1 Payment processing on the Internet - significance, status quo and future challenges - Management Summary Abridged version Dr. Ernst Stahl / Thomas Krabichler Markus Breitschaft / Georg Wittmann July 2006 With friendly support from
2 Information on the Study This is a presentation of an excerpt taken from the study, "Payment processing on the Internet" (Management Summary) Visit the ibi-shop for further details: The full version of the study is available in German language from the ibi-shop under the URL Payment processing on the Internet Significance, status quo and future challenges ISBN pages, more than 80 illustrations July 2006 ibi research Page 2
3 Foreword More and more Internet users are discovering the benefits of Internet access when shopping for merchandise and services. According to the German Federal Statistical Office, two out of three Internet users have shopped via the Internet [Federal Statistical Office 2006a, p. 58]. According to market research institutions, ecommerce sales revenues in Germany will continue to grow to approx. 694 billion euros by the year 2009 [Bitkom 2006]. Whoever wants to be successful in electronic trading must ensure, among other things, that the payment handling processes are absolutely smooth. This includes ensuring that the payment processes offered are accepted by customers and aborted purchases are prevented, that delays and defaults in payment occur as rarely as possible and that the costs of handling payments can be kept as low as possible. Yet very few of the payment processes available for electronic commerce today can meet all three of these requirements in a satisfactory manner [Breitschaft et al. 2005, p. 99]. It is thus clear that the design of the payment processes represents a difficult task, one which needs to be resolved within the context of each individual situation. The study was undertaken with the objective of conducting a detailed analysis both of the requirements of enterprises in terms of the design of payment processes on the Internet and of the problems businesses face in implementing these processes. The study is aimed at enterprises that want to improve their payment processes as well as service providers to these businesses. ibi research deliberately chose to present the results of the study in the form of a slide show with annotations. Unlike a complex prose text, this form of presentation is capable of conveying results and comments more quickly and in an easy-to-read, clear fashion. We would like to take this opportunity to thank all who have participated in the survey, as well as to the sponsoring partners of ibi research. Particular mention must go to Wirecard AG, without whose support at all levels it would not have been possible to conduct the study in this form. Dr. Ernst Stahl / Thomas Krabichler Markus Breitschaft / Georg Wittmann ibi research Page 3
4 Overview of contents Management Summary Contents of the full version of the study (228 pages) 1 About the study Significance and elements of payment processing on the Internet The need for the study, and its objectives Design and implementation of the study Partners in conducting the study Explanations of the terminology used Information about participating businesses (sample) Analyses and results relating to businesses that do not use the Internet as a sales channel Analyses and results relating to businesses that do use the Internet as a sales channel Business models and development status in Internet sales Payment processes offered Significance of delays and defaults in payments Electronic support of payment processes Utilization of services rendered by external providers Conclusion and outlook Bibliography About the authors of the study Publishing details / Contacts ibi research Page 4
5 Management Summary (1/10) To investigate the current set of requirements businesses have for their payment processes on the Internet, and the problems they face in the design of these processes, and with the objective of identifying potential ways of improving the processes in future, ibi research carried out an extensive online survey of small and medium-sized businesses (SMEs) in February and March By the end of the survey period, 503 fully completed questionnaires were received for evaluation. For comparison purposes, the responses of enterprises that are already selling merchandise and services on the Internet (62% of respondents) and of businesses that are not using the Internet as a sales channel at this time (38% of respondents) are juxtaposed in sub-items 1 to 3 of the Management Summary. From the fourth sub-item onward, the results and comments only relate to businesses that are already using the Internet as a sales channel. 1 The Internet is already well established as a sales channel In the aftermath of the dramatic decline in share values and the numerous bankruptcies of companies of the socalled "New Economy" in the years 2000 to 2002, it appeared at first that entry into the electronic commerce sector via the Internet would not be a promising strategy for many businesses. The results of the survey demonstrate, however, that the number of businesses using the Internet as a sales channel has been growing strongly again since the year Half of the participating companies that use the Internet as a sales channel only started to use the Internet for their sales in the year 2002 or later. One third of the enterprises has been using the Internet to sell merchandise or services for less than two years; a disproportionate number of these are small businesses. Of the enterprises not currently selling merchandise or services via the Internet, some 40% plan to do so in future. One quarter of the businesses using the Internet as a sales channel generate more than 90% of their sales revenues via the Internet. ibi research Page 5
6 Management Summary (2/10) Just under half of these enterprises process more than 100 purchase transactions each month. 17% of the businesses are professional sales organizations processing at least 100 purchase transactions per month and generating more than 90% of their annual sales revenue on the Internet. The traditional mail-order trade is the dominant business model among the participating companies using the Internet as a sales channel. About 80% of these businesses sell physical goods (e.g. computers, books, clothing) over the Internet. Goods in the categories "Internet services" (e.g. web space, Internet dating, classified advertisements, games), "Digital merchandise" (e.g. download of talking books, software, music, videos, articles or studies) and "Events and travel" (e.g. tickets, exchange rates, holiday trips, hired cars) are offered and sold over the Internet by a significantly smaller number of the participating businesses. Even though business between companies generates the bulk of the revenue in electronic commerce, the results of the study suggest that the placing of orders via the Internet between businesses (B2B) currently plays a lesser role overall than in the business with consumers. Less than one-fifth of the web sites of companies using the Internet as a sales channel are mainly directed at the self-employed, at companies or government agencies, while 54% of web sites are predominantly aimed at end users. Conversely, 60% of the businesses that do not currently sell merchandise or services via the Internet sell mainly to the self-employed, to companies and to government agencies. 2 Reaching new target groups, both inland and abroad, is the primary objective for the companies in using the Internet as a sales channel Of the enterprises currently planning to launch sales via the Internet (40% of the businesses not using the Internet as a sales channel at present), some 81% cite reaching additional target groups as their reason for doing so, with 45% citing customer demand. Even companies already selling merchandise or services over ibi research Page 6
7 Management Summary (3/10) the Internet still perceive growth potentials to be realized by reaching additional target groups: The most important measures to increase their revenues over the next two years cited by these businesses are the need to improve user-friendliness (just under 60%), to develop additional sales channels such as ebay and portals (54%), and to increase advertising expenditure (49%) and develop foreign markets (38%). More than 80% of the enterprises using the Internet as a sales channel are already generating revenues from customers located in other European countries. For no less than one-third of the businesses, these account for more than 5% of total revenues generated over the Internet. One surprising finding here is that for small companies, the share of revenues from customers in other European countries is almost as large as for big companies. However, less than half of the companies do business with customers outside Europe, and in only two-thirds of these cases in significant volumes (more than 1% of Internet-generated revenues. For companies without sales over the Internet, the proportion of sales revenues from foreign customers is very small overall. This suggests that businesses taking up sales over the Internet for the first time will also need to consider the issue of how to process orders from foreign customers. What percentage of your online sales is generated by foreign customers within Europe? more than 25% 10 to 25% 5 to 10% 9% 16% n = 312 companies Don t know 9% 4% 30% 19% 1 to 5% no sales 13% up to 1% ibi research Page 7
8 Management Summary (4/10) 3 Banks are an important source of information in dealing with issues relating to Internet sales, but they are often unable to provide satisfactory answers Both the enterprises already selling merchandise or services over the Internet (45%) and those without Internet sales (31%) nominate their principal banker as one of the most important sources of information for issues relating to Internet sales. Both groups of businesses also confer with associated businesses about as often as with their principal bankers. Of the enterprises not using the Internet as a sales at present, other (unspecified) sources as well as chambers of commerce and trade were often nominated as contacts. By contrast, businesses already selling merchandise or services over the Internet more frequently consult with their tax consultant or other financial service providers (excluding banks). In response to the question regarding satisfaction with the information received, respondents indicated that the consultants of the principal bankers were unable to provide satisfactory answers to just under 40% of the businesses using the Internet as a sales channel. In contrast, more than 80% of these enterprises were satisfied with the information provided by associated businesses. About three-quarters rated the answers provided by tax consultants, IT services providers and financial service providers as satisfactory. An evaluation of the answers according to company size showed that small businesses are generally less satisfied with the information received than are large enterprises. This could indicate that in future, information provided should be tailored to the specific requirements of small businesses. 4 Processing of payments for transactions on the Internet is mostly done by means of traditional settlement processes (bank transfer, cash on delivery, credit card, direct debit), with Internetbased payment processes playing an insignificant role The traditional payment methods (transfer in the form of advance payment or on receipt of invoice, cash payment on delivery or collection, cash on delivery, credit card and direct debit) are offered by more than 40% of the businesses. ibi research Page 8
9 Management Summary (5/10) Of the payment methods developed specifically for use on the Internet, the only one to play a significant role is PayPal, which has been included in their range of payment options by one in four businesses. In future we expect to see more businesses offering payment by credit card in particular, as well as other Internet-based payment methods and PayPal: 15% of businesses intend to offer credit card payment, 13% other Internet-based payment methods, and 11% plan to integrate PayPal as a method of payment. Small businesses in particular plan to catch up on the large companies in terms of the range of payment options by increasingly giving their customers the option of paying by credit card. Small companies are already offering the PayPal option more frequently than large ones. One reason for the relatively low demand on the part of businesses for Internet-based payment options (e.g. collection and billing, mobile phone or pre-paid card options) could be the size of the amounts currently being billed. Which payment systems are you planning to offer in the near future? n = 312 companies Credit Card Other online payment solution (e.g. wallet) PayPal Direct debit without signature of customer Direct debit with signature of customer Pre-paid Payment via invoice Payment on delivery Cash 2% 3% 3% 3% 4% 4% 11% 13% 15% ibi research Page 9
10 Management Summary (6/10) Payments for amounts of less than 10 euros, for which a number of the existing Internet-based payment methods have been designed, simply do not occur in the transactions of just under two-thirds of the businesses. More than half of the businesses report the processing of payments for amounts of more than 500 euros at least occasionally. The requirement for the customer to go through a registration process that exists with many of the Internetbased payment methods does not appear to be a deterrent for their uptake by the businesses, however. In spite of the effort required in customer registration, 65% of the businesses participating in the survey would rather adopt a payment method that offers them a high degree of security of payment and is easy to use than rely on a payment method that involves delays in receiving payments as well as being expensive (as is the case with payment on account or cash on delivery) or that involves a greater risk of defaults (in the case of the credit card or direct debit options). A closer analysis of the direct debit method frequently offered on the Internet shows that the direct debit option is mainly used by businesses as a means of settling one-off payments. 80% of companies offering direct debit as a means of payment processing also indicate that periodic payments do not recur as part of their business. The proportion of companies requiring payment methods capable of handling periodic payments (e.g. subscriptions, membership fees or payment in installments) is comparatively low overall, at 19%. Despite the fact that sales revenues generated from foreign customers are not insignificant, those customers are offered fewer payment options than domestic customers. Very few companies (3% of respondents) offer their foreign customers additional payment methods that are in more frequent use in other countries. ibi research Page 10
11 Management Summary (7/10) 5 The reduction in the risk of payment defaults when using the billing, credit card or direct-debit methods is considered one of the main challenges faced by companies in future Three-quarters of enterprises cite the elimination of payment defaults as one of the three main challenges faced in the development of payment settlement processes for electronic commerce, with the provision of customer-friendly payment methods being second, at 66%. The reason for this is the increasing number of delays and defaults in payments: About half the companies report that the frequency of payment defaults has increased over the last two years, and half of them also expect a further increase in the next two years. Only six per cent of respondents indicate a decline in the number of payment defaults. Almost every second company reports negative experiences in the settlement of payments. 51% of the companies have had to file for a default judgment or court payment order in the past, and 38% had to go as far as applying for judicial execution. What is your opinion concerning payment defaults and fraud in online trading within the next 2 years? will decrease no change no opinion 6% n = 312 companies 25% 18% 51% will increase Few businesses are prepared to forego measures designed to reduce the risk of payment defaults, especially in the case of new customers, and for billing amounts above a certain level. ibi research Page 11
12 Management Summary (8/10) To reduce the risk of payment defaults, small businesses tend to prefer simple measures such as cash on delivery or advance payment, or the engagement of fiduciary services. This contrasts with the practice among large companies, which much more frequently involves checking a customer's delivery address, or obtaining information about negative characteristics of a customer, such as a score based on demographic markers. Large companies are also more likely to pass on the risk of defaults onto third parties by means of factoring, or to take out insurance against payment defaults. Where credit card payments are accepted, checksum verification of the credit card number, requesting the card validation number and payment authorization prior to delivery are practices already well established. There is also a discernible trend towards employing password checks (e.g. MasterCard SecureCode and Verified by Visa): one in five businesses accepting credit cards is already using this method, and about just as many are planning to use it in future. Professional sellers using the Internet as a sales channel are already putting an aboveaverage effort into checking credit card payment details today. 6 Overall optimization of payment settlement processes hampered by media disruptions The processing of the data provided by customers (e.g. name, delivery address, goods required, account or credit card information) involves a great number of systems. For example, more than 80% of companies compare the data provided in their web shop with the data in their customer database initially, so as to check whether a customer with matching information already exists in the database. Other systems involved are merchandise management systems, accounting systems as well as systems operated by external service providers, e.g. for the purpose of risk assessment and payment processing. Transferring the data, especially when handling returned goods or return debits of payments and when exchanging direct-debit and account statement data, is often carried out manually. For this reason, there is a risk that due to inadequate automation of the payment settlement processes, delays and errors can occur in the transfer of data that are likely to annoy customers and lead to high levels of arrears and a lack of control over inventories of receivables. ibi research Page 12
13 Management Summary (9/10) About one in four businesses is therefore planning to increase the degree of process automation in such fields as billing, accounting and payment tracking / reminders in future. Small businesses in particular indicate a need for action in the areas of payment tracking / reminders and bookkeeping. Large companies, in contrast, are already putting greater effort into the automation of customer risk assessment measures. High savings potentials exist particularly in the area of billing, where the electronic transmission of invoices will result in a reduction in the cost of printing and mailing for the invoicing party, as well as opening up the possibility of automating the transfer of the billing information into the accounting systems of companies receiving the invoice. However, the recipient of the invoice will only be able to claim a refund of the value-added tax shown on the invoice from the revenue authorities if the invoice bears a qualified electronic signature. The results of the survey show that as many as 44% of companies are already using the advantages of sending invoices in electronic form (e.g. as pdf documents or EDI data records), but that only 3% add a qualified electronic signature to their invoices. In what form do you send E-Commerce invoices for online transactions to your customer? (multiple answers possible) 78% Invoice is printed out to be sent via mail n = 307 companies 44% Billing in electronic format 11% Invoice mailing usually not necessary 3% Electronic billing including electronic signature ibi research Page 13
14 Management Summary (10/10) 7 Services offered by external providers could well contribute to the optimization of payment settlement processes, especially for small businesses, but they are rarely used at present The results of the study indicate that due to their limited resources, small businesses are often at a disadvantage in competing with medium-scale and large enterprises. They are unable to offer their customers as many contact channels, their measures are designed to avoid delay and defaults in payments are less effective, and the proportion of tasks in processing orders and payments that are still being carried out manually is higher than in medium-sized and large companies. One possible means of eliminating competitive disadvantages due to the lack of economies of scale in processing transactions would be the increased use of services offered by external providers (e.g. banks, payment service providers, credit inquiry agencies, factoring agencies, EBPP service providers or dunning and collection service providers) in the settlement processes. It is evident, however, that right across businesses of all sizes, only few tasks in the payment settlement process chain are currently being outsourced to external providers. Only customer risk assessment and the integration of payment processes in the web shop are being outsourced to external service providers by more than one-quarter of the enterprises. We can expect, however, that the proportion of services obtained from external sources will increase in future. Professional sales organizations using the Internet as a sales channel are already using external service providers for risk assessments and dunning / collection services more frequently than do the other types of enterprises. Business across the board tend to be critical of the limited range of services offered by the external providers they are currently using for payment processing. Responses to the question about the types of services they would like to see offered by an external service provider in future focused, in addition to credit card processing (37%), especially on risk assessment (51%), dunning / collection (36%) and the processing of payments in installments and loans (23%). ibi research Page 14
15 1.4 Partners in conducting the study Partnership structure of the study The study set out to produce scientifically valid results that are highly relevant to the practical needs both of businesses selling their merchandise and services over the Internet and of service providers aiming to render the best possible support to these businesses. In addition to the ibi research institute, which had primary responsibility for the design, implementation and evaluation of the study, the company Wirecard and the Regensburg Chamber of Commerce and Industry made particularly important contributions toward ensuring the successful outcome of the study. Wirecard was able to provide the study with critical input since in its daily business practice the company has gained first-hand experience of many of the problems businesses encounter when processing payments on the Internet. The partners in the study agreed that empirical validation of these problems would be useful both for the businesses (allowing them to learn from the examples of other businesses) and for service providers (by giving them more insight into the needs of their customers). Wirecard personnel made themselves available at all times and acted as competent partners in the design of the questionnaire. The Regensburg Chamber of Commerce and Industry lent support by making suggestions regarding the content of the questionnaire and by providing contact details of their member companies. Both Wirecard and the Regensburg Chamber of Commerce and Industry are key partners in the research project "Boosting international competitiveness of SMEs by internationalizing financial services", which is sponsored by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research. The results of the study presented here will also make contribution towards ensuring that the outcome of that project will be relevant in practice. In addition to these partner organizations, our thanks also go to the participating enterprises, as well as to the media representatives who helped in publicizing the study. ibi research Page 15
16 1.4 Partners in conducting the study Research project "Boosting international competitiveness of SMEs by internationalizing financial services" The Chair for Business Informatics II of the University of Regensburg and ibi research have been engaged in the project KMUFinanz (sponsorship ref. code 01HQ0514), sponsored by the BMBF, at the University of Regensburg since the middle of 2005 with the objective of identifying options to provide small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) with financial services tailored to their specific requirements. Due especially to the digitalization and internationalization of business transactions, the crosscompany financial transaction chains are currently undergoing dramatic changes. Based on sound analyses, the project aims to provide financial services providers with practical advice on how to provide SMEs with suitable and effective support. Research activities focus on methods for automated recognition of financial services requirements of SMEs, expert systems to support SMEs in the design of secure payment processes, and suitable methods of integrating the services of different service provides into the financial chains of SMEs. To ensure that the project outcomes are suitable for implementation, the work is being carried out in consultation with technology partners, SMEs and financial service providers. Project duration: 01/07/2005 to 31/08/2007 Internet: ibi research Page 16
17 Contacts ibi research GmbH Dr. Ernst Stahl, Thomas Krabichler Markus Breitschaft, Georg Wittmann Regerstr Regensburg Tel.: +49 (0)941 / Fax: +49 (0)941 / Web: ibi research Page 17
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