a box or the purchase of enterprise-wide software systems by firms. Rather than build all their own software on a custom basis, large firms increasingly purchase enterprise applications prewritten by specialized software firms like SAP, Oracle, PeopleSoft, and others by Prentice Hall

33 CONTEMPORARY SOFTWARE PLATFORM TRENDS Software for Enterprise Integration: (Continued) The goal is to achieve an integrated firm-wide information environment, reduce cost, increase reliability, and to adopt business best practices which are captured by the software. Enterprise software firms achieve economies of scale by selling the same software to hundreds of firms. Today's enterprise systems are capable of integrating older legacy applications with newer Web-based applications by Prentice Hall

34 Web Services and Service-Oriented Architecture Web Services: CONTEMPORARY SOFTWARE PLATFORM TRENDS An alternative to enterprise systems is to use new Web-based standards to create a communication platform allowing older applications to communicate with newer applications. Web services refers to a set of loosely coupled software components that exchange information with each other using Web communication standards and languages by Prentice Hall

35 CONTEMPORARY SOFTWARE PLATFORM TRENDS Web Services and Service-Oriented Architecture (Continued) Web services permit computer programs to communicate with one another and share information without rewriting applications, or disturbing older legacy systems by Prentice Hall

36 CONTEMPORARY SOFTWARE PLATFORM TRENDS Software Outsourcing Today large and small firms purchase most of their software from outside vendors. Three kinds of outsourcing: Purchase of software packages Using application service providers Custom outsourcing by Prentice Hall

37 CONTEMPORARY SOFTWARE PLATFORM TRENDS Purchase of Software Packages and Enterprise Software Enterprise software packages: prewritten off-the-shelf software Application Service Providers: A business that delivers and manages applications and computer services from remote computer centers to multiple users using the Internet or a private network by Prentice Hall

38 CONTEMPORARY SOFTWARE PLATFORM TRENDS Purchase of Software Packages and Enterprise Software (Continued) Application Service Providers: Rather than purchase hardware and software, firms can go onto the Internet and find providers who offer the same functionality over the entertainment, and charge on a per-user or license basis. Example: Salesforce.com provides customer relationship management and sales force management services to firms by Prentice Hall

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