1 1.2 Procedure Real-Life Examples Identification of Plastics Polymers have a characteristic molecular structure and morphology. DSC often enables unknown polymers to be identified from their characteristic melting and glass transition temperatures. Figure 1.47 shows melting peaks for different semicrystalline plastics, which can be reliably identified from the melting peak temperature T pm. The curves stem from the 2 nd heating scan, which was preceded by controlled cooling to eliminate thermal and processing history. It is clear from Figure 1.47 that the peak temperature may serve to distinguish between individual members of a particular class of polymer, for example, PA 12, PA 6 and PA 66 (see Table 1.3). The task of assigning peak temperatures to specific materials is simplified by using flame tests or density tests, to identify the polymer, that is, polyamide or polyolefin etc., in advance. PE-LD PE-HD PP POM PA 12 PA 6 PA 66 melting PBT PET Fig Melting peaks of various semicrystalline thermoplastics Specimen mass approx. 5 mg, heating rate 10 C/min, As the various examples in Fig show, amorphous thermoplastics have characteristic glass transition temperatures that generally permit unique identification. However, identification is more difficult when we are dealing with compatible polymer blends that yield a single glass transition temperature ranging between those of the two constituents (see Section ). An example is PVC, whose glass transition temperature is depressed by added plasticizer. While rigid PVC has a glass transition temperature of approx. 80 C, the T g of plasticized PVC can be as low as -20 C, the exact value depending on the content of plasticizer.
2 64 1 Differential Scanning Calorimetry PVC (unplasticized) PS SAN PC PEI PES Fig Glass transitions of various amorphous thermoplastics Specimen mass approx. 15 mg, heating rate 20 C/min, PE-LD C / 75 J/g PE-LLD C / 104 J/g 2 nd heating PE-HD C / 186 J/g Fig Melting behavior of various polyethylenes, 2 nd heating scan  Specimen mass approx. 5 mg, heating rate 10 C/min, The nature and form of monomeric starting materials determine the basic structure of polymers, that is, whether they are linear, branched, or crosslinked. Bifunctional monomers yield linear macromolecules (chain-like or thread-like molecules). Monomers with at least three functions form branched or crosslinked structures or both. In the case of polyethylene, for example, the degree of crosslinking is quantified by the number of side-chains per 1000 atoms on the main chain:
3 1.2 Procedure 65 PE-HD Linear, with a few short chains (4 10 per 1000 C atoms), PE-LD Long chains to shrub-like branches, PE-LLD Linear, with many short chains (10 35 per 1000 C atoms). The degree and type of branching give rise to substantial differences in properties (e.g., tendency to crystallize, hardness) . As a result, differences occur in melting temperature and enthalpy, which can then be used to help identify the polymers. PP-R (Random copolymer) C PP-H (Homopolymer) C 2 nd heating PP-B (Block copolymer) C Fig nd heating scans of different types of polypropylene Specimen mass approx. 5 mg, heating rate 10 C/min, POM-C (Copolymer) 166 C / 164 J/g 2 nd heating POM-H (Homopolymer) 177 C / 191 J/g Fig Melting curves for POM homopolymer and copolymer, 2 nd heating scans 200 Specimen mass approx. 5 mg, heating rate 10 C/min,
4 66 1 Differential Scanning Calorimetry A macromolecule whose building blocks or monomers are all the same is called a homopolymer. If the monomers are different, the polymer is called a copolymer. There are many kinds of structural copolymers (e.g., random/statistical copolymers, sequential copolymers, segment copolymers, block or graft copolymers) . Figure 1.50 sows the melting curves of different types of polypropylene . A further example of the different melting behaviors of homopolymers and copolymers is shown in Fig for POM. The copolymer melts at a much lower temperature and is thus readily distinguished from the homopolymer Crystallinity The properties of plastics are critically affected by their crystallinity (see Section ). The more crystalline the molded part, the more rigid and stronger it is but the more brittle it is also. The crystallinity of a polymer is influenced by its chemical structure, cooling conditions during processing, and any thermal posttreatment. Crystallinity is influenced by the chemical structure and thermal history. Fig shows the melting of a molded POM part in the 1 st heating curve. The crystallinity is determined by dividing the experimental heat of fusion H m = 173 J/g by the literature 0 value for POM H m = 326 J/g (see Section ). For this specimen, the degree of crystallization computes to w c = 53%. POM-C melting peak temperature T pm = 167 C heat of fusion H m = 170 J/g w c = 77 % Fig Heating curve of POM 1 st heating scan, specimen mass approx. 3 mg, heating rate 10 C/min,
5 1.2 Procedure 67 H H m w c 0 m J / g J / g % In certain circumstances, calculating the crystallinity can help identify a polymer. In the case under discussion, the peak temperature of 167 C would indicate that the specimen is PP. When we calculate the crystallinity using the literature value of 207 J/g for PP, we obtain a value of 84%, a figure that is very high and unrealistic. The plastic is therefore more likely to be POM. Further information can be obtained by simple methods of determination, such as density, combustion, and so forth. A low crystallinity may be the result of low mold wall temperatures and high cooling rates during processing, especially if the molded part has low section thickness. When such a part is used at elevated temperatures, shrinkage and other undesirable effects may occur due to postcrystallization. Postcrystallization can be deliberately induced by postcuring. Figure 1.53 shows how the crystallinity of injection molded parts increases with rise in mold wall temperature and various annealing conditions. 74 PEHD Fig Crystallinity [%] added 24 h/100 C annealed normal 24 h/70 C annealed Mold wall temperature [ C] Crystallinity of injection molded parts as a function of mold wall temperature and annealing  Thermal History In a DSC measurement, information about thermal and mechanical history is revealed by the 1 st heating curve. The 2 nd heating curve is used for determining material characteristics in comparative trials under the given dynamic conditions (end temperature of 1 st heating scan, cooling rate, heating rate of 2 nd heating scan). Figure 1.54 shows the 1 st heating scan for PE-HD, starting from ambient temperature and increasing to 200 C at a rate of 10 C/min. The specimen is then cooled at a controlled rate of 10 C/min to ambient temperature (cooling curve) and reheated to 200 C (2 nd heating 140
6 68 1 Differential Scanning Calorimetry scan). In each case, the peak temperature and the fusion or crystallization enthalpy are evaluated. The 2 nd curve has a higher peak temperature and higher heat of fusion, and thus greater crystallinity than the 1 st curve. The heat of fusion H m of the 2 nd heating curve roughly corresponds to the crystallization enthalpy H c from the cooling curve and is approx. 20% higher than the heat of fusion from the 1 st run. This indicates that the cooling rate during processing was higher than in the DSC experiment. PE-HD cooling T pc = 116 C H c = 210 J/g 1 st heating T pm = 133 C H m = 175 J/g w c = 60 % 2 nd heating T pm = 135 C H m = 212 J/g w c = 72 % Fig st heating scan, defined cooling and 2 nd heating scan of a PE-HD specimen Specimen mass approx. 3 mg, heating rate 10 C/min, cooling rate 10 C/min, 10 C/min cooling rate (59 J/g) 20 C/min cooling rate (56 J/g) 40 C/min cooling rate (55 J/g) 1 st heating after injection molding (52 J/g) PA Fig nd heating scan for a PA 6 that had been cooled at different rates Specimen mass approx. 2 mg, heating rate 10 C/min,
7 1.2 Procedure 69 The influence of the cooling rate on the 2 nd heating scan is again illustrated with PA 6 in Fig (see also Fig. 1.39). The specimens were each melted for 2 min at 280 C and then cooled at different rates. This leads to two crystal modifications, the magnitude of which can provide an indication of the rate at which a specimen has been cooled. The literature also reports two peaks for PA 6 at 215 C and 223 C and attributes them to a lower-melting -modification and a higher-melting -modification. Given the melting behavior of the specimens that were made at different cooling rates, it is reasonable to assume that the dual peak is formed in a time-dependent recrystallization process. 1 st heating curve: Thermal and mechanical history 2 nd heating curve: Material characteristics following controlled cooling Further evidence of thermal history is provided by cold crystallization, which occurs during heating (see Section ). PET serves to illustrate this effect. Figure 1.56 shows the 1 st heating curve of such a specimen that was cooled very rapidly from the melt to below T g, a process that has largely suppressed crystallization. The result is a translucent, predominantly amorphous material such as that used in beverage bottles. The 1 st heating curve features an endothermic glass transition step that is fairly high for a semicrystalline thermoplastic. From about 140 C on, cold crystallization (H c = 23.9 J/g) sets in because of greater segment mobility. The newly formed and already existing crystallites start to melt at about 220 C; the heat of fusion H m is 33.2 J/g. Comparison of the heat of fusion of 33.2 J/g with the crystallization enthalpy H c = 23.9 J/g shows that most of the crystallites have formed only during heating. cold crystallization T pc = 162 C H c = 23.9 J/g glass transition T mg = 80 C Fig PET 1st heating melting transition T pm = 254 C H m = 33.2 J/g Heating curve for PET showing the glass, cold crystallization and melting transitions Specimen mass approx. 3 mg, heating rate 10 C/min,
8 70 1 Differential Scanning Calorimetry New ways are being devised of using TMDSC to determine this original crystallinity while taking into account the reversible heat of fusion [33, 42]. The effect of annealing on a PPS specimen is shown in Fig When a unannealed specimen is heated, the 1 st heating curve shows signs of cold crystallization at approx. 110 C. Subsequent annealing of the molded part, for 3 h at 200 C in this example, increases the crystallinity. A small endothermic peak, known as the postcuring peak, is formed at approx. 210 C. This is due to melting of the small, less thermostable crystallites formed at the postcuring temperature. To prevent such a transition from being falsely interpreted, for example, as indicating a second component (perhaps PA 6), it is necessary to perform a 2 nd heating scan. This will cause the postcuring peak to disappear. The reappearance of a melting peak would suggest that a second component was present. Annealing below the melting peak temperature (T pm ) produces an additional endothermic peak. PPS unannealed / 1st heating 200 C/3h annealed / 1st heating 2nd heating Fig Melting point curves for PPS specimens of different thermal history 1 st and 2 nd heating scan, specimen mass approx. 5 mg, heating rate 10 C/min, The annealing temperature determines the position of the annealing peak or a annealing shoulder, Fig and If it is above T g, very small crystallites of different lamellar thickness are formed, whose exact size depends on the annealing temperature. They melt again at a temperature some C above the annealing temperature.
9 1.2 Procedure C 160 C 180 C 200 C 220 C 154 C 175 C 192 C 213 C 232 C 240 C 251 C PET T pm = 260 C Fig Influence of different annealing temperatures on the melting curve of PET specimens; all annealed for 15 h 1 st heating scan, specimen mass approx. 5 mg, heating rate 10 C/min, If annealing is performed close to the melting temperature, a so-called annealing shoulder forms that cannot be completely resolved from the melting peak. Figure 1.59 shows typical annealing shoulders for PE-HD. As the annealing temperature rises, not only does the position of the shoulder increase but also its magnitude. This is due to growth in the number of crystallites of the same lamellar thickness. Fig Step [W/g] PE-HD annealing temperature/ 15h [ C] annealing shoulder [ C] [ C] melting peak Influence of annealing temperature on the melting curve (inset: initial area magnified) of PE-HD specimens (all postcured for 15 h) 1 st heating scan, specimen mass approx. 5 mg, heating rate 10 C/min,
10 72 1 Differential Scanning Calorimetry The temperature position of a annealing peak or a postcuring shoulder depends on the annealing temperature. The actual service temperatures of plastics can be reproduced and assessed by performing DSC annealing trials at specific temperatures and for specific periods of time. The practical conditions must be reproduced as faithfully as possible, for example, the entire molded part should be annealed, perhaps in a certain medium, or samples must be removed from the same position from specimens to be compared. For several plastics, it is common to employ a staggered annealing program so as to optimize the property profile by influencing the crystallinity. PEEK was annealed at five temperatures, starting from 340 C (340, 330, 320, 310 and 300 C, Fig. 1.60). The subsequent heating curve has a annealing peak for each of the five annealing stages. Overall, the crystallinity of the specimen increases by roughly 25% relative to that of the unannealed material. annealed unannealed 313 C annealing program 340 C 330 C 320 C 310 C 300 C je 20 min 322 C 333 C 343 C 340 C 352 C PEEK Fig Influence of a annealing program on the melting point curve of PEEK relative to unannealed material  1 st heating scan, specimen mass approx. 7 mg, heating rate 20 C/min, The annealing time is particularly influential at high postcuring temperatures. Figure 1.61 shows the influence of the postcuring time on peak shape and the temperature position of the DSC curve for an unfilled PA 6. All specimens were postcured at 210 C. As the annealing time increases, from several seconds to 10 min, the start of melting shifts to a temperature approx. 5 C higher, the enthalpy increases slightly and there is a dramatic change in the shape of the curve. The crystal modifications characterized by a dual peak are
11 1.2 Procedure 73 always further transformed into one crystal modification, Fig The end of the melting process is not affected. PA6 1 st heating annealing time 210 C < 1 min - 66 J/g 2 min - 67 J/g 10 min - 69 J/g Fig Melting curve for a PA 6 following different annealing times at 210 C 1 st heating scan, specimen mass approx. 3 mg, heating rate 10 C/min, PP high melt temperature T pm = 166 C/ H m = 105 J/g; w c = 51 % low melt temperature T pm =166 C/ H m = 90 J/g; w c = 43 % 1st heating Fig Influence of melt temperature on the melting behavior of a PP part during injection molding T pm = Melting peak temperature, H m = Heat of fusion, 1 st heating scan, specimen mass approx. 4 mg, heating rate 10 C/min,
12 74 1 Differential Scanning Calorimetry The 1 st heating scan of a DSC experiment also yields clues about the processing conditions. It is not possible to directly identify crystallinity, melt temperature, or mold temperature. Nevertheless, comparisons can be made and hence tendencies quoted. Whether PP is injection molded at a melt temperature of 210 or 270 C makes quite a difference to the crystallinity of the molded part (Fig. 1.62). In both cases, the mold temperature was 40 C. The melting point curves show identical peak temperatures, but the PP processed at the higher melt temperature is more crystalline because it had more time to crystallize. 2 nd heating 400 C overmolding temperature 280 C overmolding temperature preform PA Fig Melting curves for PA 6 specimens from surface regions of the two-component preform before and after overmolding with the second component at different melt temperatures, along with 2 nd heating scan 1 st heating scan, specimen mass approx. 3 mg, heating rate 10 C/min, In two-component injection molding, a preform is overmolded with a second component. The influence of the melt temperature of the second component on the layer close to the surface of the first component is shown in Fig The 1 st heating scan for the PA 6 preform is a typical curve that indicates slight recrystallization and a subsequent melting peak. The overmolding temperatures of 280 C and 400 C for the second component lead to the formation of two peaks that become more distinct as the temperature rises. For comparison, the 2 nd heating scan is also shown in Fig The dual peak produced by the PA 6 under the aforementioned cooling conditions can be seen.
13 1.2 Procedure 75 Annealing effects are no longer recognizable once the thermal history has been eliminated in the 2 nd heating scan Water Uptake Plastics particularly polar ones like polyamides absorb water from their surroundings. Whether accidental or deliberate (e.g., through conditioning), absorption of water affects their properties (see Section ). Water acts as a plasticizer in the polymer and thus lowers the glass transition temperature. Figure 1.64 shows how water affects the 1 st heating curves of amorphous PA. T g of polyamides falls considerably with rise in water content. amorphous PA std. hum. (2.9%) T mg = 108 C dry (0.3%) T mg = 152 C saturated (5.0%) T mg = 86 C Fig Influence of water content (dry, standard human, saturated) on the glass transition of amorphous PA 1 st heating scan, specimen mass approx. 14 mg, heating rate 20 C/min, Because it is mainly the amorphous domains that absorb water, the extent of absorption by semicrystalline polyamides varies with the crystallinity. The saturation concentration of water and the rate of water absorption by polyamides depend not only on the crystallinity but also on the number of polar amide groups and thus on the type of polyamide.
14 76 1 Differential Scanning Calorimetry Figure 1.65 shows how water absorption varies with PA structure, that is, the ratio of CH 2 groups to NHCO (amide) groups. The physical properties of polyamides can be assessed only if their water content is known. This is why characteristic values are usually specified for three different moisture levels (equilibrium conditions) : dry = 0% rel. humidity (e.g., freshly molded) standard human = Stored at 23 C/50% rel. humidity to constant weight saturated = Stored at 100% rel. humidity (immersion in water) to constant weight Thermoplastics with a water content of 0 0.2% are termed dry. Those containing % water are called air dry and those with 5 8% water are said to be wet. Because these percentages are percentage by weight, the presence of fillers that do not absorb moisture must be borne in mind. Water absorption [mass-%] immersion in water at 20 C stored at 20 C/ 65% rel. humidity PA 46 PA 6 PA 8 PA 11 PA 66 PA 610 CH 2 -groups/nhco-groups PA Fig Water absorption by different polyamides as a function of chemical structure  Nucleation Nucleating agents, contaminants, and processing can all influence nucleation and thus crystallization. The number of crystal nuclei present determines the number and size of crystalline superstructures formed. Nucleating agents (short-chained polymers) generate more nuclei and, under the same cooling conditions, a more finely grained, spherulitic structure.
15 1.2 Procedure 77 Figure 1.66 shows the effect of deliberately added nucleating agents and of their concentration on the crystallization of PP. As the concentration of nucleating agents increases, the whole curve shifts toward higher temperatures and the start of crystallization T eic increases by roughly 6 C. The crystallization curve is essentially characterized by T eic and T pc. The tail of the crystallization curve flattens out toward low temperatures and so the end of crystallization cannot be completely detected by DSC. T efc is taken to be the end point. Conc. of nucleating agent T eic [ C] T pc [ C] T efc [ C] 0.001% % % % % nucleating agent 0.05 % concentration 0.01 % % PP cooling T efc 119 C 122 C 124 C 125 C T eic Fig Effect of nucleating agent concentration on the crystallization of PP T eic = Crystallization extrapolated onset temperature, T pc = Crystallization peak temperature, T efc = Crystallization extrapolated onset temperature Cooling curve, specimen mass approx. 3 mg, cooling rate 10 C/min, nitrogen The influence of nucleating agent concentration on the 2 nd heating scan is shown in Fig Specimens with a low concentration crystallize at lower temperatures and therefore tend to recrystallize in the form of a dual peak during heating and melting at the given heating rate. Although a greater concentration reduces the spherulite size in a finer
16 78 1 Differential Scanning Calorimetry structure, the lamellae that make up the spherulites become thicker on account of the higher crystallization temperature. nucleating agent 0.1 % concentration 0.05 % 0.01 % % PP / 2 nd heating Fig Effect of nucleating agent concentration on the melting of PP Specimen mass approx. 3 mg, heating rate 10 C/min, Addition of nucleating agents Crystallization curve shifted to higher temperatures Modified crystallization influences 2 nd heating curve Aging DIN Part 1  classifies plastics aging as being either physical or chemical. Physical aging changes the morphology of plastics (postcrystallization, crystal structure, orientation, internal stress, etc.) while chemical aging changes their chemical structure (cleavage of the polymer chains, crosslinking, oxidation). Physical aging can lead to effects similar to those induced by annealing at high temperature, such as the formation of peaks or a rise in peak temperature and heat of fusion. This can be clearly seen in the heating curve for a PP specimen that was aged for 8 h at 160 C, Fig Annealing at a temperature in the middle of the melting range causes small crystallites with thin lamellae to melt and recrystallize to form more perfect crystals having thicker lamellae. The melting range of this specimen thus shifts toward higher temperatures relative to that of the non-annealed specimen. The annealing temperature can be estimated from a shoulder in the melting point curve and from the shift of the melting peak.
17 1.2 Procedure 79 1 st heating annealing effect T pm = 164 C PP new: H m = 89 J/g; w c = 43% PP 160 C/8h aged: H m = 117 J/g; w c = 57% T pm = 172 C Fig Influence of physical aging on the melting of virgin and annealing PP, 8 h at 160 C T pm = Melting peak temperature, H m = Heat of fusion, w c = Crystallinity (expressed in terms of H m 0 = 207 J/g), 1 st heating scan, specimen mass approx. 5 mg, heating rate 10 C/min, Subsequent cooling and the 2 nd heating curve (not shown here) fail to reveal any differences in the crystallization and melting profiles of the two specimens. It may therefore be assumed that the chemical structure of the material is unaffected by this physical aging. Evidence of physical aging revealed by 1 st Heating curve: Higher melting peak temperature and crystallinity, annealing effect Cooling curve, 2 nd Heating curve: None Figures 1.69 and 1.70 show the changes in chemical structure that have occurred in a molded PP part used for several years at roughly 80 C. The crystallization and melting behavior are different than those of a new part. The crystallization curve of the aged molded part has two crystallization peaks, whereas the new part has only one, Fig
18 80 1 Differential Scanning Calorimetry PP-C new aged T pc = 92 C cooling T pc2 = 82 C T pc1 = 97 C Fig Cooling curves for PP copolymer; new and aged for several years at approx. 80 C T pc = Crystallization peak temperature, specimen mass approx. 5 mg, cooling rate 10 C/min, PP-C 2nd heating new aged T pm = 115 C H m = 49 J/g w c = 24 % T pm = 138 C H m = 46 J/g w c = 22 % Fig Chemical aging of PP copolymer; new and aged for several years at roughly 80 C  T pm = Melting peak temperature, H m = Heat of fusion,w c = Crystallinity, 2 nd heating, specimen mass approx. 5 mg, heating rate 10 C/min, The 2 nd heating curves recorded afterwards show a much greater drop in the peak temperature of the aged part than in the new part. In the absence of a reference material, it would be concluded that the material was PE. Infrared measurements can show, however, that the
19 1.2 Procedure 81 material is PP. The depressed peak temperature is due to permanent structural change (molecular chain degradation, etc.). Note: DSC is particularly good at identifying chemical aging in polyolefin s. It is less suitable for other plastics, for example, polyamides, because chemical aging of them does not necessarily manifest itself as a change in crystallinity or peak temperature. Evidence of chemical aging revealed by 1 st Heating curve: Influence of peak temperature and crystallinity, perhaps superposed by physical aging Cooling curve: Nucleation effect 2 nd Heating curve: Reduced crystallinity and perhaps lower peak temperature Chemical aging in amorphous thermoplastics is indicated by a lowering of the glass transition temperature, as shown in Fig for PMMA. PMMA new T mg = 108 C thermal and UV radiation T mg = 98 C Fig Influence of UV radiation and heat on PMMA 2 nd heating scan, specimen mass 15 mg, heating rate 20 C/min, The PMMA was used for the canopy of a street lamp that was exposed to both thermal and UV radiation. The lowering of the glass transition temperature is probably due to plastification by degraded components (plasticizers).
20 82 1 Differential Scanning Calorimetry Chemical aging of amorphous thermoplastics: Lowering of T g Crosslinking of Thermoplastics Thermoplastics can also be made to crosslink in three dimensions so that certain material properties may be improved. A common process is electron-beam crosslinking, which allows the molded part to be crosslinked to various depths, the extent of which depends on the radiation source (- or -emitter). This leads to a shift in glass transition temperature and a change in melting and crystallization behavior. Figure 1.72 shows the effect of electron-beam treatment on the melting curves of a molded PA 6 part that was irradiated with 99 kgy. The peak temperature drops by approx. 15 C and the heat of fusion by 20 30%. These effects can be seen in both the 1 st and 2 nd heating scans. In other words, a chemical change is occurring in the material. 1st heating 2nd heating 207 C / 48 J/g 222 C / 63 J/g 140 PA C / 48 J/g PA 6 crosslinked 221 C / 68 J/g Fig Influence of electron-beam crosslinking on the melting of PA 6 1 st and 2 nd heating scans, specimen mass approx. 3 mg, heating rate 10 C/min, There is also a substantial change in the cooling curves. The corresponding influence of electron-beam treatment of PBT is shown in Fig The crystallization peak of the crosslinked material shifts completely to lower temperatures; in this example, crystallization now begins 23 C earlier.
21 1.2 Procedure 83 PBT crosslinked 171 C PBT 193 C cooling Fig Influence of electron-beam treatment on the crystallization of PBT Cooling, specimen mass 3 mg, cooling rate 10 C/min, cooling PPS 247 C PPS crosslinked 173 C Fig Influence of thermal crosslinking, relative to previous end temperature, on the crystallization of linear PPS Cooling, specimen mass 3 mg, cooling rate 10 C/min, It is possible in such cases to wrongly identify materials with the aid of DSC. Aside from using other techniques, such as infrared spectroscopy, it is always advisable to analyze the inside of the molded part, as selective crosslinking occurs only at the surface. The example above illustrates the effect of thermal crosslinking of a thermoplastic. This was a linear PPS that crosslinks between 380 C and 440 C, as established in a previous experiment.
22 84 1 Differential Scanning Calorimetry Figure 1.74 shows the difference in crystallization behavior. The material was heated to 320 C in the 1 st heating scan and then, for comparison, to 450 C. The crystallization temperatures have shifted by more than 60 C and the heat of crystallization by approx. 50%. The 2 nd heating scan curves measured after defined cooling show a roughly 16 C shift in the peak and a change in the heat of fusion of almost 40%. T End = 450 C T pm = 268 C H m = 25 J/g linear PPS - 2nd heating T End = 320 C T pm = 284 C H m = 40 J/g Fig Influence of heat treatment on the melting behavior of linear PPS, T End = end temperature of the 1 st heating scan 2 nd heating scan, specimen mass 15 mg, heating rate 20 C/min, Mixtures, Blends, and Contaminants Thermoplastic polymers are blended selectively to boost certain properties. These may be enhanced processability, paintability, impact modification, increased thermal resistance and a reduction in susceptibility to stress cracking. In contrast, contaminants that get into the molded part via processing or via dirty raw material can impair its properties or adversely affect processing. DSC studies permit not only identification of certain thermoplastic components but also a quantitative estimation of the blending fractions, the extent of this depending on the morphology. Plastics generally have limited miscibility owing to energetic reasons and so it is rare to find blends that are homogeneous at the molecular level. Demixing is usually due to incompatibility. Amorphous/Amorphous Two compatible amorphous polymers ideally have a common glass transition in between those of the individual constituents. Incompatible mixtures are much more common. Each
23 1.2 Procedure 85 constituent yields a glass transition at its original temperature, that is, the properties of each constituent are more or less retained in the mixture. Figure 1.76 shows a typical example of an incompatible mixture of ABS and PC. ABS/PC-mixture 2nd heating T mg = 115 C (SAN) T mg = 144 C (PC) Fig Glass transition of PC and SAN (ABS constituent) in an ABS/PC mixture 2 nd Heating scan, specimen mass approx. 15 mg, heating rate 20 C/min, Compatible amorphous mixtures: Common glass transition Incompatible amorphous mixtures: Two glass transitions The relative step heights of the two glass transitions of PC and the SAN contained in the ABS can be used to quantitatively estimate the ABS and PC fractions. This is illustrated in the calibration curve below (Fig. 1.77), which is a plot of the step height produced by ABS mixtures of different, known compositions. As the ABS fraction increases, the step height of the SAN increases almost linearly. The SAN content in a specimen of unknown composition can therefore be determined in this concentration range (80 100% ABS). Other examples of incompatible amorphous/amorphous mixtures are: PC mixed with PMMA to increase UV resistance, PMMA mixed with ABS to increase the weatherability and rigidity of ABS.
24 86 1 Differential Scanning Calorimetry Step height of T mg(san) [J/g] nd heating ABS fraction in PC [%] Fig Step height of the SAN glass transition in ABS/PC calibration mixtures 2 nd Heating scan, specimen mass approx. 15 mg, heating rate 20 C/min, Amorphous/Semicrystalline In certain circumstances, amorphous/semicrystalline mixtures can behave homogeneously in their glass transition ranges. This is the case, for example, for mixtures of amorphous PEI and semicrystalline PEKEKK, which have a common glass transition temperature. Figure 1.78 illustrates this for different mixture compositions. PEKEKK T mg = 170 C PEKEKK/PEI 90/10 T mg = 179 C PEKEKK/PEI 80/20 T mg = 182 C PEKEKK/PEI 60/40 T mg = 189 C Fig Glass transitions of compatible PEKEKK/PEI mixtures  1 st Heating scan, specimen mass approx. 5 mg, heating rate 20 C/min,
25 1.2 Procedure 87 The midpoint temperature T mg of this common glass transition changes linearly with the mass fractions of the components, Fig This calibration curve can be used to estimate the mixing ratio of PEI/PEKEKK mixtures of unknown composition. 240 PEI/PEKEKK T mg Fig Fraction of PEKEKK [%] Glass transition temperature T mg as a function of PEKEKK mass fraction in PEI If the melting peak and the glass transition do not overlap, the semicrystalline polymer in amorphous materials can also be identified from its melting peak. Measurements performed on mixtures of ABS with PBT, POM, and PP in concentrations ranging from 5 20% have shown that the heat of fusion varies directly with the fraction of semicrystalline constituent (Fig. 1.80). Fig Enthappy change Hm [J/g] ABS/PBT ABS/POM ABS/PP Fraction of semicrystalline constituents in ABS [%] Change in heat of fusion of semicrystalline constituents PBT, POM and PP mixed with ABS as a function of content over the range 5 20% 2 nd Heating scan, specimen mass approx. 10 mg, heating rate 20 C/min,
26 88 1 Differential Scanning Calorimetry Extrapolation should not be performed beyond the experimental standards as the heat of fusion and the mixing ratio, due to mutual effects on crystallization, do not behave linearly across the entire range. Nevertheless, small fractions (up to 0.5%) of semicrystalline polymer can still be identified. Further examples of mixtures of amorphous and semicrystalline constituents are PPE/PA, PPE/PBT, and PP/EP(D)M. Semicrystalline/Semicrystalline Mixtures of semicrystalline constituents are also used for optimizing certain properties. Typical examples are PP/PE and PA/PE, with the PE content intended to enhance lowtemperature impact strength. Mostly, DSC heating curves for mixtures of two semicrystalline constituents also contain two melting peaks, that is, the mixtures are heterogeneous and incompatible. Because the two constituents can also affect each other s crystallization and melting behavior (temperature position and peak area), quantitative interpretation of their heating curves is often difficult. Quantitative determination by means of heat of fusion is difficult. That is perhaps possible through use of calibration curves for the same mixing partners and known compositions. PA 66 PA 6/PA 66-25/75 PA 6/PA 66-75/25 PA 6 2nd heating Fig Melting point curves for PA 6/PA 66 mixtures 2 nd Heating scan after cooling at 10 C/min, specimen mass approx. 5 mg, heating rate 10 C/min,
27 1.2 Procedure 89 Figure 1.81 illustrates this for mixtures of PA 6 and PA parts by weight PA 6 are not detectable in PA 66 but, in the reverse situation (25 parts by weight PA 66), there is a melting peak for both PA 6 (at 220 C) and PA 66 (at 265 C). Note: The dual peak is due to two different crystal modifications found also, for instance, in PBT (Fig. 1.37). The cooling curves for 25 pbw PA 6 in PA 66 and for 25 pbw PA 66 in PA 6 (Fig. 1.82) contain only one crystallization peak. The crystallization peak for 25 pbw PA 6 is almost in the same position as that for pure PA 66. In contrast, the crystallization peak for 25 pbw PA 66 occurs between those for pure PA 6 and PA 66. cooling PA 6 PA 66 PA 6/PA 66-25/75 PA 6/PA 66-75/ Fig Crystallization curves for PA 6/PA 66 mixtures Specimen mass approx. 5 mg, cooling rate 10 C/min, An example of the behavior of two semicrystalline materials having little structural similarity is shown in Fig This is the heating curve for PA 6, which was treated with PE to improve the impact strength at low temperatures. Aside from the dominant melting peak of the PA 6 (at T pm 224 C), the 1 st heating curve contains a small melting peak due to PE (at T pm 125 C). The cooling curve clearly reveals the influence of the PE on the processing of PA 6 (Fig. 1.84). The added polyethylene acts as a nucleating agent and displaces the crystallization curve (i.e., the start of crystallization) by 5 C toward higher temperatures.
28 90 1 Differential Scanning Calorimetry PA 6 (added with PE) T pm(pe) = 125 C PA 6 1st heating T pm(pa6) = 224 C Fig Melting point curves for PA 6 pellets, with and without added PE T pm = Melting peak temperature, 1 st heating scan, specimen mass approx. 3 mg, heating rate 10 C/min, cooling without PE with PE T eic = 187 C T eic = 192 C Fig Crystallization of PA 6 pellets with and without added PE T eic = Crystallization extrapolated onset temperature, specimen mass approx. 3 mg, cooling rate 10 C/min, Changes in crystallinity can also adversely affect part quality, for example, if they are caused by contaminants. A flawed, molded PA 6 part that suffered brittle fracture after
29 1.2 Procedure 91 injection molding was found to have a small shoulder at approx. 230 C at the end of its melting peak. The undamaged reference part showed no such anomaly, Fig st heating 230 C molded PA 6 part molded PA 6 part with PBT Fig Melting point curves of two molded PA 6 parts, with and without PBT contamination 1 st Heating scan, specimen mass approx. 10 mg, heating rate 10 C/min, Because the PA 6 and PBT parts were injection molded on the same machine, it seemed reasonable to conclude that the polyamide might have been contaminated by residual PBT from the dryer or the metering device. The effect in the curve is comparatively small and superposed by the PA melting point curve. For this reason, an additional cooling curve was recorded for the contaminated molded part, Fig This clearly reveals two crystallization peaks that can be resolved better from each other than the corresponding melting peaks obtained by heating. The crystallization peak at T pc = 190 C can be assigned to the PA 6 by reference to that of the uncontaminated part. The crystallization peak occurring at the higher temperature of T pc = 194 C is caused by the PBT contaminant. The premature crystallization brought about by the PBT contaminant may have caused the gate to freeze as the material was being injected. Consequently, because the holding pressure was no longer effective, voids probably formed in the molded part. Semicrystalline contamination often shows up much more clearly in the cooling curve than in the heating curve.
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