MINISTRY OF VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL TRAINING TECHNICAL EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT PROJECT (TEDP)

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1 MINISTRY OF VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL TRAINING TECHNICAL EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT PROJECT (TEDP) STUDY ON EFFICIENCY OF GOVERNMENT AND NON-GOVERNMENTAL TVET PROVISIONS FINAL REPORT 13 November 2008 i

2 CONTENTS ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY iii iv 1. INTRODUCTION Background Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) Objectives, Purpose and Scope of the Study Study Methodology Study Limitations Layout of the Report 4 2. INDICATORS AND MODEL FOR EFFICIENCY MEASUREMENT OF TVET INSTITUTIONS Indicators for Efficiency Measurement Model for Efficiency Measurement 8 3. EFFICIENCY OF SAMPLE OF GOVERNMENT TVET INSTITUTIONS SURVEYED 9 4. EFFICIENCY OF SAMPLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL TVET INSTITUTIONS SURVEYED COMPARISON OF EFFICIENCY OF GOVERNMENT AND NON-GOVERNMENTAL TVET INSTITUTIONS SURVEYED CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Conclusions Benchmarking of TVET Institutions Recommendations for Improvement and Sustenance of Efficiency of TVET Institutions Desirable Characteristics of an Efficient TVET Institution 26 APPENDIXES A1 1. LIST OF SAMPLE OF 50 TVET INSTITUTIONS SURVEYED A2 2. PROFILES OF 25 GOVERNMENT TVET INSTITUTIONS SURVEYED A3 3. PROFILES OF 25 NON-GOVERNMENTAL TVET INSTITUTIONS SURVEYED A79 4. SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE A155 ii

3 ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS ADB IET MV&TT NAITA NVQ NYSC O&M QMS TC TEDP TOR TVEC TVET VT VTA Asian Development Bank Institute of Engineering Technology, Katunayake (under NAITA) Ministry of Vocational & Technical Training National Apprentice and Industrial Training Authority National Vocational Qualification National Youth Services Council Operation and Maintenance Quality Management System Training Course Technical Education Development Project Terms of Reference Tertiary and Vocational Education Commission Technical and Vocational Education and Training Vocational Training Vocational Training Authority iii

4 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This Report presents the findings of the Study on Efficiency of Government and Nongovernmental TVET Provisions undertaken by Infotechs IDEAS (Pvt.) Ltd. during February October 2008 for the Asian Development Bank funded Technical Education Development Project (TEDP), being implemented by the Ministry of Vocational and Technical Training. The objectives of the Study were to (i) develop a model to determine the efficiency of TVET Programs, (ii) identify key performance indicators and their values to measure efficiency in the public and private sector TVET provisions, (iii) compare public and private TVET provisions using the above model and indicators, and (iv) formulate recommendations for improvement and sustenance of efficiency. The purpose of the Study was to gain understanding of the level of efficiency of the government and non-governmental institutions providing TVET and identify how improvements of the efficiency could be made in them. This Report is supported by four Appendixes which present (i) the list of sample of 50 TVET institutions surveyed and overall index of efficiency of each, (ii) profiles of 25 government TVET institutions surveyed, (iii) profiles of 25 non-governmental TVET institutions surveyed, and (iv) the survey questionnaire. The profile of each institution contains the efficiency values of facets of interest and their indicator values, overall index of efficiency for the institution, the Radar Diagram and comments/remarks on the factors negatively affecting efficiency of the institution and the manner in which its efficiency could be increased. Under the Study, a sample of 50 institutions drawn from grades B and C government and non-governmental TVET institutions located in the three districts of the Western Province -- Colombo, Gampaha and Kalutara -- was surveyed by visiting them and conducting interviews using a structured questionnaire. To assess the efficiency of TVET institutions, 47 indicators were identified under seven facets of interest ; (i) trainees, (ii) staff utilization, (iii) training courses, (iv) training facilities and utilization, (v) financial performance, (vi) performance management, and (vii) service facilities. Definitions, rating scales and data sources of these indicators were identified (as in Table 2.1). In this Study, the Radar Diagram approach was chosen as the model to measure the efficiency of TVET institutions. In developing the model, linear relationships between indicators and facets of interest were postulated. The efficiency value of each facet of interest was taken as the arithmetic average of the values of its indicators. It was further assumed that the composite or overall index of efficiency for an institution is the arithmetic average of the values of the seven facets of interest. The pattern of efficiency as measured by the seven facets of interest of each TVET institution surveyed had been presented by a Radar Diagram. The findings made to understand that the seven facets of interest and the 47 indicators developed under them were capable to gauge the efficiency of TVET provisions. Till further studies are undertaken and new findings are made available, linear relationships between indicators and facets of interest that were postulated will stand a valid mode in the measurement of efficiency of TVET provisions. Radar Diagram approach was also found to be capable of graphically presenting the pattern of efficiency of TVET institutions as measured by the seven facets of interest. iv

5 The government institutions surveyed highlight the following: The overall index of efficiency among the government institutions surveyed ranges from 47% to 83%; the difference amounts to 36% points (Table 3.1). Around two-thirds of the government institutions are having the overall index of efficiency in the range (Table 3.4). The average overall index of efficiency of Grade B government institutions surveyed is higher than that of Grade C government institutions in all the three Districts (Table 3.5). When Grade B and C are taken together, the average overall index of efficiency of the government institutions surveyed is highest (71%) in Colombo District and lowest (57%) in Gampaha District (Table 3.5). The non-governmental institutions surveyed highlight the following: The overall index of efficiency among the non-governmental institutions surveyed ranges from 42% to 90%; the difference amounts to 48% points (Table 4.1). Two-thirds of the non-governmental institutions surveyed are having the overall index of efficiency in the range 60 79% (Table 4.4). The average overall index of efficiency of Grade B non-governmental institutions surveyed is higher than that of Grade C non-governmental institutions in all the three Districts (Table 4.5). When Grades B and C are taken together, the average overall index of efficiency of the non-governmental institutions surveyed is highest (77%) in Kalutara District and lowest (65%) in Gampaha District (Table 4.5). Comparison of the efficiency of government and non-governmental institutions surveyed highlight the following: Majority (two-thirds) of the institutions surveyed from each of the categories of government and non-governmental are having efficiency in the range 60 79% (Table 5.1). Average values of overall index of efficiency of both Grade B and Grade C nongovernmental institutions surveyed is slightly more than the corresponding values for government institutions (by about 6% points and 5% points respectively) (Table 5.2). Grade B institutions of government and non-governmental sectors surveyed have higher values of overall index of efficiency than that of Grade C institutions surveyed; (Table 5.3). Difference between the lowest and highest values of the overall index of efficiency is more among the non-governmental institutions surveyed (48% points) compared to that of the governmental institutions (36% points) (Table 5.3). Thus, relatively there is wider variation in the overall index of efficiency among the non-governmental institutions surveyed than that of the governmental institutions. v

6 The Study spotlights a range of factors that negatively affect the efficiency in TVET Institutions (in Section 6.1). The Study has generated the benchmark values of Facets of Interest and their Indicators of a TVET institution (in Section 6.2) which can be used to gauge the level of achievement (or lack of it) of efficiency of the institution at a future date. The Study lists a series of recommendations for improvement and sustenance of efficiency of TVET institutions (in Section 6.3). Finally, a series of desirable characteristics that should be possessed by an efficient TVET institution had been identified (in Section 6.4); for use as a guide in the way forward to achieve higher efficiency. vi

7 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background The Project Director of the ADB funded Technical Education Development Project (TEDP) commissioned the Infotechs IDEAS (Pvt.) Ltd., Colombo under a contract signed to undertake a Study on Efficiency of Government and Non-governmental TVET Provisions (the Study) and submit its report. The Study Team fielded by Infotechs consisted of an Economist/Financial Analyst (Team Leader), a Vocational Training Specialist, a Training Specialist and a Database Specialist, whom together provided 7 person months of inputs. The Study was planned to be carried out during February September However, the data collection from the TVET institutions took much more time than originally anticipated and finally, it was possible to compete the Study only in October Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) Technical and vocational education and training refers to a broad range of preparation at different levels of the education and training system. Vocational refers to middle-level, or traditional, trade occupations for semiskilled and skilled workers. Technical refers to occupations in the technician category that are usually prepared at the postsecondary level. Vocational and technical education refers to exposure to the world of work, and to preparation for entry into further vocational and technical studies. Technical and vocational training means preparation for direct entry into, or upgrading in, specific (or clusters of) occupations in the labour market Objectives, Purpose and Scope of the Study The objectives of the Study were to: (i) develop a model to determine the efficiency of TVET Programs; (ii) identify key performance indicators and their values to measure efficiency in the public and private sector TVET provisions; (iii) compare public and private TVET provisions using the above model and indicators; and (iv) formulate recommendations for improvement and sustenance of efficiency. The purpose of the Study is to gain understanding of the level of efficiency of the Government and Non-Governmental Institutions providing TVET and identify how improvements of the efficiency could be made in them. The TVET provisions extend to a large number of vocations and the scope of the Study extended across different sectors and different Government and Non-Governmental institutions providing TVET. Under the Study, it was aimed to survey as proposed by TEDP, a total sample of 50 drawn from Grades B and C 2 Government and Non-Governmental TVET institutions located in the three Districts of the Western Province as laid down in Table ADB. Education and Skills: Strategies for Accelerated Development in Asia and the Pacific. Manila (June 2008), Appendix 4. 2 TVEC uses a categorization procedure where TVET Institutions are classified into four mutually exclusive Grades identified as A, B, C and D. This classification had been use in the Directory of Registered TVET Institutions. The items considered in arriving at Grades are; management, infrastructure, place/location, curricula, staff qualifications, and assessment procedure. Grade B institutions are those which have well accepted levels and Grade C institutions are those with marginal levels in respect of the above items. 1

8 Table 1.1: Grade-wise Composition of the Sample of TVET Institutions Planned to be Surveyed District Government Institutions by Grade Non-Governmental Institutions by Grade A(*) B C D(*) Total A(*) B C D(*) Total Grand Total Colombo Gampaha Kalutara Total (*) Institutions under Grades A and D have not been included in the sample as recommended by PMU of TEDP. 1.4 Study Methodology Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) systems can be evaluated in terms of relevance (economic and social), effectiveness (quality of instruction, and organizational and management effectiveness), and internal efficiency. An analytical framework for evaluating TVET systems is shown in Figure 1.1. The present Study focuses on the internal efficiency. Figure 1.1: Analytical Framework for Evaluating TVET: Relevance, Effectiveness and Efficiency Source: ADB. Education and Skills: Strategies for Accelerated Development in Asia and the Pacific. Manila (June 2008), Appendix 6. A search for a working definition on efficiency during the Study resulted the following: It is a measure of how economically resources/inputs (funds, expertise, time, etc.) are converted to results. It is ability to perform well or to achieve results without wasted resources, effort, time, or money. Greater efficiency is achieved where the same amount and standard of services are produced for a lower cost, if a more useful activity is substitute for a less useful one at the same cost or if needless activities are eliminated. Armed with the above definition(s) on efficiency, much effort was initially devoted to develop a series of performance indicators capable of measuring efficiency in the Government and Non-Governmental TVET provisions. After several rounds of formulation, 2

9 revision and re-revision, the seven facets of interest and the 47 indicators presented in Chapter 2 were identified to gauge the efficiency of TVET provisions for this Study. The facets of interest included the following: (i) Trainees (ii) Staff Utilization (iii) Training Courses (iv) Training Facilities & Utilization (v) Financial Performance (vi) Performance Management (vii) Service Facilities The model developed to measure the efficiency of TVET institutions is also presented in Chapter 2. On the basis of these indicators (as listed in Table 2.1), the data collection instrument (questionnaire) was developed to collect the required data/information from the TVET institutions. The initial version of the questionnaire was pilot tested and, on the basis of feedback from the field, it was revised. The finalized questionnaire is placed at the end of the Report as Appendix 4. The grade-wise composition of the sample of 50 Grades B and C Government and Non- Governmental TVET institutions planned to be surveyed was as given in Table 1.1. However, due to non-response/refusal to provide data by some institutions, those institutions had to be replaced by others. According to registered list of institutions it was not feasible to follow the planned allocation due to the absence of sufficient number of institutions in certain grades in a given district. The resulting composition of the sample of TVET institutions surveyed is as in Table 1.2. The list of the TVET institutions surveyed is given in Appendix 1. Table 1.2: Grade-wise Composition of the Sample of TVET Institutions Surveyed District Government Institutions by Grade Non-Governmental Institutions by Grade A(*) B C D(*) Total A(*) B C D(*) Total Grand Total Colombo Gampaha Kalutara Total Two researchers with experience in TVET sector were fielded, after training, to survey the sampled TVET institutions, by visiting each of them. The filled questionnaires were first edited. Subsequently, the data was entered in the database developed in Microsoft Excel software. Using the database, the values of the indicators and, in turn, the seven facets of interest were machine-estimated in respect of each institution Once all the seven facets of interest have been estimated in respect of an institution, the corresponding Radar Diagram for that institution was computer generated (using the Microsoft Excel software). The composite or overall index of efficiency for that Institution was also computer-generated by averaging the scores of the seven (7) facets of interest. 3

10 The benchmarking will provide a greater understanding of an institute and show way for improvement. In addition to the items in the TOR of the Study, using the estimates for the indicators, it was possible for the Study Team to develop benchmarks for the TVET Institutions, as a by-product of the Study (see section 6.2). 1.5 Study Limitations One main obstacle faced during the data collection was the refusal/reluctance by some training institutions, particularly the non-governmental institutions, to provide the required financial data. In some government institutions, the required financial data was not available. Another main obstacle was the non-availability of certain types of data in the required format in some institutions. These factors hindered the consistent use of the study model. When any of the cages are blank, the corresponding facet becomes zero (0) and that sector get unrepresented in the Radar Diagram. There were a considerable number of mismatching or inconsistent data, as sometimes provided by the Training Institutions. These had to be verified by a second visit or by communicating over the telephone with the institutions. This took additional time resulting in delay in completing data collection and data entry in the computer. There are still few blank cages due to non availability of data. If two sectors on either side are missing on the Radar Diagram, the sector in the middle will not get displayed. For some institutions, there are indicator values which get computed as greater than 1, thereby resulting facet values greater than 100%. This creates a change of scale in Radar Diagram extending the standard 100% to sometimes 200%. 1.6 Layout of the Report Subsequent to the Introduction in this chapter, the indicators and model for efficiency measurement of TVET institutions are presented in chapter 2. The chapters 3 and 4 present the level of efficiency of the sample of 25 government and 25 non-governmental TVET institutions surveyed computed on the basis of the above model. A comparison of the level of efficiency of government and non-governmental TVET institutions is undertaken in chapter 4. The concluding chapter presents (i) the conclusions of the Study together with factors negatively affecting efficiency in TVET Institutions, (ii) benchmark values of Facets of Interest and their Indicators of a TVET institution, (iii) a series of recommendations for improvement and sustenance of efficiency of TVET institutions, and (iv) a series of desirable characteristics that should be possessed by an efficient TVET institution. The Report is supported by four Appendixes. Appendix 1 lists the sample of 50 TVET institutions surveyed. Appendixes 2 and 3 present the profiles of 25 government and 25 nongovernmental TVET institutions surveyed. Each profile contains (i) efficiency values of facets of interest, their indicator values and the overall index of efficiency (as %) of the institution, (ii) Radar diagram for the institutions, and (iii) the factors negatively affecting efficiency of the institution and the manner in which the efficiency could be increased. The survey questionnaire employed to collect the required data is placed in Appendix 4. 4

11 2. PERFORMANCE INDICATORS AND MODEL FOR EFFICIENCY MEASURMENT OF TVET INSTITUTIONS 2.1 Indicators for Efficiency Measurement Armed with the definition(s) on efficiency (see section 1.3), much effort was initially devoted to develop a series of performance indicators capable of measuring efficiency in the Government and Non-Governmental TVET provisions. After several rounds of formulation, revision and re-revision, the following seven facets of interest and the 47 indicators presented in Table 2.1 were identified to gauge efficiency of TVET provisions. Table 2.1 also lists the definitions, rating scales and sources of data for each indicator. The facets of interest included the following: (i) Trainees (ii) Staff Utilization (iii) Training Courses (iv) Training Facilities & Utilization (v) Financial Performance (vi) Performance Management (vii) Service Facilities Table 2.1: Facets of Interest and Indicators (together with their definitions, rating scales and sources of data) used to gauge the efficiency of TVET Institutions Facet of Interest 1. Trainees 2. Staff Utilization Description of Indicator Definition Rating Scale 1.1 Availability of annual enrolment targets 1.2 Ratio of enrolments to available training places 1.3 Trainee course completion rate 1.4 Trainee pass rate 1.5 Trainee retention rate 1.6 Extent of implementation of on-the-job placement 2.1 Proportion of academic staff in place against approved cadre 2.2 Proportion of academic staff out of total staff (academic & non-academic staff) 2.3 Academic staff/trainee ratio 2.4 Non-academic staff/trainee ratio 2.5 Extent of use of teaching resource materials for the Yes or No Enrolments / available training places No. completed / Enrolments No. of passes / Enrolments [1 (No. of dropped out / Enrolments)] None = 0 Fully = 1 Size of academic staff / Cadre Size of academic staff / Total staff Size of academic staff : Total trainees 1 P where P = [Size of non-academic staff / Total trainees] None = 0 Fully = 1 Yes = 1 No = 0 Source of Data/Evidence Annual enrolment targets Enrolment data (Average for all TCs) Student records Examination results Student records Nomination letters Records on staff - do - Use scale [ 1 if 1:20; 0 if 1:10 or 1:30] - do - - do - (Average for all TCs) T! & T2 and/or Lesson Plans 5

12 Facet of Interest 3. Training Courses (TCs) 4. Training Facilities & Utilization Description of Indicator Definition Rating Scale current month for each Training Course (TC) 3.1 Proportion of accredited TCs conducted out of total TCs conducted 3.2. Proportion of NVQ TCs conducted out of total TCs conducted 3.3 Proportion of TCs conducted out of those planned 3.4 Proportion of TCs started within one month of due dates out of those planned 3.5 Proportion of TCs conducted with at least 90% training places filled out of those planned 3.6 Proportion of TCs for which examinations were conducted within one month of due dates out of those TCs conducted 3.7 Proportion of TCs for which examination results were released within one month of due dates out of those TCs for which examinations were conducted 3.8 Level of implementation of QMS for the Institution 4.1 Availability of teaching resource materials for each Training Course (TC) 4.2 Extent of adequacy of laboratories / workshops 4.3 Extent of adequacy of learning resource materials 4.4 Extent of adequacy of training aids for use 4.5 Extent of adequacy of own or access to reference materials elsewhere 4.6 Extent of adequacy of budgetary provisions for consumables and maintenance work 4.7 Extent of utilization of tools & equipment No of accredited TCs / Total TCs conducted No of NVQ TCs / Total TCs conducted No. of TCs conducted / Total TCs planned No. of TCs started within one month of due dates / Total TCs planned No. of TCs conducted with at least 90% training places filled / Total TCs planned No. of TC exams conducted within one month of due dates / Total TCs conducted No. of TC exam results released within one month of due dates / Total TC exams conducted None = 0 Fully = 1 None = 0 Fully = 1 Extent of adequacy (as perceived by trainers) Source of Data/Evidence & evidence of use TC records TC records TC records 0-1 TC records TC records (Average for all TCs) TC & Examination records TC & Examination records QMS document & evidence of implementation T! & T2 and/or Lesson Plans Judgement of trainers - do - - do - - do - - do - - do - - do - - do - - do - Extent of utilization (as perceived by trainers) Judgement of trainers 6

13 Facet of Interest 5. Financial Performance 6. Performance Management 7. Service Facilities Description of Indicator Definition Rating Scale 4.8 Extent of utilization of machinery 4.9 Extent of utilization of class rooms, laboratories / workshops 5.1 Availability of financial budget for the institution 5.2 Availability of financial budget for each TC 5.3 Whether information on cost per TC available for each TC 5.4 Whether information on cost per trainee available for each TC 5.5 Extent of adequacy of budgetary allocation 5.6 Budgetary utilization - 1: proportion of budgetary allocation used 5.7 Budgetary utilization 2: proportion of received funds used 5.8 Availability and extent of implementation of revenue generation plan 5.9 Revenue generation 6.1 Availability and extent of implementation of annual course development plan 6.2 Availability and extent of implementation of annual staff development plan 6.3 Availability and extent of implementation of corporate / strategic plan 6.4 Availability and extent of implementation of service marketing plan 6.5 Extent to which regular performance review with staff 7.1 Extent of adequacy of fire safety precautions 7.2 Extent of adequacy of electrical safety precautions Source of Data/Evidence - do - - do - - do - - do - Yes or No Yes or No Yes or No Yes or No None = 0 Fully = 1 Total expenditure/ Total allocation Total expenditure/ Total income received None = 0 Fully = 1 (Total income Planned income) / Total expenditure None = 0 Fully = 1 None = 0 Fully = 1 None = 0 Fully = 1 None = 0 Fully = 1 None = 0 Fully = 1 None = 0 Fully = 1 None = 0 Fully = 1 Yes = 1 No = 0 Yes = 1 No = 0 (Average for all TCs) Yes = 1 No = 0 (Average for all TCs) Yes = 1 No = 0 (Average for all TCs) Positive value Positive value Positive or negative value Financial budget for the institution Financial budget for each TC Cost per TC Cost per trainee Judgement of head of institution Financial records Financial records Revenue generation plan Financial records Course development plan Staff development plan Corporate / strategic plan Service marketing plan Records of performance review Physical observations Physical observations 7

14 Facet of Interest Description of Indicator Definition Rating Scale 7.3 Extent of adequacy of health and hygienic facilities (such as trainees washrooms/toilets, first aid, etc.), 7.4 Extent of adequacy of library facilities 7.5 Extent of adequacy of housekeeping None = 0 Fully = 1 None = 0 Fully = 1 None = 0 Fully = 1 Source of Data/Evidence Physical observations Physical observations Physical observations 2.2 Model for Efficiency Measurement After wrestling with different methods (such as Factor Analysis and Principal Component Analysis approaches in Theory of Statistics) available for development of a model for a multi-variable situation like in the present context, it was finally decided to use the Radar Diagram 3 approach to build a suitable model to measure efficiency at TVET institution level. Radar Diagram approach is suitable in the present context because of the following, (i) It permits graphically display the comparative values of multiple variables in a data set; (ii) It provides a way to display values for different categories of data on a single chart; (iii) It aids in the identification of composite performance measure elements needing improvement. A challenge faced in using the Radar Diagram is to develop scoring for the facets of interest and indicators in a uniform scale such as 00% or. For the purpose of the model, linear relationships between indicators and facets of interest were postulated. The efficiency value of each facet of interest is taken to be the arithmetic average of the values of its indicators. It is further assumed that the composite index of efficiency for an institution is the arithmetic average of the values of the seven facets of interest. Thus, Efficiency value of each facet of interest = [Sum of the efficiency values of corresponding indicators] / No. of indicators Index of Efficiency = [Sum of the efficiency values of seven facets of interest] / 7 The pattern of efficiency as measured by the seven facets of interest of each TVET institution had been presented by a Radar Diagram. 3 The Study Team is grateful to Mr. Hector Hemachandra, Project Director/TEDP for drawing our attention to this method. 8

15 3. EFFICIENCY OF SAMPLE OF GOVERNMENT TVET INSTITUTIONS SURVEYED The 25 government TVET institutions surveyed and their overall index of efficiency are listed in Table 3.1. The profiles of these institutions are in Appendix 2. Each profile of an institution contains the efficiency values of facets of interest and their indicator values, overall index of efficiency for the institution, the Radar Diagram and comments/remarks on the factors negatively affecting efficiency of the institution and the manner in which its efficiency could be increased. By location-wise, the sample of government institutions surveyed consisted of 15 from Colombo District, 6 from Gampaha District and 4 from Kalutara Districts. By grade-wise, 13 are in Grade B and 12 in Grade C. The overall index of efficiency among the government institutions surveyed ranges from 47% to 83% (Table 3.1). Table 3.1: List of Government TVET Institutions Surveyed and their Overall Index of Efficiency (%) District Colombo Gampaha Kalutara Grade B C B C B C Name and Location of Institution (Serial numbers herewith aid identification of Profiles in Appendix 2) Overall Index of Efficiency 1. Apprentice Training Institute, Moratuwa Sri Lanka German Railway Technical Training Institute, Ratmalana 82.7 (H) 3. National Institute of Business Management, Colombo Institute of Bankers of Sri Lanka, Colombo Lalith Athulathmudali Vocational Training Centre, Ratmalana Clothing Industry Training Institute, Ratmalana National Vocational Training Institute, Wellampitiya Sri Lanka Ports Authority - Mahapola Training Institute, Colombo Sri Lanka Television Training Institute (SLTTI), Colombo Youth Empowerment Centre (NYSC), Panadura NYSC Vocational Training Centre, Dehiwala 82.6 (H) 12. Prathibimbarama Vocational Training Centre, Dehiwala Rural Vocational Training Centre, Rajagiriya Lakviru Sevana Rural Vocational Training Centre (VTA), Colombo Homagama Vocational Training Centre, Homagama Institute of Engineering Technology, Katunayake Sri Lanka "NESEK" Vocational Training Centre, Kadawatha Technical College, Gampaha 47.1 (L) 19. Vocational Technical Training Institute, Seeduwa R.V.T.C. Mulagandakuti Viharaya, Welisara Vocational Training Institute - Department of Social Services, Wathurugama 47.1 (L) 22. Technical College, Kalutara Rural Vocational Training Centre (VTA), Waskaduwa Kobawaka Bulathsinghala Vocational Training Center, Govinna Telecommunication & Computer Apprenticeship Training Centre, Beruwala 60.4 Note: H = Highest and L = Lowest, in Grades B and C. Source: Appendix 1 9

16 Among the Grade B government institutions surveyed, Sri Lanka German Railway Technical Training Institute at Ratmalana (No. 2) has the highest overall index of efficiency amounting to 83% whereas Technical College, Gampaha (No. 18) has the lowest overall index of efficiency of 47%. Extracted from Profile Nos. 2 and 18 (in Appendix 2), Table 3.2 compares the efficiency values of facets of interest of the above two institutions while Figure 3.1 compares the Radar Diagrams for these institutions. The extent of variation of the efficiency values of the facets of interest of the above two institutions is evident from Table 3.2. It can be seen that the efficiency values of financial performance and service facilities of Sri Lanka German Railway Technical Training Institute are as high as 100%. The corresponding values for Technical College, Gampaha are 0% and 56%. Table 3.2: Comparison of Highest and Lowest Efficiency Values of Facets of Interest of Grade B Government TVET Institutions; Sri Lanka German Railway Technical Training Institute, Ratmalana and Technical College, Gampaha Facet of Interest Sri Lanka German Railway Technical Training Institute, Ratmalana Technical College, Gampaha 1. Trainees 93.7% 88.2% 2. Staff Utilization 54.0% 80.2% 3. Training Courses 55.8% 41.6% 4. Training Facilities & Utilization 97.8% 52.0% 5. Financial Performance 97.7% 11.1% 6. Performance Management 100.0% 0% 7. Service Facilities 100.0% 56.0% Overall Index of Efficiency 82.7% 47.1% Source: Profile Nos. 2 and 18, in Appendix 2 Figures 3.1: Radar Diagrams of Grade B Government Institutions with highest (left diagram) and lowest (right diagram) overall index of efficiency 100.0% Performance Management Sri Lanka German Railway Technical Training Institute, Ratmalana 100.0% Service Facilities Trainees 100.0% 93.7% 80.0% 60.0% 40.0% 20.0% 0.0% 54.0% Staff Utilization 55.8% Training Courses 56.0% Service Facilities 11.1% Performance Management Technical College Gampaha Trainees 100.0% 88.2% 80.0% 60.0% 40.0% 20.0% 0.0% 80.8% Staff Utilization 41.6% Training Courses 77.7% 97.8% Financial Performance Training Facilities Source: Profile No. 2 in Appendix 2 0.0% 52.0% Financial Performance Training Facilities Source: Profile No. 18 in Appendix 2 Among the Grade C government institutions surveyed, NYSC Vocational Training Centre, Dehiwala (No. 11) has the highest overall index of efficiency amounting to 83% whereas Vocational Training Institute at Wathurugama functioning under the Department of Social Services (No. 21) has the lowest overall index of efficiency of 47%. Extracted from Profile Nos. 11 and 21 (in Appendix 2), Table 3.3 compares the efficiency values of facets of interest of the above two institutions while Figure 3.2 compares the Radar Diagrams for 10

17 these institutions. The extent of variation of the efficiency values of the facets of interest of the above two institutions is evident from Table 3.3. It can be seen that the efficiency values of financial performance of NYSC Vocational Training Centre, Dehiwala are as high as 110%. The corresponding value for Vocational Training Institute is 56%. Table 3.3: Comparison of Highest and Lowest Efficiency Values of Facets of Interest of Grade C Government Institutions; NYSC Vocational Training Centre, Dehiwala and Vocational Training Institute, Wathurugama Facet of Interest NYSC Vocational Training Centre, Dehiwala Vocational Training Institute, Wathurugama 1. Trainees 90.8% 60.8% 2. Staff Utilization 65.9% 43.0% 3. Training Courses 83.9% 37.5% 4. Training Facilities & Utilization 66.7% 54.1% 5. Financial Performance 110.0% 55.6% 6. Performance Management 89.0% 36.0% 7. Service Facilities 72.0% 43.0% Overall Index of Efficiency 82.6% 47.1% Source: Profile Nos. 11 and 21, in Appendix 2 Figures 3.2: Radar Diagrams of Grade C Government Institutions with highest (left diagram) and lowest (right diagram) overall index of efficiency NYSC Vocational Training Centre Dehiwala Trainees 120.0% 90.8% 100.0% 72.0% 65.9% Service Facilities 80.0% Staff Utilization 60.0% 89.0% Performance Management 40.0% 20.0% 0.0% 83.9% Training Courses 43.0% Service Facilities 36.0% Performance Management Vocational Training Institute Wathurugama Trainees 100.0% 60.8% 80.0% 60.0% 40.0% 20.0% 0.0% 43.0% Staff Utilization 37.5% Training Courses 110.0% 66.7% Financial Performance Training Facilities Source: Profile No. 11 in Appendix % 54.1% Financial Performance Training Facilities Source: Profile No. 21 in Appendix 2 To analyse the variation of the overall index of efficiency among the 25 government institutions surveyed, Table 3.5 presents and Figure 3.3 illustrates the distribution of the institutions by different ranges of the index and district. Accordingly, 32% of the government institutions are having the overall index of efficiency in the range and another 32% are in the range Thus, 64% or close to two-thirds of the government institutions surveyed is having the overall index of efficiency in the range

18 Table 3.4: Distribution of Government TVET Institutions surveyed by Different ranges of Overall Index of Efficiency and District District Overall Index of Efficiency (%) Total Colombo Gampaha Kalutara Western Province % 12% 32% 32% 12% - 100% Figure 3.3: Percentage distribution of government institutions surveyed by different ranges of overall index of efficiency % of institutions Range of overall index of efficiency (%) To compare the variation of the average overall index of efficiency of government institutions surveyed in each grade by district, Table 3.5 has been prepared and illustrated in Figure 3.4. Accordingly, the average overall index of efficiency of Grade B government institutions is higher than that of Grade C institutions in all the three Districts. When the two grades are combined, the average overall index of efficiency of the government institutions surveyed is highest (71%) in Colombo District and lowest (57%) in Gampaha District. Table 3.5: Average Overall Index of Efficiency of Government Institutions Surveyed by Grade and District District Grade B Grade C Both Grades Colombo 74.6 (8) 67.7 (7) 71.1 (15) Gampaha 64.8 (3) 49.8 (3) 57.3 (6) Kalutara 70.8 (2) 59.8 (2) 65.3 (4) Western Province 70.1 (13) 59.1 (12) 64.6 (25) Note: Figures within parentheses indicate the number of Institutions surveyed. 12

19 Figure 3.4: Grade-wise average overall index of efficiency of government institutions surveyed by district Average overall index of efficiency (%) Colombo Gampaha Kalutara Grade B Grade C In summary, the above analysis highlights the following: The overall index of efficiency among the government institutions surveyed ranges from 47% to 83%; the difference amounts to 36% points (Table 3.1). Around two-thirds of the government institutions are having the overall index of efficiency in the range (Table 3.4). The average overall index of efficiency of Grade B government institutions surveyed is higher than that of Grade C government institutions in all the three Districts (Table 3.5). When Grade B and C are taken together, the average overall index of efficiency of the government institutions surveyed is highest (71%) in Colombo District and lowest (57%) in Gampaha District (Table 3.5). 13

20 4. EFFICIENCY OF SAMPLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL TVET INSTITUTIONS SURVEYED The 25 non-governmental TVET institutions surveyed and their overall index of efficiency are listed in Table 4.1. The profiles of these institutions are in Appendix 3. As already mentioned in Chapter 3, each profile of an institution contains the efficiency values of facets of interest and their indicator values, overall index of efficiency for the institution, the Radar Diagram and comments/remarks on the factors negatively affecting efficiency of the institution and the manner in which its efficiency could be increased. The sample of non-governmental institutions surveyed consisted of Seventeen (17) from Colombo District, four (4) each from Gampaha and Kalutara Districts. By grade-wise, ten (10) are in Grade B and fifteen (15) in Grade C. The overall index of efficiency among the non-governmental institutions surveyed range from 42% to 90% (Table 4.1). Table 4.1: List of Non-Governmental TVET Institutions Surveyed and their Overall Index of Efficiency (%) District Colombo Gampaha Kalutara Grade B C Name and Location of Institution (Serial numbers herewith aid identification of Profiles in Appendix 3) Overall Index of Efficiency 26. Winstone, Nugegoda Londontec International, Nugegoda International College of Business & Technology Ltd., Mt Lavinia Roots Hair and Beauty Salon & Academy, Colombo Openarc School of Business & Technology, Nugegoda Kuchali Institute, Dehiwala Aquinas College of Higher Education, Colombo (L) 33. Senok Heavy Machinery Training Centre, Talangama La Sallian Community Education Services, Mattakkuliya 42.2 (L) 35. Technique International Vocational Training Centre, Colombo Kolonnawa Vocational Training Centre, Kolonnawa EMD International Computer Training Centre, Ratmalana Raytronics Computer Systems (Pvt) Ltd., Nugegoda 86.1 (H) 39. Seethawaka Vocational Training Centre, Avissawella Swiss Lanka Hotel School, Colombo Ladies College Department of Vocational Studies, Colombo Institute of Supply and Material Management, Colombo B 43. Don Bosco Technical Centre, Negombo 73.8 C B C 44. Electro Technical Training Institute, Negombo Singer Fashion Academy, Ja Ela Industrial Training Institute (Pvt.) Ltd., Negombo IQRAA Technical Training Institute, Beruwala 90.0 (H) 48. Agio Sirilak Sahanasewa Vocational Training Centre, Payagala VICIT - Innovative (Pvt) Ltd., Horana Juliston Lanka International (Pvt) Ltd., Panadura 69.2 Note: H = Highest and L = Lowest, in Grades B and C. Source: Appendix 1 14

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