1 Nanotechnology Conquers Markets German Innovation Initiative for Nanotechnology
2 Imprint Photo credit, title page: Published by Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung/ Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) Publications and Website Division Berlin Getty Images Photo: Stephen Derr Orders in writing to the publisher Postfach Bonn or by phone: +49 (0) Fax: +49 (0) (0.12 Euro/min.) Internet: Edited by BMBF, Referat 521 VDI Technologiezentrum GmbH, Düsseldorf Authors Volker Rieke, BMBF Dr. Gerd Bachmann, VDI TZ GmbH Layout Suzy Coppens, Köln Printed by Druckhaus Locher GmbH, Köln Bonn, Berlin 2004 Printed on recycled paper
3 Nanotechnology Conquers Markets German Innovation Initiative for Nanotechnology
4 Contents 4-5 Summary 6 Nanotechnology an interdisciplinary opportunity for innovations 6-8 Nanotechnology in research and development 9-12 Products and possible applications Present situation in science, business and politics 15 Players on the nanotechnology scene in Germany 15 Project funding by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) 16 Networks Institutional research establishments 19 Universities and other research establishments Industrial R&D 20 Nanotechnology funding in Germany German activities in comparison to other countries
5 23-25 Germany s innovation initiative for nanotechnology New strategy for funding and support of nanotechnology by the BMBF Exploiting nanotechnology s market and employment potential through R&D Using leading-edge innovations for applications 34 Creating research networks to promote innovation 35 Acquiring, developing and safeguarding the fundamentals of the technical sciences 36 Exploiting the opportunities for european and international cooperation 37 Strengthening the role of SMEs Stabilizing new companies and encouraging established ones to relocate 39 Promoting the young and developing qualifications Fostering young scientists 41 Identifying qualification needs and developing expertise at an early stage 42 Using opportunities for the good of society while avoiding risks Evaluating the social consequences 44 Developing legal guidelines 45 Evaluation 46 Appendix Examples of objectives for the application of nanotechnology by relevant sector
6 4 Summary Summary Often described as the technology of the future, nanotechnology is attracting growing interest worldwide. Its distinguishing feature is that it gives rise to new functionalities solely as a result of the nanoscale dimensions of the system components functionalities that lead to new and improved product properties. Because of this feature, and thanks to continually improving analytical and preparatory capabilities, nanotechnology has matured into a dominant focus of R&D activities in the last two decades. This new discipline will probably not only extend our ability to influence the properties of materials in specific ways, but also help us to better utilize them, and to integrate nanostructures into complex total systems. What s more, it will do so to an extent that could be termed revolutionary. It does not, therefore, represent a basic technology in the classical sense one with clearly defined parameters. Instead, it describes a new interdisciplinary approach that will help us to make further progress in the fields of biotechnology, electronics, optics and new materials. Nanotechnological advances do not serve as replacements for existing applications in these fields their effect is rather to drive them to higher levels of functionality. In our everyday environments, we are surrounded by a broad spectrum of products that have already benefited from breakthroughs in nanotechnology. These include products as diverse as the hard disk drives in our computers, sunscreens with high UV protection factors and dirt-repellent surfaces in our showers. What s more, interdisciplinary perspectives, particularly those spanning a range of industries, are opening up nanotechnology s new potential for innovation potential that could not be formulated in detail until now. This development represents a qualitative leap as far as the application and further commercial use of nanotechnology is concerned. As a result, the time has come to take concrete action and formulate research policy. The race for the inside track as we strive to conquer the nanocosmos is already proceeding at top speed. Today the United States and Japan are investing enormously in this area as are China, Korea and Taiwan. And the efforts of the latter three countries should not be underestimated. However, by establishing nanotechnology as an R&D priority of the EU s Sixth Framework Programme (FP6), which began in 2002, the European Commission has responded to this competitive situation. The Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) faced up to this challenge early on. Even as far back as 1998, a supporting infrastructure plan was put in place with the establishment of six competence networks. That was in addition to increasing the BMBF s collaborative project funding for this area. And although these measures did not receive the international recognition they warranted, they were implemented two years before the USA began its national initiative and four years before the European Union s comparable measures in the Sixth Framework Programme. That is the reason why Germany is today Europe s leading nation in the field of nanotechnology. To remain successful in the face of increasing globalisation, Germany must concentrate on its business and science know-how and make better use of these assets. An international comparison of the shares of publications and patents from the world s nations shows that Germany s work in the scientific domains of nanotechnology largely remains separated from application and product-orientated areas of R&D. In other words, there is still a lot of catching up to do in the area of industrial implementation. This is where the development of products and systems based on nanotechnological advances and the integration of nanostructures in microscopic and macroscopic environments present an opportunity that must not be missed. In many areas of nanotechnology, Germany is still out in front of many other countries in terms of knowledge. This know-how, together with the production and sales structures needed for implementation and Germany s internationally renowned expertise in the area of systems integration, must be resolutely exploited in the marketplace.
7 5 This is exactly where the German innovation initiative for nanotechnology is taking up the challenge. On the basis of the white paper presented at the nanode congress in 2002 and intensive discussions with representatives from business and science, the BMBF s new approach to nanotechnology funding starting from Germany s highly-developed and globally competitive basic research in sciences and technology primarily aims to open up the application potential of nanotechnology through research collaborations (leading-edge innovations) that strategically target the value-added chain. In addition, the BMBF is working to counteract the danger of a shortage of qualified scientists and technicians through its education policy activities. For many of Germany s important industrial sectors including the automotive business, IT, chemistry, pharmaceuticals and optics the future competitiveness of their products depends on the opening up of the nanocosmos. Moreover, technology and innovation are increasingly becoming the deciding factors in the struggle to remain competitive in the face of the various challenges posed by low-wage countries. In other words, new technological trends such as nanotechnology will almost certainly have a powerful impact on the labour market of the 21st century and thus on ensuring Germany s continuing prosperity. Dawn has already broken on a new era characterized by the dynamic growth of nanotechnology; the challenge ahead is to set the course of future funding and to direct the breakthrough. The current overall strategy defines the framework for the BMBF s new approach to nanotechnology funding in the future. The main elements of this strategy are: + To open up potential markets and boost employment prospects in the field of nanotechnology the green light will initially be given to funding for four leading-edge innovations (NanoMobil / automotive sector; NanoLux / optics industry; NanoforLife / pharmaceuticals, medical technology; and NanoFab / electronics) NanoChance, a new BMBF funding measure for targeted support of R&Dintensive small and medium-sized enterprises, which offers existing companies assistance in the early stage of consolidation, will be established the coordination between institutional BMBF funding here especially with regard to synergy effects with the programmeorientated research of the HGF (Helmholtz Association) Centres and funding for nanosciences through the DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) and project support based on structural measures (networking, determining core topics, regular knowledge exchanges) will be optimised. + Measures to support innovation will also be implemented to supplement these main elements. For the funding of young scientists, the Junior Researcher Nanotechnology Competition will be continued. The aim of this competition, which was founded in May 2002, is to recognize new innovative approaches at an early stage and to attract top young scientists who have emigrated abroad back to Germany. In addition, activities in the areas of standardization, patents, and training and further education will be launched. + The dialogue on innovation and technology assessment will be actively pursued in order to give objectivity and thus direction to the partially critical public discussion about the opportunities and risks associated with nanotechnology. What s more, the available results of three commissioned studies on innovation and technology assessment are evaluated in order to develop optional courses of action for the socially acceptable use of nanotechnology.
8 6 Nanotechnology an interdisciplinary opportunity for innovations Nanotechnology an interdisciplinary opportunity for innovations Nanotechnology in research and development Nanotechnology refers to the creation, investigation and application of structures, molecular materials, internal interfaces or surfaces with at least one critical dimension or with manufacturing tolerances of (typically) less than 100 nanometres. The decisive factor is that the very nanoscale of the system components results in new functionalities and properties for improving products or developing new products and applications. These novel effects and possibilities result mainly from the ratio of surface atoms to bulk atoms and from the quantum-mechanical behaviour of the building blocks of matter. Structuring with single atoms Source: Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universität Kiel A nanometre (nm) equals one millionth of a millimetre. That corresponds roughly to the length of a chain of 5 to 10 atoms. By comparison, the cross-section of a human hair is 50,000 times larger. However, a single atom or molecule does not possess the properties we are familiar with, such as electrical conductivity, magnetism, colour, mechanical hardness or a specific melting point. On the other hand, even materials the size of a dust particle possess all of those physical properties
9 7 History The development of the scanning tunnel microscope (STM) in 1981 represented a milestone in the evolution of nanotechnology by providing the first direct access to the atomic world. In 1986 this achievement was honoured with the Nobel Prize in physics. Today, nanotechnology encompasses far more than the use of microscopes with atomic-scale resolution. Several nanomaterials with valuable innovative properties can already be manufactured on a large scale. Surfaces can be processed with nanoscale precision. And in specific instances, complex structures a few nanometres in size can already be created through self-organisation. As early as the mid-1980s, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) recognised that potential applications of nanotechnology were going to arouse intense discussion in all leading industrial nations, and that a remarkable increase in worldwide research activities would ensue. This insight resulted in sponsored projects starting in the early 1990s. To optimise the organisation of this increasingly complex field of technology, a supporting infrastructure in the form of competence centres was put in place starting in the late 1990s in parallel with the funding of projects. Today, BMBF-sponsored nanotechnology projects alone encompass programmes in nanoelectronics, nanomaterials, optical technologies, microsystems engineering, biotechnology, communications technologies and production systems with a total budget amounting to about 100 million annually and increasing. just as much as a steel object weighing tons. Nanotechnology, then, exists in the transitional range between individual atoms or molecules on the one hand and larger solid objects on the other. Phenomena that are not seen in macroscopic objects occur in this intermediate region. This interrelation of structural size and function makes it difficult to establish exactly what to include in the definition of nanotechnology. The following examples illustrate the new functionalities made available through nanotechnology: + The increasing complexity of information technology creates a need for new nanoelectronic and optoelectronic components with capabilities based in part on quantum-mechanical effects. + Structural sizes on the nanoscale alter the sensory properties of known materials to such an extent that new and more versatile sensors are created. + Ultra-small particles can be used for new applications of paints and coatings. These include different colours due to controlled changes in particle size and endowing transparent coatings with specific functionalities such as dirt-repellent seals or UV protection. + Minimal admixtures of nanomaterials produce substantial changes in solids. Plastic films, for instance, gain in tear strength, while ceramic materials become virtually unbreakable. + The chemical reactivity and the useful life of catalysts can be substantially increased by means of making appropriate changes to the structure and composition of their surface. Such property changes are largely the result of a new approach in the utilisation of dimension, form and composition to achieve new functional principles of a physical, chemical and biological nature. Due to this trend towards integration, nanotechnology has evolved mainly along three routes that converge on the nanolevel. + In recent decades, physico-technical methods have been the principal driver behind the generation of increasingly complex circuits and consequently smaller structures (top-down endeavours) in microelectronics. We can find off-the-shelf processors with ever faster clock speeds as well as memory components and disk drives with larger and larger capacities. Typical sizes of chip structures already reach below the 100-nm limit.
10 8 + Insights from coordination chemistry and supramolecular chemistry have led to the deliberate creation of high-molecular, functional chemical compounds with enormous potential for applications in catalysis, membrane technology, sensing systems and thin-film technology (bottom-up endeavours). + Very recently, our understanding of biological processes has been substantially expanded at both the cellular and molecular levels. This new knowledge includes many processes such as the information flow from the gene to the protein, the selforganisation of molecules and photosynthesis whose functionality and complexity has so far remained unattainable by technological means. In the future, the focus will be on applying the underlying biological principles more and more to technical systems. At the same time, biotechnology provides an ever larger toolbox of methods useful in designing customised, functional molecules that bring us within reaching distance of biologicaltechnical hybrid systems for such applications as implants, neurochips or artificial retinas. Most importantly, the methods of one discipline can be usefully complemented by processes and scientific insights from other fields. In examining nanoscale objects or in making specific structural changes, scientists generally use physical methods. The production of nanoscale particles, on the other hand, occurs primarily within the realm of chemistry. Nanoobjects such as structural proteins, enzymes and viruses, however, are created by self-organisation according to the laws of nature, and a large proportion of the basic processes, such as cellular energy generation processes (such as the respiratory chain or photosynthesis), occur on the nanoscale, i.e. at the molecular level. Bridging the gap between the macro, micro and nanoworlds is the task of system integration techniques. The required systems technologies include design and simulation tools and methods, assembly and joining technology, test methods, and appropriate production processes. Important demands on the assembly and joining technologies at the micro-nano interface include the realisation of the necessary mechanical, electromechanical or biochemical connections as well as the use of microsystems technology in the positioning and wiring of nanocomponents. General tendencies in the developement of nanotechnology Source: VDI Technologiezentrum GmbH
11 9 Products and possible applications Nanotechnology is increasingly contributing to the production of R&D-intensive products in the most diverse sectors of business. In many cases, successful product development is driven by the demand for extreme reductions in weight, volume, raw-materials utilisation and energy consumption, and by the need for speed. Nanotechnology is exceptional in that it often meets many of these criteria simultaneously. As a result, a boom of innovations is expected in virtually all high-technology industries, for example in information and communications technology, in automotive, power and production engineering, in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries and in medicine and biotechnology. The following are some examples of common products that are already benefiting from advances in nanotechnology and remain promising candidates for large markets. + Every day we use computers, MP3 players, CD/DVD systems or mobile phones containing microchips, hard disks, RAM memory, diode lasers, displays, rechargeable batteries or new ceramic materials that have been optimised by the results of nanotechnology. + LEDs in indicator panels, tail lights and flashlights convert electrical energy into light much more efficiently than incandescent bulbs while generating less heat. + Nanometre-sized oxide particles endow sunscreen products with a high protection factor and are dermatologically safe. Such UV-absorbing nanoparticles are also used in some sunscreen fabrics, paints and lacquers, and in UV-reflecting films with potential new agricultural uses. + Nanoparticles in protective coatings for household appliances, spectacle lenses, glazing materials for sanitary applications or in exterior house paints prevent scratches, tarnishing, smudging or algal growth. + Chemical nanotechnology prevents fading of auto paints and protects them against scratches due to road dust. + The daily vitamin pill would be ineffectual but for its nanoparticulate composition, which determines its solubility in water and thereby its availability to the human body. + The admixture of natural nanoparticulate materials improves the absorbency of nappies and increases the tear strength as well as the airtightness of plastic wrap. These examples show that the current focus of R&D activities in the high-technology countries tends to be on improving products in already established applications in order to make them more competitive. To a large extent, the production of typical nanoproducts must still await the completion of basic research, and that is projected to require several years, and in some cases decades. Society will then be able to enjoy the prospects of increased environmental compatibility of lifestyle and mobility, drastically improved communications and information as well as optimised healthcare. Nanotechnology can contribute to better quality of care at less cost in an aging society through improved and more economical diagnostic and treatment methods, including nanostructured biochips, nanoprobes, intelligent depot medications for sustained release, microsystems to complement organic functions, and artificial substrate materials for tissue implants.
12 10 Even today it is possible to envision examples of future applications in these areas that are likely to benefit substantially from the advances in nanotechnology. + Automotive engineering is pursuing applications to which nanotechnology can make a significant contribution. In this quest, new technical refinements are useful both functionally (minimised fuel consumption, driving safety, long product life) and cosmetically (e.g. switchable paints). The car of the future will respond intelligently both to environmental stimuli and to driver behaviour. Windows and mirrors will adjust to exterior lighting. Tyres will have good traction on the most diverse road surfaces. And multiple sensors will proactively adjust the driving condition to a change in weather or an impending collision. Switchable colour changes in the paint and easier modifications using lightweight designs will allow customised styling. New knowledge in nanotechnology will contribute to optimised combustion and emission control, a reduction in body weight, the development of self-healing paint, wear-resistant tyres with good road grip, and functional window glass. Electronics already contribute a disproportionately large share to the added value in automobile manufacturing. The importance of automotive electronics will continue to grow and, in keeping with the auto industry s role as a technology driver, spur on the development of nanoelectronic innovations into marketable products. + Machine and plant construction contributes to the advancement of nanotechnology applications in two different contexts. On the one hand, this discipline makes new manufacturing and systems technologies available (methods for producing Current status of nanotechnology and some application fields illustrated by examples. The timeline for the introduction into the market is in some cases no more than a kind of educated guessing. Forecasting the fate of developements at the time of their onset is especially risky. Source: VDI Technologiezentrum GmbH
13 11 nanostructures, ultra-precision processing, systems for nanobiotechnology and nanochemistry). On the other, the use of nanostructures in function-determining layers, in measuring instruments and in sensing systems makes it possible to design better machines and plants. As a result, the productivity and reliability of machines and plants is increased, making this traditionally strong German industry and its products even more competitive. + The development of highly efficient or even autonomous power supplies for portable devices is an urgent priority in power engineering. Disposable as well as rechargeable batteries continue to be unsatisfactory with respect to weight and performance. But a combination of economical electrical and electronic components, efficient lighting and display systems, and above all innovative energy storage devices such as small-format fuel cells is expected to provide new solutions. What s more, integrated energy converters based on nanotechnology, such as highly efficient solar cells or innovative materials that directly convert heat into electricity (thermoelectric materials) may provide a replacement for rechargeable batteries in low-power applications. That would give an enormous boost to products such as portable electronics and diagnostic systems (wearable electronics). + In medicine, the focus continues to be on diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for managing widespread diseases such as cancer and diabetes. In this field, nanoparticles represent a new platform technology. They can be accumulated in the tumour as a selective contrast medium for medical imaging, or destroy tumour tissues locally by heating them, or, even more importantly, by transporting specifically effective therapeutic agents. In the long term, these particles also appear to point the way to noninvasive methods for early diagnosis. What s more, these techniques will be complemented by diagnostic applications of biochips produced by nanoand microsystems technology. A virtual boom is already under way in the use of these chips in pharmaceutical research and laboratory applications. The expansion of biochip technologies brings us a significant step closer to the distant goal of individualised medicine, in which prompt on-site diagnostics will be complemented by customised medications. The first drug delivery systems for EUVL stepper for the IC fabrication Source: Carl Zeiss SMT AG
14 12 transporting chemotherapeutic agents to the tumour are now close to being approved. of such an electronic assistant would rival that of a present-day computing centre. + In the field of information and communications, the availability of any desired information, any time, anywhere in the world, would be an objective toward which nanotechnologies, and especially nanoelectronics, can make a significant contribution. In the future one should be able to use a device of negligible size (comparable to a wristwatch, say) to access any required information, or to communicate with any desired party. In such devices, the information should not merely appear as a string of characters on a tiny display. Instead, the user should be able to select the preferred presentation from a diversity of processed formats, ranging perhaps from text-to-speech all the way to three-dimensional holographic images. These devices would provide medical on-line diagnostic capability with automatic alerts, and their data storage would have the capacity of a national library. The computing power + In optics too, developments are opening up a wide range of potential future products. Optoelectronic components already play an important part in home entertainment (CD/DVD, laser TV, projection systems, optical interconnects) and will continue to grow in importance, as will lighting technologies based on optoelectronic components, such as largearea light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Due to their long service life and high efficiency, optoelectronic light sources are not only more reliable than conventional light sources; they also consume much less energy and are therefore more cost-efficient. What s more, optical lenses of any desired geometry and manufactured with nanometre precision will be used for highly precise, function-specific conduction and deflection of light in applications such as data equipment and (home) cinema projectors, lithography or medical systems. Nanosystems in our future life Source: Siemens AG OLEDs for displays Artificial hip joints made by biocompatible materials Fuel cells deliver electricity for mobiles and cars Intelligente clothings measure pulse and breathing frequency Scratch resistant window glass cleans itself with a lotus effect Light emitting diodes compete with conventional bulbs Buckytube-frame is lightweight and tough Nanotubes for new notebook-displays
15 Present situation in science, business and politics 13 Present situation in science, business and politics During the course of the past decade, advances in our understanding of quantum effects, boundary properties and surface properties, as well as of the principles of self-organisation, have laid the foundations for innovative analytical and production techniques which have caused an upsurge of interest in nanotechnology and global networking activities along the value-added chain. This interest has been boosted in particular by the early combination of basic research results and application options, and by the resulting expectations regarding potential markets. The players on Germany s nanotechnology scene were among the world s first to address potential applications at an early stage, on the basis of solid and broad-based fundamental research. More than 100 companies in Germany have already recognised these innovation opportunities and are using nanotechnology knowhow in their core business. Today, a total of about 400 to 500 companies in Germany are involved with nanotechnology and are becoming increasingly active in this field as product developers, suppliers or investors. These companies do not view nanotechnological R&D work as a short-lived fashion but are taking a long-term approach in addressing key elements for future innovation in industries with a large job-creation potential, primarily in the automotive and machine-construction industries, in chemicals and pharmaceuticals, in the optical industry, medicine and biotechnology, as well as in power generation and construction. Many small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that can be ranked as pure nano businesses have sprung up in Germany. These flexible innovation companies occupy specific niches in the value-added chain and make an important contribution to know-how transfer from research to industry. SMEs consequently serve a key function in most high-technology fields, and establishing innovative start-ups is therefore of enormous importance in the young nanotechnology industry too.
16 14 Source: Flad&Flad Communication GmbH
17 15 Players on the nanotechnology scene in Germany The success of nanotechnology in Germany is based on a large cast of players in business, science and government in other words, on a substantial public and private commitment. Project funding by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) to nanotechnology, for instance in the Laser Research and Optoelectronics programmes. Today, many projects related to nanotechnology are supported through a considerable number of specialized programmes. Examples include Materials Innovations for Industry and Society (WING), IT Research 2006, the Optical Technologies Sponsorship Programme and the Biotechnology Framework Programme. From 1998 to 2004, the volume of funded joint projects in Table 1: : Expenditures on nanotechnology within various BMBF core topic areas BMBF nanotechnology funding Core topic areas (in million ) Nanomaterials Nanoanalytics, nanobiotechnology, 19,2 20,3 32,7 38,1 nanostructured materials, nanochemistry, CCN, new nano talent recruting, nano opportunity Production technologies Ultrathin films, ultraprecise 0,2 0,8 2,2 2,2 surfaces Optical technologies Nanooptics, ultraprecision processing, 18,5 25,2 26,0 26,0 microscopy, photonic crystals, molecular electronics, diode lasers, OLEDs Microsystems technology Systems integration, nano-sensors, 7,0 7,0 9,4 10,2 nano-actors, energy systems Communications technologies Quantum structure systems, 4,3 4,0 3,6 3,4 photonic crystals Nanoelectronics EUVL, lithography, 19,9 25,0 44,7 46,2 mask technology, e-biochips, magnetoelectronics, SiGe electronics, Nanobiotechnology Manipulation technologies, functiona- 4,6 5,4 5,0 3,1 lised nanoparticles, biochips, Innovation and technology analyses ITA studies 0,2 0,5 0,2 Total (in million ) 27,6 73,9 88,2 123,8 129,2 Since the late 1980s, the BMBF has been funding nanotechnology research activities in the contexts of its Materials Research and Physical Technologies programmes. Initial core topic areas included the production of nanopowders, the creation of lateral structures on silicon and the development of nanoanalytical methods. BMBF support was later expanded to also include other programmes with relevance nanotechnology has quadrupled to about 120 million. Table 1 lists BMBF expenditures on nanotechnology research in various core topic areas for the fiscal years 1998 and 2002 to In addition to BMBF-funded research, project-related investments are also financed by the Ministry of Economics and Employment (BMWA) in the Physikalisch-Technische
18 16 Bundesanstalt (PTB the national metrology institute) and the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), as well as nanotechnology-related projects in the PRO INNO innovation competency programme for SMEs. These projects are funded to the tune of about 25 million annually. Networks BMBF-funded competence centres (CCN) In 1998, the BMBF established six competence centres with an annual funding of approx. 2 million. In Phase 3, starting in the autumn of 2003, nine competence centres have begun or continued their work as nationwide, subject-specific networks with regional clusters in the most important areas of nanotechnology: + Ultrathin functional layers (Dresden) + Nanomaterials: Functionality by chemistry (Saarbrücken) large corporations (12%), small and medium-sized enterprises (31%) as well as financial services, consultants and associations (totalling 5%). The information sharing supported by the competence centres is particularly helpful for small companies to keep them informed about current developments and what such developments mean to them. In the next three years, the centres intend to focus especially on training and continuing education, and on supporting start-up companies. In the future, BMBF funding will also be complemented by regional financing through the Federal States to the same amount. CCN evaluation results: + Successful integration of several scientific and technical disciplines + Established forum for science and industry + Established a nano discipline + Networks along the value-added chain + Achieved international visibility + Primary contact for interested parties + Accelerated the innovation process + Ultraprecise surface processing (Braunschweig) Other networks + Nanobioanalytics (Münster) + HanseNanoTec (Hamburg) + Nanoanalytics (München) + Nanostructures in optoelectronics NanOp (Berlin) + NanoBioTech (Kaiserslautern) Besides the competence centres that are directly supported by the BMBF, several other networks have evolved that pursue different goals and are therefore differently structured. In contrast to networks with a (virtual) structure that is generally nationwide, several universities and research centres have consolidated their nanotechnological basic research activities through local in some cases even internal networks. Examples include: + NanoMat (Karlsruhe; established and financed by the FZK) The purpose of the infrastructural activity of these competence centres is to optimise the conditions for bringing potential users and nanotechnology researchers together. The centres will efficiently focus the nanotechnological knowledge of their members and convert it into industrial development. Other tasks of the competence centres include in particular activities related to training and continuing education, collaboration on issues concerning standardisation and regulations, consulting and support of would-be entrepreneurs and public-relations work. The individual competence centres are organised along the subject-specific value-added chain in their respective fields. The entire network presently interlinks approximately 440 players from the academic sphere (29%), research institutions (23%), + CeNS (München), + CINSAT (Kassel), + CNI (Jülich) + CFN (Karlsruhe). The NanoBioNet in the Saarland region also has a strong regional focus.the establishment of incubators founded by universities plays a very special part by supporting spin-offs in the academic environment. To meet this objective, CenTech GmbH in Münster, for example, has established its own start-up support centre.
19 17 Institutional research establishments Institutional nanotechnology funding (in million ) Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG} 60,0 60,0 60,0 60,0 Wissensgemeinschaft G.W. Leibniz (WGL) 23,7 23,6 23,4 23,5 Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft (HGF) 38,2 37,1 37,4 37,8 Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG) 14,8 14,8 14,8 14,8 Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft (FhG) 4,6 5,4 5,2 4,9 Caesar 1,8 3,3 4,0 4,4 Total (in million ) 143,1 144,2 144,8 145,4 Table 2: Funds for nanotechnology research in the context of DFG funding and institutional funding. Wissenschaftsgemeinschaft G. W. Leibniz (WGL) In Germany, institutional research in nanotechnology outside the universities is pursued by the four large research associations: MPG, FhG, HGF and WGL. These associations maintain numerous research establishments or working groups whose range of activities includes nanotechnology research. What s more, these partners are also integrated into many collaborative research programmes and priority programs of the DFG. Table 2 lists the public expenditures on nanotechnology-related research in DFG funded projects, and expenditures on institutional support by the BMBF jointly with the Federal States. The institutes of the WGL (G.W. Leibniz Science Association) conduct basic and industrially orientated work in nanotechnology. Some of their principal efforts are focused on nanomaterials research, in which the Institutes for New Materials (INM, Saarbrücken), for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW, Dresden) and for Polymer Research (IPF, Dresden) rank among the leaders; and on surface technology, for instance at the Institute for Surface Modification (IOM, Leipzig) and at the Rossendorf Research Centre (FZR). Work at the Paul-Drude-Institut (PDI, Berlin) includes basic research in solid state electronics. The INM is strictly a nanotechnology centre. In addition to the application-related development of new nanomaterials with heat-resistant, anti-reflecting, electrochromic, self-cleaning and other properties, the institute is also engaged in technology transfer. Several start-up companies are already doing business as spin-offs of the INM. The INM develops processing and manufacturing methods for diverse nanomaterials up to and including readiness for actual use (including contract development on behalf of industry). Fire protection materials with nanoscaled fillers Source: Institut für Neue Materialien, Saarbrücken
20 18 Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft deutscher Forschungszentren (HGF) The HGF (Helmholtz Association of National Research Centres) also conducts work on issues related to materials and nanoelectronics. Especially noteworthy is the work at the two research centres in Karlsruhe (FZK) and Jülich (FZJ). R&D on nanomaterials and thin-film systems is also pursued at the research centre in Geesthacht (GKSS) and at the Hahn-Meitner-Institut in Berlin (HMI). At the FZK, the research field Key Technologies NANO focuses on two subjects: nanoelectronics and nanostructured materials. The Centre has moreover joined the Universities of Karlsruhe and Strasbourg in establishing the NanoValley research association. This research is conducted at the newlybuilt Institute for Nanotechnology (INT) of the FZK. Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG) Work at the institutes of the MPG (Max Planck Society) is contributing fundamentally important knowledge towards new approaches in nanotechnology research. The Institute for Solid State Research and Metals Research in Stuttgart and the MPI for Microstructure Physics in Halle for instances have been active for many years in the fields of nanomaterials, characterisation methods and new functionalities. Internationally recognized R&D achievements have also been contributed by the Institutes for Polymer Research (Mainz), for Colloid and Boundary Layer Research (Golm), for Biochemistry (Munich-Martinsried), for Coal Research (Mülheim), and by the Fritz-Haber Institute (Berlin). Fraunhofer Gesellschaft (FhG) Since an industrial demand already exists in most areas of nanotechnology, many institutes of the FhG (Fraunhofer Society) conduct projects focused on specific applications jointly with industrial companies. Some of these efforts are focused on thin-film and surface technologies, a field in which the FhG has been supported by the BMBF for many years. The Institutes for Materials and Laser Beam Technology (IWS, Dresden), for Silicate Research (ISC, Würzburg), for Optics and Precision Mechanics (IOF, Jena) and for Boundary Layer Research (IGB, Stuttgart) have been very active in this subject area. Nanomaterials research receives high priority at the Institutes for Applied Materials Research (IFAM, Bremen), for Applied Solid State Physics (IAF, Freiburg) and for Chemical Technology (ICT, Pfinztal), among others. The Institutes for Silicon Technology (ISIT, Itzehoe) and for Production Technology (IPT, Aachen) are exploring the interface of microtechnology and nanotechnology. The Fraunhofer Institute for Reliability and Microintegration (IZM, Berlin) is making contributions in particular to assembly and interconnection technology. The Institute for Biomedical Technology (IBMT, St. Ingbert) is exploring links to nanobiotechnology. The Institute for Solar Energies (ISE, Freiburg) is investigating the contribution of nanotechnology to energy production. The FhG-IBMT conducts nanobiotechnology research. The principal research areas here are biosensor systems and biochip research. Specific research subjects include, among others, biosensing technology, biohybrid systems, molecular bioanalytics and bioelectronics, as well as medical biotechnology & biochip technology. The MPI for Solid State Research emphasizes close collaboration between the different disciplines of physics and chemistry as well as between experimentally and theoretically active scientists. The centre conducts nanoresearch and technology particularly in the following areas: nanoionics, carbon nanotubes, nm-thin films, barrier layers and nanoparticles. Animal cell (fibroblast) on a nanostructured substrate Source: Fraunhofer IBMT, St. Ingbert