1 Identifying potential for successful entrepreneurs An adaptive strategic framework approach for assisting entrepreneurial programs in enhancing success: focus on out-of-school youth (UPLOAD JOBS for Mindanao) Cynthia Lai, PhD Student Primary Investigator/ Advisor: Dr. Catherine Chan-Halbrendt Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources University of Hawai i at Mānoa This presentation is made possible by the generous support of the American people through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The contents are the responsibility of the University of Hawaii and Southern Christian College and do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID, the United States Government, or Higher Education for Development (HED).
2 Introduction Entrepreneurship been identified as an untapped resource in developing countries Youth: Age Approx. 18% of the world s population; 85% in developing countries - Challenges: - Less capital in the form of skills, knowledge and experience, difficult access to finances, business networks and sources of information Billions of dollars in spending on youth training programs (i.e. United Nations Millenium Goals in 2000) How effective is this spending on developing successful entrepreneurs??? Limited longitudinal studies
3 Introduction, Con t. Multiple variables influence an individual s potential for becoming a successful entrepreneur (Chigunta 2002; Goel et al. 2007; Rasheed 2000; World Bank 2009). Purpose behind venture Characteristics Background Figure 1. Diagram developed to represent the two major routes leading to a successful entrepreneur (Chigunta 2002; Goel et al. 2007; Rasheed 2000; World Bank 2009).
4 Objectives Develop a screening tool to select potential entrepreneurs for success, prior to entering an entrepreneurship program, and will have the advantage of a simple format and ease of administration and interpretation. Approach: Short and long term studies ( ) I. OSY Screening tool, validate through relevant stakeholder II. feedback Monitor and evaluate OSY s entrepreneurial progress throughout UPLOAD JOBS for Mindanao Project to determine program impact
5 I. OSY Screening Tool Extensive literature review: Characterizing a successful entrepreneur Criteria Definition References Tolerance of Ambiguity Risk taking propensity Tend to perceive ambiguous situations as desirable; (Challenges allow for creativity) High tolerance for risk; (Risk = opportunity) Carter et al. 2003; GEM 2012; Thompson 2004; Schiebel 2002; Galloway 2006; Littunen 2000; Myers 1962; GEM 2012; Alsos 1994; Shank 2007; Driessen and Zwart 1999; Myers, 1962; Mengel 1972; Liles (1974), Broehl 1978; Ahmed 1985 Internal Locus of control Believes that his/her behavior is guided by his/her personal decisions and efforts; (I am in control of my life and what happens) Thompson 2004; Lescevica 2002; Schiebel 2002; Alsos 1994; Hansemark 2004; Paulhus 1983; Brockhaus1982; Perry et al. 1986; Lorrain and Dussault 1988; Bagley and Boyd 1987; Getwood et al.1995; Paulhus 1983; Hood and young 1993 Need for Achievement Persistent in activities, highly motivated; (Nothing is impossible) Carter et al. 2003; GEM 2012; Goel et al. 2007; Schmitt-Rodermund 2004; Finland et al. 1999; Alsos 1994; Galloway 2006; Bolton 2004; Cassidy and Lynn 1989
6 I. OSY Screening Tool, Con td. Validate the screening process through relevant stakeholder feedback and involvement Utilize the Analytical Hierarchy Process to determine preferences (weights) I. Goal: To determine what professionals and entrepreneurs describe as being an entrepreneur Successful Entrepreneur II. Preference for Success Need for Achievement Internal Locus of Control Risk taking propensity Tolerance of Ambiguity III. Importance of Traits 1. Competitive 2. Strive to be the best 3. Determined 4. Always can Improve (McClelland 1961) 1. Hard-working 2. Independent 3. Control over future 4. Reward = hard work (Spector 1988) 1. Risk-seeking 2. Confidence to overcome adversity 3. Optimist 4. Bold in decisionmaking 1. Explore/ try new things 2. Enterprising 3. Appreciates change 4. Up to date
7 I. OSY Screening Tool: Study Area Central Cotabato, Mindanao, Philippines
8 I. OSY Screening Tool: Results Results of Professional/ Expert Opinion for Success Preferences (Philippines) Criteria Tolerance of Ambiguity Risk-Taking Propensity Internal Locus of Control Need for Achievement Weight Results of OSY Screening for UPLOAD JOBS for Mindanao Training: Barangays (7): Pacao, Nes, Nabawalag, Dunnguan, Aroman, Malapang, Rangaban Gender equality Announced 1 month prior Total Screened: 131 (42 females, 89 males) Total Selected for training: 60 Top 3 from each barangay 60:40 (Male: Female)
9 II. Monitor OSY: Longitudinal Study UPLOAD JOBS for Mindanao Project ( ) Goal: Seek to provide out-of-school (OSY) with workforce skills that will help them become more productive members of society. 2 trainings/ year, Action Survey during each training Monitoring Activities: Action Survey References: Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics, University of Michigan; Global Entrepreneurship Monitoring (GEM) Program Organization of Survey: Background Information (Baseline) Start-Up Venture Information Individual Interviews, Metrics (TBD/ In-Progress)
10 II. Monitor OSY: Longitudinal Study Baseline Findings Entrepreneurial training (UPLOAD JOBS for Mindanao) Action Survey: No prior business plan or entrepreneurial venture experience Overall low pre-screen scores (Avg ) Rangaban ranked last overall (pre-screen), ranked #2 in business plan competition - Business Plan Competition, support screening selection Scores Max Min Overall (M) (F) Female (Nes) (Aroman) Male (Nes) (Malapang) Barangay Pacao Rangaban Business Plan Barangay Pre-Screen Group Avg. 1. Heavenly Banana Chips Pacao Wonder Mushrooms Rangaban Tinagtag King Nabawalag Coco Sugar Aroman Coco Delight Pacao 60.2
11 Conclusions Youth Entrepreneurship to boost local economies Professionals in developed and developing countries characterize entrepreneurs similarly Need for Achievement (Philippines) Screen survey: Innovative tool for identifying entrepreneurs, can be replicated Potential for impact through training (UPLOAD JOBS for Mindanao) Comparative analysis (OSY within and outside of training program) Schedule of Activities, UPLOAD JOBS for Mindanao Project (Longitudinal Study) Date July 2012 December 2012 January 2013 July 2013 Activity Project Inauguration; Needs Assessment OSY Pre-Screen, Selection of 60 OSY First training module, Action Survey Second training module, Action Survey/ Interviews Continuous monitoring and evaluation
12 Thank you! Any Questions? Cynthia Lai, PhD Student Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources University of Hawai i at Mānoa This presentation is made possible by the generous support of the American people through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The contents are the responsibility of the University of Hawaii and Southern Christian College and do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID, the United States Government, or Higher Education for Development (HED).
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