Technologies Supporting Evolution of SSDs

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Technologies Supporting Evolution of SSDs"

Transcription

1 Technologies Supporting Evolution of SSDs By TSUCHIYA Kenji Notebook PCs equipped with solid-state drives (SSDs), featuring shock and vibration durability due to the lack of moving parts, appeared on the market around However, single-level-cell (SLC) NAND flash memories were used in SSDs at that time, and it was believed that multilevel-cell (MLC) flash memories, while they could double the storage capacity compared with SLCs, were not applicable because of a lack of reliability. In 2008, Toshiba developed the world's first (Note 1) SSD equipped with MLC NAND flash memories and realizing a low write application factor (WAF), thereby increasing the reliability of MLC SSDs. This was achieved through the analysis of actual PC users' workload in detail, as well as the development of a new NAND cache system and an appropriate NAND management algorithm. MLC NAND flash memories have now become the mainstream for SSDs used in notebook PCs, and are contributing to new values such as a thin and small form factor (SFF), very low standby current, and instant-on capability. 1. Introduction Since the development of NAND flash in 1987, the replacement of hard disk drives (HDDs) with NAND flash memories has been a perennial theme. Recently, as notebook PCs are increasingly equipped with stick-type solid-state drives (SSDs), the full-fledged replacement of HDDs has begun in earnest. In the 1990 s, SSDs were known as silicon disks and flash drives, and they were used in some industrial equipment because of their advantages with respect to shock and vibration resistance thanks to their moving parts-less disign, including motors and pickups. However, NAND flash memories could only be adopted in a limited range of equipment because of their high costs compared to HDDs. In the 2000 s, multi-level-cell (MLC) NAND flash memories (MLC NAND) were developed. This technology has significantly reduced the bit cost of applications using NAND flash memories, such as SD cards and silicon audio, which in turn has led to the rapid adoption of MLC NAND. On the other hand, due to concerns regarding reliability, MLC NAND seemed poorly suited for installation in PCs. Given such circumstances, Toshiba established a project team to further the development of SSDs in This team was challenged to develop the world s first SSD equipped with MLC NAND (MLC SSD). This required that MLC NAND reliability sufficient for PC use be realized by understanding the characteristics of the cutting-edge MLC NAND technology, as well as that devices be developed with performance exceeding that of the HDDs and those SSDs equipped with single-level-cell (SLC) NAND flash memories (SLC NAND) (SLC SSDs) on the market at that time. In 2008, Toshiba overcame these challenges and developed the world s first MLC SSDs. In this article, I will describe the technical challenges that we have overcome in the development of MLC SSDs and the technologies we adopted to do so. 2. Technological Challenges for MLC SSDs The most significant feature of MLC NAND is that it can support twice as large of a capacity as SLC NAND. In terms of SSDs, this means that the cost of 64 GB or 128 GB products the capacity considered necessary for PC use can be reduced at once to half that of SLC NAND. Although MLC NAND can support twice the capacity of SLC NAND, MLC presented the following challenges: (1) Lower read and write speeds (2) Larger number of error bits when reading data (3) Larger erase data size (4) Less number of write and erase times Of these challenges, a less number of write and erase times was believed to be the largest obstacle to using MLC SSDs in PCs. There were concerns that the number of write and erase times of the memory element, MLC NAND, might reach its limit within three years (the normal lifespan for PCs), thus leading to the loss of stored data. Thus, this was the first challenge we faced in the development of MLC SSDs. Although the number of write and erase times for SLC NAND available at that time was usually around 100,000 data write and erase times, MLC NAND (Note 1) As of February 2008, according to a survey by Toshiba 7

2 could guarantee only around 3,000 to 5,000, approximately one-twentieth to one-thirtieth that of SLC NAND. We needed to prove that MLC SSDs could withstand the typical use conditions for PCs even with their write and erase times range. 3. Service Life of MLC SSDs MLC SSD service life is nearly equivalent to that of the MLC NAND mounted on them. In practice, however, the amount of data written by the host system to the SSD is not identical to that written to the NAND flash memories mounted on that SSD. This is because NAND flash memories have a larger erase data size than the write data size. Specifically, when saving data smaller than the erase data size, a data write the size of the erase data is performed. This restriction on write operations is referred to as the write amplification factor (WAF), which is an index that indicates how many times the amount of data actually written to NAND flash memories is larger than that written by the host system. For example, if a 200 KB file is edited and saved to a NAND flash memory that has an erase data size of 2 MB, except in special cases, 2 MB of data will be erased and rewritten. For this reason, when the host system makes a write and erase request for 200 KB of data, in reality 2 MB of data is rewritten, which is equivalent to 10 WAF. Therefore, if an MLC SSD which is rewritable for 3,000 times is used each time at 10 WAF, the service life of that MLC SSD will end after the host system makes approximately 300 data write requests. Consequently, we needed to design SSD control algorithms and architectures for ensuring a low WAF in order to prove that MLC SSDs can be used for PCs. This required us to correctly understand the size and frequency of users actual data use as well as the amount of data saved by users per day. 4. User Model In order to design SSD control algorithms and architectures for ensuring a low WAF, we needed to model users actual usage conditions. To this end, we monitored and modeled PC usage at our company. We considered that such PCs were operated longer and wrote more data than those for home use. As a result of monitoring data access by more than 200 users for a total of two months, we found that both the amount of data written and the hibernation amount (Note 2) can be approximated by a log-normal distribution. Figure 1 shows an example of such a distribution of the amount of data written. Assuming a normal distribution for the data, we (Note 2) Hibernation refers to suspending the operating system by writing the system status to an external device, such as an SSD or HDD. The hibernation amount is the amount of data written for this purpose. obtained the following values for the average μ and standard deviation σ. (1) Amount of data written: μ 2.2 GB/day σ 0.5 GB/day (2) Hibernation amount (approx GB) μ 1.2 times/day σ 1 time/day Consequently, we discovered that the typical user in our company writes approximately 4 GB (2.2 GB GB 1.2 times = 3.46 GB) of data to his or her PC per day. 5. Random Access and Sequential Access For a 64 GB MLC SSD, writing approximately 4 GB of data per day uses one-sixteenth of its capacity each day. Even if a PC equipped with an MLC SSD is used every day for three years, the write and erase times will only amount to approximately 70 times, which is sufficiently small in consideration of the write and erase endurance of MLC NAND, which is in the range of 3,000 to 5,000 times. Further, the actual write and erase time of MLC NAND can be derived by multiplying the WAF with this value. The WAF is tightly correlated with the size of the data to be written. When writing data by random access in small units (512 bytes or 4 KB), the WAF will be a very large value such as On the other hand, even if data is written in the same small units, writing data by sequential access can make the WAF small. For this reason, knowing the size of each piece of the approximately 4 GB of data written per day as well as the access method used, both of which we obtained through monitoring our users, is essential in designing appropriate SSD control algorithms, which determine the service life of MLC SSDs. For this reason, we studied actual access by the host system. As a result of our survey, which was conducted simultaneously with our study of users, we found that the minimum write size of 4 KB, which increases the size of the WAF dra- 8

3 matically, is used for approximately 66% of the total amount of data written. Further, write sizes of 16 KB or less, which are significantly smaller than the erase data size, are used for 90% of all data writes. In addition, we found that random access was frequently performed. We were unable to obtain any data to facilitate the design of SSD control algorithms. Therefore, we decided to develop the new cache system described in the next chapter to reduce the WAF of MLC SSDs. 6. Cache Systems We found that the host system performs small data random access as its basic data access pattern. At the same time, we discovered that this data access demonstrated highly temporal and spatial locality. We thought it would be possible to design SSD control algorithms for reducing WAF by implementing a cache system and absorbing such small data random access. However, the spatial locality was not sufficiently small to fit into several tens of MB of DRAM, and the temporal locality extended to several days, a period exceeding the length of time for which volatile DRAM can retain cache data. We overcame this problem by implementing a dedicated internal file system in the SSD by using a conventional DRAM cache as well as the NAND itself as a secondary cache (Figure 2). reduced the WAF, which determines the service life of MLC SSDs. Through this technology, Toshiba achieved WAFs of 3 to 6. As a result, we were able to design SSD control algorithms which prevent MLC SSDs from exceeding their write and erase limits during typical use even if several tens of GB of data, rather than just 4 GB of data, is written per day. 7. SSD Performance Many consumers expect SSDs to offer high-speed reads and writes unachievable by HDDs. This feature depends upon the performance of the NAND flash memories installed in the SSDs as well as the physical configuration of such SSDs. Generally, this physical configuration is expressed as the product of the number of channels and the number of banks, such as 4 channels 4 banks, 8 channels 4 banks, etc Read performance The maximum read speed of an SSD is determined by the product of the NAND flash memory interface speed and the number of channels. The logical maximum read speed of our first generation SSDs was 320 MB/s (the interface speed of the NAND flash memories was 80 MB/s and the SSDs had a four-channel configuration). Recently, toggle NAND flash memories have been developed which are capable of achieving 133 MB/s and 200 MB/s NAND flash memory interface speeds, contributing significantly to the development of SATA gen3 (third generation Serial Advanced Technology Attachment) SSDs, whose interface speeds exceed 500 MB/s Write performance The maximum write performance is determined by the product of the NAND flash memory write speed and the number of parallel write chips. If the typical write speed of MLC NAND is 10 MB/s, and if a 16-chip parallel write operation is performed using a 4-channel 4-bank or 8-channel 2-bank configuration, the maximum write performance will be 10 MB/s 16 = 160 MB/s. If power consumption is ignored, a 32-chip parallel operation in an 8-channel 4-bank configuration can achieve a write speed of 320 MB/s, exceeding the 3 Gb/s of SATA gen2. One characteristic of the SSD s internal NAND cache system is the garbage collection feature: only data which needs to be updated is written to the erased area, as overwriting is impossible in the same manner as that performed by conventional DRAM caches and the erased area is secured by efficiently collecting only valid data in the cache. This development of a special cache system for SSDs has greatly 7.3. TRIM command To achieve the above-mentioned maximum write speed, it is necessary to write only the required data to erased blocks. However, real SSDs have few blocks which contain only erased or only valid data. To write data to such SSDs, then, the valid data from multiple blocks must be collected and moved to other blocks before making preparations for writing data by erasing the original blocks. For this reason, write performance degrades in actual use, and in extreme cases, the PC may appear as if it has temporarily frozen. 9

4 The TRIM command was proposed as a way to solve this problem. If a file is erased, the TRIM command notifies the SSD that the sectors previously occupied by the erased file have been invalidated. By using the TRIM command, invalid data no longer needs to be copied when written, which should have the effect of preventing write speed reductions. However, since the SSD determines the operation taken after receiving a TRIM command, this benefit does not necessarily apply for all SSDs. 8. New Advantages of SSDs By adopting MLC NAND, SSDs have achieved high performance, high reliability, and reduced costs. However, their bit cost is still ten times higher than that of HDDs. For this reason, even today SSDs are mounted in only a limited number of high-end notebook PCs. Given such circumstances, we continue to propose the following new advantages of SSDs Low standby power consumption and instant-on Sine HDDs are equipped with spindle motors, the standby power consumed by HDDs in an active idle state is commonly slightly less than 1 W. By contrast, the standby power consumption of SSDs can be reduced to the 0.1 W level. Although HDDs can also reduce standby power consumption to the 0.1 W level when in a sleep state, this increases their recovery times; HDDs cannot quickly return to an active state as SSDs can. Making use of this new advantage of SSDs, notebook PCs can dramatically extend their battery life, thereby allowing them to differentiate themselves from those models equipped with HDDs. In this way, SSDs allow for a close approximation of the instant-on PC, a long-demanded product Small and thin form factors When first developed, SSDs were enclosed in 2.5-type and 1.8-type cases to ensure compatibility with HDDs. In recent years, however, as a result of the development of large capacity MLC NAND and ball grid array (BGA) packages equipped with eight NAND flash memory chips, 128 GB, 256 GB, and other large capacity SSDs can now be found even in small and thin form factors (Figure 3). As a result, the space required for drives inside notebook PCs has been reduced, consequently enabling longer battery life by increasing battery capacity as well as facilitating the release of ultra-thin stylish notebook PCs, which are equipped with stick-type SSDs Even faster drives For 7,200 rpm HDDs (high-speed HDDs), the SATA gen2 read speed of 3 Gb/s is sufficient. For SSDs, however, read speeds exceeding that of SATA gen3, which is 6 Gb/s, can be realized by making NAND flash memory interfaces faster and increasing the number of parallel operations. Based on this feature, SSDs are expected to incorporate before other devices the high-speed interface standards such as serial-attached small computer system interface (SCSI), commonly known as SAS (12 Gb/s), and Peripheral Component Interconnect Express, commonly known as PCI Express 3.0 (Note 3). As soon as the appropriate interfaces are developed, they will likely be installed in SSDs, contributing to improved performance in the server and storage equipment mainly used by enterprises. 9. Toward the Further Development of SSDs There is no doubt that the SSD market will continue to expand in the future with the introduction of SSD notebook PCs, installations in enterprise servers and storage equipment, and in other forms as the era of cloud computing arrives. Technology for ensuring such development, the reliability improvement functions achieved through such as RAID (Redundant Array of Independent/Inexpensive Disks) will become important. This issue is not unique to SSDs. Systematic methods for implementing data protection functions for unexpected failures that were developed for HDD-based systems in the past are seen as essential. As the miniaturization of NAND flash memories mounted on SSDs progresses year after year, their physical processing becomes increasingly difficult, leading to an increase in frequency of a series of semiconductor-specific errors, including bit errors, errors caused by the write unit, and errors (Note 3) PCI Express is a registered trademark of PCI-SIG. 10

5 caused by the erase block unit. As a countermeasure against these errors, we have ensured reliability for the write unit by enhancing error check and correct (ECC) functions, such as Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) coding. In addition, by implementing RAID-like measures within the drive, unexpected errors caused by the page, block, and chip units can be handled. This allows us to offer users lower bit costs and higher reliability SSDs equipped with cutting-edge NAND flash memories. Further advances in SSDs will lead to further advances in cloud computing. 10. Conclusion This article gave an overview of MLC NAND-based SSD technologies. SSD interfaces are not limited to SATA and PCI Express. Although the interfaces are different, SD cards used for digital cameras, etc. and the e MMC (Note 4) installed in tablet PCs and smart phones have the same challenges as SSDs (Note 4) e MMC is a trademark of the JEDEC Solid State Technology Association. regarding making full use of NAND flash memories and are based on the same basic NAND control technologies applied to the SSDs explained above. In other words, the technologies supporting the development of SSDs are the technologies for making full use of NAND flash memories, and these technologies are related to those supporting other applications using NAND flash memories. We also expect that new flash memories besides NAND will be available in the future. As described in other articles of this special report, basic research on new flash memories is already underway, and we must be ready to make full use of such new flash memories as drives. Currently, however, multiple methods for achieving new flash memories are being advocated, and there are a wide range of challenges before full use can be made of them as drives. In order to overcome such challenges and develop and achieve practical use of SD cards, e MMC, and SSDs that will support the future era of cloud computing, we will develop technologies in collaboration with our various partners, including universities. TSUCHIYA Kenji Storage Products Div. 11

High-Performance SSD-Based RAID Storage. Madhukar Gunjan Chakhaiyar Product Test Architect

High-Performance SSD-Based RAID Storage. Madhukar Gunjan Chakhaiyar Product Test Architect High-Performance SSD-Based RAID Storage Madhukar Gunjan Chakhaiyar Product Test Architect 1 Agenda HDD based RAID Performance-HDD based RAID Storage Dynamics driving to SSD based RAID Storage Evolution

More information

Understanding endurance and performance characteristics of HP solid state drives

Understanding endurance and performance characteristics of HP solid state drives Understanding endurance and performance characteristics of HP solid state drives Technology brief Introduction... 2 SSD endurance... 2 An introduction to endurance... 2 NAND organization... 2 SLC versus

More information

NAND Flash Architecture and Specification Trends

NAND Flash Architecture and Specification Trends NAND Flash Architecture and Specification Trends Michael Abraham (mabraham@micron.com) NAND Solutions Group Architect Micron Technology, Inc. August 2012 1 Topics NAND Flash Architecture Trends The Cloud

More information

Nasir Memon Polytechnic Institute of NYU

Nasir Memon Polytechnic Institute of NYU Nasir Memon Polytechnic Institute of NYU SSD Drive Technology Overview SSD Drive Components NAND FLASH Microcontroller SSD Drive Forensics Challenges Overview SSD s are fairly new to the market Whereas

More information

Solid State Drive (SSD) FAQ

Solid State Drive (SSD) FAQ Solid State Drive (SSD) FAQ Santosh Kumar Rajesh Vijayaraghavan O c t o b e r 2 0 1 1 List of Questions Why SSD? Why Dell SSD? What are the types of SSDs? What are the best Use cases & applications for

More information

SATA II 3Gb/s SSD. SSD630 Benefits. Enhanced Performance. Applications

SATA II 3Gb/s SSD. SSD630 Benefits. Enhanced Performance. Applications SATA II 3Gb/s SSD SSD630 Benefits Super slim thickness of 7mm Fully compatible with devices and OS that support the SATA II 3Gb/s standard Non-volatile Flash Memory for outstanding data retention Built-in

More information

SSDs tend to be more rugged than hard drives with respect to shock and vibration because SSDs have no moving parts.

SSDs tend to be more rugged than hard drives with respect to shock and vibration because SSDs have no moving parts. Overview Introduction Solid State Drives (SSDs) are fast becoming a real force with respect to storage in the computer industry. With no moving parts, storage is no longer bound by mechanical barriers

More information

Solid State Technology What s New?

Solid State Technology What s New? Solid State Technology What s New? Dennis Martin, President, Demartek www.storagedecisions.com Agenda: Solid State Technology What s New? Demartek About Us Solid-state storage overview Types of NAND flash

More information

SSD Server Hard Drives for IBM

SSD Server Hard Drives for IBM New for 2011! Axiom is introducing a new line of SSD Hot-Swap Server Hard Drives. Our high performance SSD hard drives have been paired with system specific Hot-Swap trays to deliver seamless integration

More information

SOLID STATE DRIVES AND PARALLEL STORAGE

SOLID STATE DRIVES AND PARALLEL STORAGE SOLID STATE DRIVES AND PARALLEL STORAGE White paper JANUARY 2013 1.888.PANASAS www.panasas.com Overview Solid State Drives (SSDs) have been touted for some time as a disruptive technology in the storage

More information

SSD TCO Primer. Intel SSD TCO Modeling. Kevin Crow Dave Stutznegger

SSD TCO Primer. Intel SSD TCO Modeling. Kevin Crow Dave Stutznegger SSD TCO Primer Intel SSD TCO Modeling Kevin Crow Dave Stutznegger Why do you think SSDs could be beneficial to you? What value do SSDs provide? What limitations do you see with SSDs? What roadblocks exist

More information

This page is a hidden page. To keep from printing this page, uncheck the checkbox for printing invisible pages in the printing dialog box.

This page is a hidden page. To keep from printing this page, uncheck the checkbox for printing invisible pages in the printing dialog box. Outline: History of HDD HDDs did change the world Introduction of Flash Flash did change the world Overview of SSD SSD Pros and Cons Evaluating the Cost Savings of SSD Seven Trends of the Storage Industry

More information

The Technologies & Architectures. President, Demartek

The Technologies & Architectures. President, Demartek Deep Dive on Solid State t Storage The Technologies & Architectures Dennis Martin Dennis Martin President, Demartek Demartek Company Overview Industry analysis with on-site test lab Lab includes servers,

More information

An Overview of Flash Storage for Databases

An Overview of Flash Storage for Databases An Overview of Flash Storage for Databases Vadim Tkachenko Morgan Tocker http://percona.com MySQL CE Apr 2010 -2- Introduction Vadim Tkachenko Percona Inc, CTO and Lead of Development Morgan Tocker Percona

More information

Serial ATA Flash Drive

Serial ATA Flash Drive RoHS Compliant Serial ATA Flash Drive msata M4 Product Specifications May 4 th, 2012 Version 1.3 Apacer Technology Inc. Apacer Technology Inc. 9/F, No. 100, Hsin Tai Wu Rd., Hsichih, Taipei Hsien 221,

More information

Comparison of NAND Flash Technologies Used in Solid- State Storage

Comparison of NAND Flash Technologies Used in Solid- State Storage An explanation and comparison of SLC and MLC NAND technologies August 2010 Comparison of NAND Flash Technologies Used in Solid- State Storage By Shaluka Perera IBM Systems and Technology Group Bill Bornstein

More information

Flash 101. Violin Memory Switzerland. Violin Memory Inc. Proprietary 1

Flash 101. Violin Memory Switzerland. Violin Memory Inc. Proprietary 1 Flash 101 Violin Memory Switzerland Violin Memory Inc. Proprietary 1 Agenda - What is Flash? - What is the difference between Flash types? - Why are SSD solutions different from Flash Storage Arrays? -

More information

Choosing the Right NAND Flash Memory Technology

Choosing the Right NAND Flash Memory Technology Choosing the Right NAND Flash Memory Technology A Basic Introduction to NAND Flash Offerings Dean Klein Vice President of System Memory Development Micron Technology, Inc. Executive Summary A 75% increase

More information

HP 128 GB Solid State Drive (SSD) *Not available in all regions.

HP 128 GB Solid State Drive (SSD) *Not available in all regions. Models SATA 3 GB/second Interface Drives HP 160 GB Solid State Drive (SSD) SATA 6 GB/second Interface Drives HP 128 GB Solid State Drive (SSD) QV064AA* *Not available in all regions. QV063AA Introduction

More information

enabling Ultra-High Bandwidth Scalable SSDs with HLnand

enabling Ultra-High Bandwidth Scalable SSDs with HLnand www.hlnand.com enabling Ultra-High Bandwidth Scalable SSDs with HLnand May 2013 2 Enabling Ultra-High Bandwidth Scalable SSDs with HLNAND INTRODUCTION Solid State Drives (SSDs) are available in a wide

More information

HP 80 GB, 128 GB, and 160 GB Solid State Drives for HP Business Desktop PCs Overview. HP 128 GB Solid State Drive (SSD)

HP 80 GB, 128 GB, and 160 GB Solid State Drives for HP Business Desktop PCs Overview. HP 128 GB Solid State Drive (SSD) Overview Models SATA 3 GB/second Interface Drives HP 80 GB Solid State Drive (SSD) HP 160 GB Solid State Drive (SSD) SATA 6 GB/second Interface Drives HP 128 GB Solid State Drive (SSD) BM848AA BW321AA

More information

HP Z Turbo Drive PCIe SSD

HP Z Turbo Drive PCIe SSD Performance Evaluation of HP Z Turbo Drive PCIe SSD Powered by Samsung XP941 technology Evaluation Conducted Independently by: Hamid Taghavi Senior Technical Consultant June 2014 Sponsored by: P a g e

More information

Data Center Storage Solutions

Data Center Storage Solutions Data Center Storage Solutions Enterprise software, appliance and hardware solutions you can trust When it comes to storage, most enterprises seek the same things: predictable performance, trusted reliability

More information

Serial ATA Flash Drive

Serial ATA Flash Drive RoHS Compliant Serial ATA Flash Drive SAFD25M4 Product Specifications June 13 th, 2013 Version 1.5 Apacer Technology Inc. Apacer Technology Inc. 9/F, No. 100, Hsin Tai Wu Rd., Hsichih, Taipei Hsien 221,

More information

3ME Series. Customer Approver. Approver. Customer: Customer Part Number: Innodisk Part Number: Model Name: Date:

3ME Series. Customer Approver. Approver. Customer: Customer Part Number: Innodisk Part Number: Model Name: Date: 3ME Series Customer: Customer Part Number: Innodisk Part Number: Innodisk Model Name: Date: Innodisk Approver Customer Approver Table of contents 2.5 SATA SSD 3ME LIST OF FIGURES... 6 1. PRODUCT OVERVIEW...

More information

Solid State Drives. Separating myths from facts

Solid State Drives. Separating myths from facts ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS solid state storage MLC performance endurance capacity reliability Solid State Drives Separating myths from facts SSD vs HDD? MLC vs SLC? Determine the right technology for the right

More information

Flash-optimized Data Progression

Flash-optimized Data Progression A Dell white paper Howard Shoobe, Storage Enterprise Technologist John Shirley, Product Management Dan Bock, Product Management Table of contents Executive summary... 3 What is different about Dell Compellent

More information

The SSD for mainstream value consumers

The SSD for mainstream value consumers Vector 180 Series Product Brief TR150 Series SATA 6 Gbit/s The SSD for mainstream value consumers Sep 2016 Product Brief TR150 Series V 1.1 2016 TOSHIBA CORPORATION, All Rights Reserved. OCZ is a trademark

More information

SSDs and RAID: What s the right strategy. Paul Goodwin VP Product Development Avant Technology

SSDs and RAID: What s the right strategy. Paul Goodwin VP Product Development Avant Technology SSDs and RAID: What s the right strategy Paul Goodwin VP Product Development Avant Technology SSDs and RAID: What s the right strategy Flash Overview SSD Overview RAID overview Thoughts about Raid Strategies

More information

Solid State Drive Technology

Solid State Drive Technology Technical white paper Solid State Drive Technology Differences between SLC, MLC and TLC NAND Table of contents Executive summary... 2 SLC vs MLC vs TLC... 2 NAND cell technology... 2 Write amplification...

More information

Serial ATA Flash Drive

Serial ATA Flash Drive RoHS Compliant Serial ATA Flash Drive msata Mini M4 Product Specifications November 7 th, 2012 Version 1.1 Apacer Technology Inc. Apacer Technology Inc. 9/F, No. 100, Hsin Tai Wu Rd., Hsichih, Taipei Hsien

More information

SSDs tend to be more rugged than hard drives with respect to shock and vibration because SSDs have no moving parts.

SSDs tend to be more rugged than hard drives with respect to shock and vibration because SSDs have no moving parts. Introduction Solid State Drives (SSDs) are fast becoming a real force with respect to storage in the computer industry. With no moving parts, storage is no longer bound by mechanical barriers to higher

More information

Innovative Hard Disk Drives And SSDs For Cloud Applications

Innovative Hard Disk Drives And SSDs For Cloud Applications Innovative Hard Disk Drives And SSDs For Cloud Applications WHD 2015, Rainer Kaese Toshiba Electronics 2015 Toshiba Europe Corporation GmbH 1 Abstract What are cloud specific Hard Disk Drives and Solid

More information

Solid State Drive Architecture

Solid State Drive Architecture Solid State Drive Architecture A comparison and evaluation of data storage mediums Tyler Thierolf Justin Uriarte Outline Introduction Storage Device as Limiting Factor Terminology Internals Interface Architecture

More information

N8103-149/150/151/160 RAID Controller. N8103-156 MegaRAID CacheCade. Feature Overview

N8103-149/150/151/160 RAID Controller. N8103-156 MegaRAID CacheCade. Feature Overview N8103-149/150/151/160 RAID Controller N8103-156 MegaRAID CacheCade Feature Overview April 2012 Rev.1.0 NEC Corporation Contents 1 Introduction... 3 2 Types of RAID Controllers... 3 3 New Features of RAID

More information

SATA III 6Gb/s SSD. SSD370 Benefits. Enhanced Performance. Applications

SATA III 6Gb/s SSD. SSD370 Benefits. Enhanced Performance. Applications SATA III 6Gb/s SSD SSD370 Benefits Advanced Global Wear-Leveling and Block management for reliability Advanced Garbage Collection With DDR3 DRAM cache Built-in ECC (Error Correction Code) functionality

More information

SATA SSD Series. InnoDisk. Customer. Approver. Approver. Customer: Customer. InnoDisk. Part Number: InnoDisk. Model Name: Date:

SATA SSD Series. InnoDisk. Customer. Approver. Approver. Customer: Customer. InnoDisk. Part Number: InnoDisk. Model Name: Date: SATA SSD Series Customer: Customer Part Number: InnoDisk Part Number: InnoDisk Model Name: Date: InnoDisk Approver Customer Approver Table of contents EverGreen SATA SSD REVISION HISTORY... 4 LIST OF TABLES...

More information

Memoright SSDs: The End of Hard Drives?

Memoright SSDs: The End of Hard Drives? Memoright SSDs: The End of Hard Drives? http://www.tomshardware.com/reviews/ssd-memoright,1926.html 9:30 AM - May 9, 2008 by Patrick Schmid and Achim Roos Source: Tom's Hardware Table of content 1 - The

More information

Advantages of e-mmc 4.4 based Embedded Memory Architectures

Advantages of e-mmc 4.4 based Embedded Memory Architectures Embedded NAND Solutions from 2GB to 128GB provide configurable MLC/SLC storage in single memory module with an integrated controller By Scott Beekman, senior business development manager Toshiba America

More information

RoHS Compliant SATA High Capacity Flash Drive Series Datasheet for SAFD 25NH-M

RoHS Compliant SATA High Capacity Flash Drive Series Datasheet for SAFD 25NH-M RoHS Compliant SATA High Capacity Flash Drive Series Datasheet for SAFD 25NH-M February 9 th, 2015 Revision 1.4 This Specification Describes the Features and Capabilities of the Standard and Industrial

More information

High Endurance SSD for Mainstream PCs & Notebooks

High Endurance SSD for Mainstream PCs & Notebooks Vector 180 Series Product Brief VX500 Series SATA 6 Gbit/s High Endurance SSD for Mainstream PCs & Notebooks Aug 2016 Product Brief VX500 Series V 1.0 2016 TOSHIBA CORPORATION, All Rights Reserved. OCZ

More information

EverGreen 2.5 SATA SSD

EverGreen 2.5 SATA SSD EverGreen 2.5 SATA SSD InnoDisk EverGreen 2.5 SATA SSD Datasheet Preliminary 1 Preliminary Datasheet, September 2010 Table of contents REVISION HISTORY... 4 LIST OF TABLES... 5 LIST OF FIGURES... 6 1.

More information

Chapter 6. 6.1 Introduction. Storage and Other I/O Topics. p. 570( 頁 585) Fig. 6.1. I/O devices can be characterized by. I/O bus connections

Chapter 6. 6.1 Introduction. Storage and Other I/O Topics. p. 570( 頁 585) Fig. 6.1. I/O devices can be characterized by. I/O bus connections Chapter 6 Storage and Other I/O Topics 6.1 Introduction I/O devices can be characterized by Behavior: input, output, storage Partner: human or machine Data rate: bytes/sec, transfers/sec I/O bus connections

More information

Lab Evaluation of NetApp Hybrid Array with Flash Pool Technology

Lab Evaluation of NetApp Hybrid Array with Flash Pool Technology Lab Evaluation of NetApp Hybrid Array with Flash Pool Technology Evaluation report prepared under contract with NetApp Introduction As flash storage options proliferate and become accepted in the enterprise,

More information

SSD Performance Tips: Avoid The Write Cliff

SSD Performance Tips: Avoid The Write Cliff ebook 100% KBs/sec 12% GBs Written SSD Performance Tips: Avoid The Write Cliff An Inexpensive and Highly Effective Method to Keep SSD Performance at 100% Through Content Locality Caching Share this ebook

More information

Flash Memory Technology in Enterprise Storage

Flash Memory Technology in Enterprise Storage NETAPP WHITE PAPER Flash Memory Technology in Enterprise Storage Flexible Choices to Optimize Performance Mark Woods and Amit Shah, NetApp November 2008 WP-7061-1008 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Solid state drives

More information

Benefits of Solid-State Storage

Benefits of Solid-State Storage This Dell technical white paper describes the different types of solid-state storage and the benefits of each. Jeff Armstrong Gary Kotzur Rahul Deshmukh Contents Introduction... 3 PCIe-SSS... 3 Differences

More information

Accelerating Server Storage Performance on Lenovo ThinkServer

Accelerating Server Storage Performance on Lenovo ThinkServer Accelerating Server Storage Performance on Lenovo ThinkServer Lenovo Enterprise Product Group April 214 Copyright Lenovo 214 LENOVO PROVIDES THIS PUBLICATION AS IS WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER

More information

Serial ATA Flash Drive

Serial ATA Flash Drive RoHS Recast Compliant Serial ATA Flash Drive msata M4 Product Specifications April 22 nd, 2013 Version 1.8 Apacer Technology Inc. Apacer Technology Inc. 9/F, No. 100, Hsin Tai Wu Rd., Hsichih, Taipei Hsien

More information

Indexing on Solid State Drives based on Flash Memory

Indexing on Solid State Drives based on Flash Memory Indexing on Solid State Drives based on Flash Memory Florian Keusch MASTER S THESIS Systems Group Department of Computer Science ETH Zurich http://www.systems.ethz.ch/ September 2008 - March 2009 Supervised

More information

Flash for Databases. September 22, 2015 Peter Zaitsev Percona

Flash for Databases. September 22, 2015 Peter Zaitsev Percona Flash for Databases September 22, 2015 Peter Zaitsev Percona In this Presentation Flash technology overview Review some of the available technology What does this mean for databases? Specific opportunities

More information

Important Differences Between Consumer and Enterprise Flash Architectures

Important Differences Between Consumer and Enterprise Flash Architectures Important Differences Between Consumer and Enterprise Flash Architectures Robert Sykes Director of Firmware Flash Memory Summit 2013 Santa Clara, CA OCZ Technology Introduction This presentation will describe

More information

Trend Trends in Technologies for HDDs, ODDs, and SSDs, and Toshiba s Approach

Trend Trends in Technologies for HDDs, ODDs, and SSDs, and Toshiba s Approach Trend Trends in Technologies for HDDs, ODDs, and SSDs, and Toshiba s Approach By HATTORI Masakatsu, SUZUKI Hiroshi, SUGAYA Seiichi Demand for data storage devices has been exponentially increasing with

More information

DELL SOLID STATE DISK (SSD) DRIVES

DELL SOLID STATE DISK (SSD) DRIVES DELL SOLID STATE DISK (SSD) DRIVES STORAGE SOLUTIONS FOR SELECT POWEREDGE SERVERS By Bryan Martin, Dell Product Marketing Manager for HDD & SSD delltechcenter.com TAB LE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 3 DOWNFALLS

More information

SATA Evolves SATA Specification v3.2 FMS 2013

SATA Evolves SATA Specification v3.2 FMS 2013 SATA Evolves SATA Specification v3.2 FMS 2013 SATA is Everywhere SATA is the de facto standard for PC storage Since its introduction, SATA has evolved into new application spaces and now provides storage

More information

NAND Basics Understanding the Technology Behind Your SSD

NAND Basics Understanding the Technology Behind Your SSD 03 Basics Understanding the Technology Behind Your SSD Although it may all look the same, all is not created equal: SLC, 2-bit MLC, 3-bit MLC (also called TLC), synchronous, asynchronous, ONFI 1.0, ONFI

More information

The SSD for enthusiasts and hardcore gamers

The SSD for enthusiasts and hardcore gamers Vector 180 Series Product Brief RD400/400A Series PCIe NVMe M.2 The SSD for enthusiasts and hardcore gamers June 2016 Product Brief RD400 Series V 1.1 2016 TOSHIBA CORPORATION, All Rights Reserved. OCZ

More information

Kingston SSDNow Performance Storage

Kingston SSDNow Performance Storage Kingston SSDNow Performance Storage Cameron Crandall Sr. Technology Manager Kingston Technology October 28, 2010 Hard Disk Drives (HDD)- Life in the slow lane Originally released in 1956, its design remains

More information

Flash In The Enterprise

Flash In The Enterprise Flash In The Enterprise Technology and Market Overview Chris M Evans, Langton Blue Ltd Architecting IT January 2014 Doc ID: AI1401-01S Table of Contents The Need for Flash Storage... 3 IOPS Density...

More information

Scaling from Datacenter to Client

Scaling from Datacenter to Client Scaling from Datacenter to Client KeunSoo Jo Sr. Manager Memory Product Planning Samsung Semiconductor Audio-Visual Sponsor Outline SSD Market Overview & Trends - Enterprise What brought us to NVMe Technology

More information

Accelerating I/O- Intensive Applications in IT Infrastructure with Innodisk FlexiArray Flash Appliance. Alex Ho, Product Manager Innodisk Corporation

Accelerating I/O- Intensive Applications in IT Infrastructure with Innodisk FlexiArray Flash Appliance. Alex Ho, Product Manager Innodisk Corporation Accelerating I/O- Intensive Applications in IT Infrastructure with Innodisk FlexiArray Flash Appliance Alex Ho, Product Manager Innodisk Corporation Outline Innodisk Introduction Industry Trend & Challenge

More information

A Storage Architecture for High Speed Signal Processing: Embedding RAID 0 on FPGA

A Storage Architecture for High Speed Signal Processing: Embedding RAID 0 on FPGA Journal of Signal and Information Processing, 12, 3, 382-386 http://dx.doi.org/1.4236/jsip.12.335 Published Online August 12 (http://www.scirp.org/journal/jsip) A Storage Architecture for High Speed Signal

More information

Serial ATA Flash Drive

Serial ATA Flash Drive RoHS Recast Compliant Serial ATA Flash Drive msata M4 -M Product Specifications March 12 th, 2013 Version 1.8 Apacer Technology Inc. Apacer Technology Inc. 9/F, No. 100, Hsin Tai Wu Rd., Hsichih, Taipei

More information

NAND Flash Media Management Through RAIN

NAND Flash Media Management Through RAIN Flash Media Management Through RAIN Scott Shadley, Senior roduct Marketing Manager Micron Technology, Inc. Technical Marketing Brief What Is RAIN, and Why Do SSDs Need It? This brief compares redundant

More information

21 st Century Storage What s New and What s Changing

21 st Century Storage What s New and What s Changing 21 st Century Storage What s New and What s Changing Randy Kerns Senior Strategist Evaluator Group Overview New technologies in storage - Continued evolution - Each has great economic value - Differing

More information

Data Center Solutions

Data Center Solutions Data Center Solutions Systems, software and hardware solutions you can trust With over 25 years of storage innovation, SanDisk is a global flash technology leader. At SanDisk, we re expanding the possibilities

More information

Cloud Storage. Parallels. Performance Benchmark Results. White Paper. www.parallels.com

Cloud Storage. Parallels. Performance Benchmark Results. White Paper. www.parallels.com Parallels Cloud Storage White Paper Performance Benchmark Results www.parallels.com Table of Contents Executive Summary... 3 Architecture Overview... 3 Key Features... 4 No Special Hardware Requirements...

More information

Data Center Solutions

Data Center Solutions Data Center Solutions Systems, software and hardware solutions you can trust With over 25 years of storage innovation, SanDisk is a global flash technology leader. At SanDisk, we re expanding the possibilities

More information

OCZ s NVMe SSDs provide Lower Latency and Faster, more Consistent Performance

OCZ s NVMe SSDs provide Lower Latency and Faster, more Consistent Performance OCZ s NVMe SSDs provide Lower Latency and Faster, more Consistent Performance by George Crump, Lead Analyst! When non-volatile flash memory-based solid-state drives (SSDs) were introduced, the protocol

More information

COS 318: Operating Systems. Storage Devices. Kai Li and Andy Bavier Computer Science Department Princeton University

COS 318: Operating Systems. Storage Devices. Kai Li and Andy Bavier Computer Science Department Princeton University COS 318: Operating Systems Storage Devices Kai Li and Andy Bavier Computer Science Department Princeton University http://www.cs.princeton.edu/courses/archive/fall13/cos318/ Today s Topics! Magnetic disks!

More information

Frequently Asked Questions March 2013. s620 SATA SSD Enterprise-Class Solid-State Device. Frequently Asked Questions

Frequently Asked Questions March 2013. s620 SATA SSD Enterprise-Class Solid-State Device. Frequently Asked Questions March 2013 s620 SATA SSD Enterprise-Class Solid-State Device Frequently Asked Questions Frequently Asked Questions Q: What about advanced data protection? A: In mission-critical enterprise and datacenter

More information

Introduction. Solid State Drives (SSD)

Introduction. Solid State Drives (SSD) Introduction Recent advances in Flash memory design and production processes have made Flash the hottest new storage technology. Now, new Flash-based solid-state drives, or SSDs, are poised to bring enhanced

More information

NAND Flash Architecture and Specification Trends

NAND Flash Architecture and Specification Trends NAND Flash Architecture and Specification Trends Michael Abraham (mabraham@micron.com) NAND Solutions Group Architect Micron Technology, Inc. August 2011 1 Topics NAND Flash trends SSD/Enterprise application

More information

Flash Memory Basics for SSD Users

Flash Memory Basics for SSD Users Flash Memory Basics for SSD Users April 2014, Rainer W. Kaese Toshiba Electronics Europe Storage Products Division SSD vs. HDD Enterprise SSD Can write the full capacity 30x per day over lifetime Client/Laptop

More information

Testing SSD s vs. HDD s. The Same But Different. August 11, 2009 Santa Clara, CA Anthony Lavia President & CEO

Testing SSD s vs. HDD s. The Same But Different. August 11, 2009 Santa Clara, CA Anthony Lavia President & CEO Testing SSD s vs. HDD s The Same But Different August 11, 2009 Santa Clara, CA Anthony Lavia President & CEO Introduction HDD vs. SSD Is SSD technology disruptive? Customer Expectations Factors Affecting

More information

Industrial Grade Embedded Flash Storage Devices

Industrial Grade Embedded Flash Storage Devices Product Line Data Sheet Industrial Grade Embedded Flash Storage Devices L ong Life Cycles - Fixed BOM Control I ndustry Leading: R ugged, Reliable, Based on select SLC NAND components Handling of Unexpected

More information

HP Smart Array Controllers and basic RAID performance factors

HP Smart Array Controllers and basic RAID performance factors Technical white paper HP Smart Array Controllers and basic RAID performance factors Technology brief Table of contents Abstract 2 Benefits of drive arrays 2 Factors that affect performance 2 HP Smart Array

More information

Samsung 3bit 3D V-NAND technology

Samsung 3bit 3D V-NAND technology White Paper Samsung 3bit 3D V-NAND technology Yield more capacity, performance and power efficiency Stay abreast of increasing data demands with Samsung's innovative vertical architecture Introduction

More information

DIABLO TECHNOLOGIES MEMORY CHANNEL STORAGE AND VMWARE VIRTUAL SAN : VDI ACCELERATION

DIABLO TECHNOLOGIES MEMORY CHANNEL STORAGE AND VMWARE VIRTUAL SAN : VDI ACCELERATION DIABLO TECHNOLOGIES MEMORY CHANNEL STORAGE AND VMWARE VIRTUAL SAN : VDI ACCELERATION A DIABLO WHITE PAPER AUGUST 2014 Ricky Trigalo Director of Business Development Virtualization, Diablo Technologies

More information

Industrial Flash Storage Module

Industrial Flash Storage Module April 9, 2012 Version 1. 1 Industrial Flash Storage Module Author: Precyan Lee E-mail: precyan.lee@advatech.com.tw April 9, 2012 Version 1. 1 Table of Contents Current Market Trends for Flash Storage...

More information

Serial ATA Flash Drive

Serial ATA Flash Drive RoHS Compliant Serial ATA Flash Drive SFD25A -M Product Specifications September 19 th, 2014 Version 1.6 Apacer Technology Inc. 1F, No.32, Zhongcheng Rd., Tucheng Dist., New Taipei City, Taiwan, R.O.C

More information

Best Practices for Optimizing SQL Server Database Performance with the LSI WarpDrive Acceleration Card

Best Practices for Optimizing SQL Server Database Performance with the LSI WarpDrive Acceleration Card Best Practices for Optimizing SQL Server Database Performance with the LSI WarpDrive Acceleration Card Version 1.0 April 2011 DB15-000761-00 Revision History Version and Date Version 1.0, April 2011 Initial

More information

The Case for SATA Storage in Tablets

The Case for SATA Storage in Tablets The Case for SATA Storage in Tablets July 2012 A WHITEPAPER BY: SATA-IO www.serialata.org The Case for SATA Storage in Tablets The emerging tablet market is quickly shifting from single-application devices

More information

Serial ATA Flash Drive

Serial ATA Flash Drive RoHS Compliant Serial ATA Flash Drive SFD25A Product Specifications July 10 th, 2014 Version 1.1 Apacer Technology Inc. 1F, No.32, Zhongcheng Rd., Tucheng Dist., New Taipei City, Taiwan, R.O.C Tel: +886-2-2267-8000

More information

Impact of Flash Memory on Video-on-Demand Storage: Analysis of Tradeoffs

Impact of Flash Memory on Video-on-Demand Storage: Analysis of Tradeoffs Impact of Flash Memory on Video-on-Demand Storage: Analysis of Tradeoffs Moonkyung Ryu College of Computing Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, GA, USA mkryu@gatech.edu Hyojun Kim College of Computing

More information

COS 318: Operating Systems. Storage Devices. Kai Li Computer Science Department Princeton University. (http://www.cs.princeton.edu/courses/cos318/)

COS 318: Operating Systems. Storage Devices. Kai Li Computer Science Department Princeton University. (http://www.cs.princeton.edu/courses/cos318/) COS 318: Operating Systems Storage Devices Kai Li Computer Science Department Princeton University (http://www.cs.princeton.edu/courses/cos318/) Today s Topics Magnetic disks Magnetic disk performance

More information

Sistemas Operativos: Input/Output Disks

Sistemas Operativos: Input/Output Disks Sistemas Operativos: Input/Output Disks Pedro F. Souto (pfs@fe.up.pt) April 28, 2012 Topics Magnetic Disks RAID Solid State Disks Topics Magnetic Disks RAID Solid State Disks Magnetic Disk Construction

More information

Data Distribution Algorithms for Reliable. Reliable Parallel Storage on Flash Memories

Data Distribution Algorithms for Reliable. Reliable Parallel Storage on Flash Memories Data Distribution Algorithms for Reliable Parallel Storage on Flash Memories Zuse Institute Berlin November 2008, MEMICS Workshop Motivation Nonvolatile storage Flash memory - Invented by Dr. Fujio Masuoka

More information

Serial ATA Flash Drive

Serial ATA Flash Drive RoHS Compliant Serial ATA Flash Drive msata A1 Product Specifications July 10 th, 2014 Version 1.3 Apacer Technology Inc. 1F, No.32, Zhongcheng Rd., Tucheng Dist., New Taipei City, Taiwan, R.O.C Tel: +886-2-2267-8000

More information

Storage Solutions for Embedded Applications

Storage Solutions for Embedded Applications White Paper Brian Skerry Sr. Software Architect Intel Corporation Storage Solutions for Embedded Applications December 2008 1 321054 Executive Summary Any embedded system needs reliable access to storage.

More information

ZD-XL SQL Accelerator 1.5

ZD-XL SQL Accelerator 1.5 ZD-XL SQL Accelerator 1.5 Integrated Flash Hardware & Software Acceleration Solution for SQL Server Features Supports Microsoft Hyper-V and VMware ESXi environments Accelerates SQL Server at a per database

More information

Performance Beyond PCI Express: Moving Storage to The Memory Bus A Technical Whitepaper

Performance Beyond PCI Express: Moving Storage to The Memory Bus A Technical Whitepaper : Moving Storage to The Memory Bus A Technical Whitepaper By Stephen Foskett April 2014 2 Introduction In the quest to eliminate bottlenecks and improve system performance, the state of the art has continually

More information

SSDs tend to be more rugged than hard drives with respect to shock and vibration because SSDs have no moving parts.

SSDs tend to be more rugged than hard drives with respect to shock and vibration because SSDs have no moving parts. Overview Introduction Solid State Drives (SSDs) are fast becoming a real force with respect to storage in the computer industry. With no moving parts, storage is no longer bound by mechanical barriers

More information

Performance Brief: MegaRAID SAS 9265/9285 Series

Performance Brief: MegaRAID SAS 9265/9285 Series MegaRAID SAS 9265/9285 Series Performance Brief Performance Brief: MegaRAID SAS 9265/9285 Series Executive Summary PERFORMANCE SUMMARY n Measured IOPS surpass 200,000 IOPS n When used with MegaRAID FastPath

More information

Driving Big Data with OCZ Enterprise SSDs

Driving Big Data with OCZ Enterprise SSDs White Paper Driving Big Data with OCZ Enterprise SSDs Part 2: Delivering the Performance and Management Required for Big Data Applications Scott Harlin Published June 2014 OCZ Storage Solutions, Inc. A

More information

PowerVault MD1200/MD1220 Storage Solution Guide for Applications

PowerVault MD1200/MD1220 Storage Solution Guide for Applications PowerVault MD200/MD220 Storage Solution Guide for Applications A Dell Technical White Paper Dell PowerVault Storage Systems Joe Noyola Systems Performance Analysis Group Chuck Colburn Storage Advanced

More information

QuickSpecs. HP Solid State Drives (SSDs) for Workstations. Overview

QuickSpecs. HP Solid State Drives (SSDs) for Workstations. Overview Introduction Solid State Drives (SSDs) are fast becoming a real force with respect to storage in the computer industry. With no moving parts, storage is no longer bound by mechanical barriers to higher

More information

Impact of Stripe Unit Size on Performance and Endurance of SSD-Based RAID Arrays

Impact of Stripe Unit Size on Performance and Endurance of SSD-Based RAID Arrays 1 Impact of Stripe Unit Size on Performance and Endurance of SSD-Based RAID Arrays Farzaneh Rajaei Salmasi Hossein Asadi Majid GhasemiGol rajaei@ce.sharif.edu asadi@sharif.edu ghasemigol@ce.sharif.edu

More information

Using MLC NAND in Datacenters (a.k.a. Using Client SSD Technology in Datacenters) Tony Roug, Intel Principal Engineer

Using MLC NAND in Datacenters (a.k.a. Using Client SSD Technology in Datacenters) Tony Roug, Intel Principal Engineer Using MLC NAND in Datacenters (a.k.a. Using Client SSD Technology in Datacenters) Tony Roug, Intel Principal Engineer SNIA Legal Notice The material contained in this tutorial is copyrighted by the SNIA.

More information

256-bit AES HARDWARE ENCRYPTED SOLID STATE DRIVES

256-bit AES HARDWARE ENCRYPTED SOLID STATE DRIVES 256-bit AES HARDWARE ENCRYPTED SOLID STATE DRIVES integralmemoryusa.com About Us Introducing Integral Memory plc are one of the largest digital memory producers in Europe with more than 20 years of sales

More information