1 Confined Space Awareness By: Garrett Yates Backflow Management Inc. 1 (800)
2 Identifying a Confined Space What is a confined space? A confined space has the following characteristics: is large enough to get whole body inside, is not designed for human occupation, has limited or restricted entrance or exit. It must have all three characteristics to be a confined space.
3 General Requirements The employer shall evaluate their workplace to determine if any spaces are permit-required confined spaces. If the workplace contains permit spaces the employer shall inform employees (post signs). If the employer determines its employees or other employees performing work will not enter the permit spaces, the employer shall take effective measures to ensure employees do not enter. If the employer decides that its employees will enter permit spaces, the employer shall develop and implement a written permit space program.
4 What is a permit required confined space? Means a confined space that has one of the following characteristics: Contains or has the potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere; Contains a material which has the potential for engulfing an entrant; Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated; Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard
6 What is a Non-permit required confined space Means a confined space that does not contain or, with respect to atmospheric hazards, have the potential to contain any hazard capable of causing death or serious physical harm Note: control of atmospheric hazards through forced air ventilation does not constitute elimination of the hazards
7 Identifying a Confined Space What is limited or restricted entry or exit? The ability to easily escape in an emergency is impeded by such obstacles as: a manhole a small door or opening a ladder Restricted exit a long tunnel Exit not restricted
8 Identifying Confined Spaces Examples of confined spaces Tanks Manholes & Sewers Boilers Grain storage bins Other examples include vaults, pipelines, tank cars, and ship holds
9 Controlling the Space The hazards of a confined space can be addressed in the following ways: Prevent employee entry. Remove or reduce hazards in the space first, before a person enters. If hazard cannot be eliminated, you must use a written permit system to enter safely.
10 Controlling the Space Warning employees and controlling access Post warning signs at the entrance of confined spaces. THIS IS REQUIRED. Limit employee access to confined spaces by using entry barriers or locks. Make sure that unauthorized workers do not enter the confined space.
13 There used to be about 300 Deaths Every Year Confined space entry
14 Annual deaths have declined In the last 10 years there have been at least 47 incidents in the US involving confined spaces 70 employees directly affected 40 of whom died from the incident
15 Hazards of Confined Spaces What are the main hazards of confined spaces? Hazardous atmospheres Engulfing materials Entrapment Moving parts Electricity
16 Hazard Identification A hazardous atmosphere in a confined space has one or more of the following: Flammable gas, mist or vapor Flammable dusts Oxygen content below 19.5% or above 23.5% Air contaminant concentrations that would cause death, incapacitation, or permanent health problems You must do air monitoring to determine if a hazardous atmosphere exists.
18 Hazard Identification Hazardous Atmospheres Flammable Gases, Vapors and Dusts Flammable gases, vapors or dusts will ignite from a spark or flame if above a level in the air called the lower flammable limit (LFL). Gas or vapor levels higher than 10% of the LFL are considered hazardous and the confined space cannot be entered until levels are reduced. Amounts above 10% of the LFL are usually toxic as well. LFL is sometimes called LEL lower explosive limit
19 Oxygen Deficient Atmosphere Most common killer
20 Hazard Identification Hazardous Atmospheres Oxygen Deficiency A reduction in oxygen is caused by tank rusting, microbial activity, or replacement by another gas. Lack of oxygen can cause a person to immediately collapse and die. Normal air contains 21% oxygen. A space with oxygen content below 19.5 % is considered oxygen deficient. 21% 19.5% 0% Oxygen content Oxygen deficiency exists
21 Hazard Identification Effects of Oxygen Deficiency % Oxygen Symptoms 19.5% - 16% Fatigue, mild impaired coordination 16% - 12% Increased breathing rate and pulse; impaired coordination, perception or judgment 12% - 10% Further increased breathing rate, blue lips, mental confusion 10% - 8% Fainting, nausea, vomiting, mental confusion within few minutes 8% - 6% Collapse, death within 8 minutes 6% - 0% Coma within 40 seconds, death
22 Hazard Identification Hazardous Atmospheres Toxic Chemicals At very high levels, most chemicals in the air can be immediately lifethreatening or cause permanent bodily harm. At lower levels, chemicals in the air can still cause harm. Most chemicals have permissible exposure limits (PELs) which will cause harm if exceeded. Even non-toxic or low-toxic chemicals can replace oxygen if levels are high enough.
23 Hazard Identification Hazardous Atmosphere Toxic Chemicals The most common toxic chemicals in confined spaces fatalities are hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide. Other toxic chemicals can include welding fumes, vapors from liquid residues in storage tanks, or chemical products used in the confined space. Chemicals can quickly reach toxic levels in the air of a confined space, especially gases, solvent vapors or sprayed products.
24 Hydrogen Sulfide heavier than
25 Hazard Identification Hazardous Atmospheres Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Hydrogen sulfide gas is commonly found in sewers. It can be instantly fatal at higher levels in a confined space. Disturbing sewage sludge can release more hydrogen sulfide gas H2S in parts per million (ppm) Smell strong odor Loss of smell Coughing, red eyes Unconscious in 30 min. Instant collapse Death in minutes
26 Slightly lighter than air
27 Hazard Identification Hazardous Atmospheres Carbon Monoxide (CO) Carbon monoxide comes from operating internal combustion engines in or near confined space. Propane-powered engines also emit carbon monoxide. Fatal levels of CO are quickly reached in confined spaces. Propane-powered manlift in a large tank
28 Confined Space Entry Procedures The Importance of Air Monitoring Air monitoring is required whenever there is a possibility of hazardous atmospheres. Atmospheric conditions can change quickly in a confined space. A portable gas monitor with an alarm should be used by the person entering the confined space and checked frequently. Confined space gas monitor
29 Air Monitoring Check All Levels Different gases can be found at different levels Methane: 0.55 Ammonia: 0.59 Carbon Monoxide: 0.96 Nitrogen: 0.97 Air: 1.0 Hydrogen Sulfide: 1.2 Carbon Dioxide: 1.5 Gasoline: 3-4 Jet Fuel, JP-8: 4.7 Lighter than air gases Heavier than air gases
30 Confined Space Entry Procedures Ventilation of Confined Spaces Fresh air blowers or exhaust fans are typically used. Blower or fan should not be undersized. A blower intake must be placed in an area of clean air. Exhaust ventilation must be used when welding or using chemicals in a confined space. Don t place a blower intake near a running engine! Watch out for pockets of unventilated contaminated air.
31 Hazard Identification What are the Hazards of Engulfing Material? Engulfing materials include liquids or loose solids such as grain, sand or other granular material. People cannot escape when caught in moving loose solids and usually suffocate. Workers often get engulfed when in-feed or out-feed lines are inadvertently opened or activated.
32 Hazard Identification What is Entrapment? The space is configured in a way that can trap a worker, for example, sides sloping towards the center Gravel hopper Sawdust Cyclone
33 Hazard Identification Other Recognized Hazards Electrical lines, steam lines or hydraulic lines Mechanical hazards (moving parts) Hazards caused by the work (welding, painting etc.)
34 Hazard Elimination How To Eliminate Physical Hazards Lock-out moving parts Blank or block steam pipes and product in-feeding pipes. De-energize electrical parts or wiring
35 If Hazards Can t Be Eliminated If hazards cannot be completely eliminated, there are only two options: a complete written permit system, or alternate entry procedures. Both require training of employees.
36 Entry into a Confined Space How is entry into a confined space classified? Written Permit System required when hazards can t be eliminated Alternate Entry Procedures allowed for controlled atmospheric hazards only No Permit allowed only if all hazards are eliminated Hazards must be determined before entering a confined space.
37 Confined Space Entry Procedures What are alternate entry procedures? If the only potential hazard is atmospheric (toxic gas or oxygen deficiency) and it is controlled by ventilation, then you may use less restrictive alternate entry procedures. These procedures have fewer requirements no written permit system is required. Don t assume that the only hazard is atmospheric without investigation and reliable information.
38 Confined Space Entry Procedures What are alternate entry requirements? Employees must be trained on confined space hazards, The atmosphere in the confined space must be tested before and during entry, Continuous ventilation must be used, If a hazardous atmosphere is detected, or ventilation stops, the space must be promptly exited.
39 What does the Permit-required program consist of? Posting of warning signs Preventing unauthorized entry Hazard identification procedures Workplace evaluations procedures Procedures, practices, and means necessary for safe permit entry and closure operations An entry permit system Training for specific duties (entrants, attendants, entry supervisors Providing PPE at no cost to employees
40 What does the Permit-required program consist of? Cont A system for ensuring that: pre-entry tests are performed pre-entry preparations are completed and acceptable conditions are attained Monitoring the space as needed Developing and implementing rescue and emergency measures
41 The Written Permit The permit states what is done and who does it: Describes each individual s roles and responsibilities, Specifies safety equipment and respiratory protection, Tells how long the job will take, States hazards found in the space.
42 The Written Permit The written permit also includes the following: Location of the permit space The purpose of entry The date and authorized duration Names of authorized entrants, attendants and entry supervisors Hazards of the permit space
43 The Written Permit Measures used to eliminate, isolate or control permit space hazards before entry Verification of acceptable entry conditions The results of air monitoring tests and persons performing tests Verified rescue and emergency services The communication system used The equipment used for entry
44 The Written Permit Any additional information necessary to ensure employee safety Any additional permits issued to authorize special work in the space The employer must conduct an annual review of all cancelled permits.
45 Employee Training General Requirements Train before assigning duties Train before changing duties Train whenever operations present a new hazard
46 Employee Training General Requirements Retrain whenever there is reason to believe: There are deviations from the established procedures, There are inadequacies in the employee s knowledge of procedures.
47 Employee Training General Requirements Training must establish proficiency. The employer must certify that this training has been done and meets the confined space regulations. Confined space training
48 Designated Jobs Any permit-required confined space entry has designated jobs for employees: Entrant person who actually goes into the confined space Attendant person watching the entrant Entry Supervisor supervises the operation Each position requires specific training and assigned duties.
49 Entrant Anyone who is authorized to enter a permit required confined space.
50 Attendant An individual stationed outside one or more permit-required confined spaces who monitors the entrants.
51 Entry Supervisor NOTE: Entry Supervisor also may serve as an entrant or attendant
52 Develop a rescue plan The type of rescue plan is dependant on space hazards Develop the most safe and effective rescue plan with consideration to these potential hazards Just relying on 911 may be unacceptable
53 Rescue in a Confined Space Confined space rescue is very dangerous 60% of all confined space fatalities are would-be rescuers. Rescuers often enter a confined space without thinking about the hazards. Rescues cannot be done without proper equipment and training. Not all fire departments can do confined space rescuing.
54 Rescue Services Using Outside Services Carefully evaluate the prospective service s ability to perform as needed. Many fire departments are not trained or not available to do confined space rescue. Check with them first. Tell the service about the hazards inside the space. Let the service practice mock rescues in the confined space.
55 Non-entry Rescue What is a non-entry rescue? Non-entry rescue is retrieving a person out of a confined space without going into the space. Entrants must wear full body harnesses with a retrieval line attached. Best suited for manholes and tanks and cannot be used in every situation.
56 Non-entry Rescue Non-Entry Rescue Equipment It is usually impossible to pull a person out of a confined space unassisted. A retrieval line is attached to a mechanical device or a fixed anchor point outside the space. The mechanical device must be available to retrieve personnel from vertical type permit spaces more than 5-feet deep. Special rescue tripods are available.
57 Remember: This is the person responsible for your SAFETY
58 Cross Connection Control By: Mary L. Howell Garrett Yates Backflow Management Inc.
59 What is a cross connection? A cross connection is any actual or potential link between a public water system or the consumer s water system and any source of non-potable substances.
60 Common cross connections
61 Commercial, Industrial examples: Fire protection systems Auxiliary water supplies Make up lines for water using equipment Medical equipment i.e x-ray developers Film development Chemical dispensers for commercial kitchens
62 Cross Connections pose a public health risk when water changes direction in a piping system. This reversal from the intended direction of flow is commonly referred to as: Backflow
63 Causes of Backflow Backpressure Backsiphonage
64 Backpressure Means a pressure on the consumer s side of the service connection is greater than the pressure provided by the public water system. May cause backflow Common causes: pumps, elevated tanks, thermal expansion
65 Backsiphonage Means backflow due to a reduction in system pressure in the public water system and/or the consumer s water system Common causes: Main line breaks, heavy use i.e. fire hydrant use, pump failure
66 What are the Hazards Associated with Cross Connections? Chemical Physical Biological
67 These three conditions are usually assigned a specific degree of hazard
68 Non-Health or Low Hazard (Pollution) means an impairment of the quality of the water to a degree that does not create a hazard to the public health, but does adversely and affect the aesthetic qualities of such water for potable use. True Non-Health or Low Hazards are not very common
69 Health or High Hazard (Contamination) means an impairment of the quality of the water that could create an actual hazard to the public health through poisoning or through the spread of disease by sewage, industrial fluids, waste, or other substances. This is the most common hazard
70 Most regulatory agencies require water suppliers to protect the public water supply from contamination via cross connections Chapter 6 of the Uniform Plumbing Code requires property owners to protect their plumbing from cross connections Both Regulatory authorities prohibit cross connections without backflow protection!
71 PWS Jurisdiction JURISDICTIONS Authority Having Jurisdiction Water Main property lines Meter
72 Methods of protection Premises Isolation (Containment): means the practice of protecting the public water system from contamination or pollution by installing backflow prevention assemblies at, or near, the point of delivery where the water supply enters the premise. Premise isolation does not guarantee protection to persons on the premise. In-Premises Protection (Point of Use): means the practice of protecting the water user within their premises that is served by the public water system by the installation of an approved air gap or backflow prevention assembly at the point of hazard or cross connection, which is generally a plumbing fixture.
73 The minimum type of backflow preventer required for a cross connection is dependent upon: Degree of Hazard (Health/High Hazard, Non-Health/Low Hazard) What hydraulic conditions could occur (Backpressure or Backsiphonage)
74 Recommended Publications
75 USC Manual of Cross Connection Control Refer to this manual for guidance on development and implementation of cross connection control programs Refer to this manual for installation guidelines of backflow preventers Backflow assembly testers use the test procedures published in the most recent edition of this manual
76 USC Manual of Cross Connection Control 10 th edition Where do I get it? KAP-200 University Park MC-2531 Los Angeles, CA (213)
77 PNWS-AWWA 6 th Edition CCC Manual Refer to this manual for guidance on developing and implementing your CCC program Refers to this manual for installation guidelines of backflow preventers Soon to be the 7 th edition!!!!!! 20
78 PNWS-AWWA Summary of Backflow Incidents This manual makes a great public education tool for councils, boards and the public Documented incidents support the need for CCC programs to protect public health 21
79 PNWS/AWWA Manuals How do I get them? PNWS/AWWA PO BOX Vancouver, WA (503)
80 Guidance Document: Cross Connection Control for Small Water Systems Published by DOH in WA, this document is intended to be used for small systems; 1,000 service connections or less Can be a helpful reference for any size system This document is a road atlas for getting to compliance with the CCC regulations in the WAC a need to have tool! 23
81 Guidance Document: Cross Connection Control for Small Water Systems Where do I get it? Office of Drinking Water Department of Health (800) or download at 24
82 Uniform Plumbing Code (UPC) Adopted by States Background May be adopted with Statespecific amendments Applies within the property lines of consumer s premises Enforced by Local Administrative Authority (Building Code Officials)
83 UPC Updates UPC adopted by States every 3 years Chapter 6 contains Cross Connection Control requirements Purpose of amendments Allow innovation and new technologies in the State Clarify intent of UPC Conform to other Departments requirements
84 Uniform Plumbing Code with State Amendments This is the Code that governs cross connection control beyond the property line (Chapter 6 is CCC requirements). Rely on this code when conducting hazard evaluations Helpful to have when developing coordination with the Local Administrative Authority
85 Uniform Plumbing Code edition with State Amendments Where can I get it? Most Technical Book Stores Check with State Building Codes, Labor & Industries, Plumbing Code Enforcement Departments
86 What are the different types of backflow preventers available? BACKFLOW PREVENTERS METHOD DEVICES ASSEMBLIES
87 Backflow Preventer Overview
88 The Method 2x Diameter of supply line not less than 1 Air Gap
90 Atmospheric Vacuum Breaker Backsiphonage only HEALTH/HIGH or NON-HEALTH/LOW hazards Must not be pressurized for more than 12 hours in any 24-hour period Cannot have any downstream shut off valves TO DOWN- STREAM PIPING AIR INLET Must be installed a minimum of 6 above the highest downstream piping DIRECTION OF FLOW
94 Pressure Vacuum Breaker Assembly Backsiphonage only NON-HEALTH/LOW or HEALTH/HIGH hazards #2 Test Port Air Inlet (1psi) Check Valve (1psi) #2 Shut Off #1 Test Port #1 Shut Off Must be installed a minimum of 12 above highest downstream piping
95 Double Check Valve Assembly
96 Double Check Valve Assembly Backpressure and backsiphonage NON-HEALTH/LOW hazards only #1 Shut Off #1 Check Valve (1psi) #2 Check Valve (1psi) #3 Test Port #4 Test Port #1 Test Port #2 Test Port #2 Shut Off #1 disc holder #1 and #2 Check seat #2 disc holder
97 Reduced Pressure Backflow Assembly
98 Reduced Pressure Backflow Assembly #1 Check Valve (5psid) #2 Check Valve (1psid) #1 Test Port #1 Shut Off #2 Test Port #3 Test Port #4 Test Port #2 Shut Off 100PSI 95PSI 94PSI Sensing Line Relief Valve Diaphragm 100PSI Zone of Reduced Pressure Relief Valve Assembly (2psid)
99 What approvals do backflow assemblies need to carry? ASSE CSA UPC USC
100 Approved Assemblies List Available from State in OR and WA Can t post on State websites due to USC copyright laws Updates are available from State when new approvals are granted or others are deleted
101 General Program Requirements
102 1. Water suppliers establish CCC programs to protect the public water system from pollution and contamination 2. Responsibility for CCC begins at the source and ends at the point of delivery 3. Develop & implement a CCC Program that meets the minimum requirements of the State. 4. Coordinate CCC Program with Local Administrative Authority having jurisdiction
103 5. Ensure inspections of air gaps, devices and tests of assemblies are conducted when installed, annually, more frequently as determined by the water supplier, after an incident, after an air gap is re-plumbed 6. If not functioning, water user shall replace, repair or re-plumb as defined by the water suppliers enabling authority
104 7. Premise isolation is required for premises listed in the regulations or by individual hazard evaluations. Supplier may be able to accept in-premise in lieu of premise isolation 8. Water systems can implement their own CCC Program or by written agreement with another agency in OR & WA
105 10. Assemblies required by these rules shall be approved by USC Foundation (in Oregon, other equivalent testing laboratories as approved by DHS) 11. Assemblies once approved may remain in service provided they are not moved or altered, they are maintained, commensurate with the degree of hazard present and tested annually 12. Assembly tests performed in conformance with procedures established by USC Manual 10 th Edition (or other equivalent procedures as approved by DHS in Oregon)
106 13. Assemblies are tested by State-certified or approved testers. Backflow testers are required to submit test reports to the water user and water supplier within a reasonable time frame and in a form acceptable to the water supplier 14. Assemblies shall be installed according to industry standards
107 What Are the Elements of a Cross Connection Control Program?
108 ELEMENT 1
109 Create a public education program for governing boards, staff and water customers
110 ELEMENT 2
111 Adopt an enabling authority that allows for discontinuing water service to premises that do not: Eliminate an existing or potential cross connection Install an approved assembly Maintain an assembly Conduct the required testing of an assembly
112 ELEMENT 3
113 Ensure at least one person is certified as a Specialist (except in Idaho) (For water systems having 300 or more service connections in Oregon) Employ or contract with a certified or qualified person to oversee the development, implementation and maintenance of your cross connection control program.
114 ELEMENT 4
115 Establish procedures for evaluating the degree of hazard present and for notifying the water user of any corrective actions needed Both new & existing services
116 ELEMENT 5
117 Maintain a list of appropriate and approved backflow preventers for the degree of hazard identified and their appropriate installation guidelines
118 ELEMENT 6
119 Establish procedures to ensure that backflow preventers are installed, inspected and tested (if applicable) according to standards
120 ELEMENT 7
121 Establish a backflow prevention assembly testing Quality Control Assurance Program
122 ELEMENT 8
123 Establish and maintain Cross Connection Control Records Includes assembly tracking, surveys completed, test report records, annual summary reporting
124 ELEMENT 9
125 Create procedures for responding to and documenting backflow incidents
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Sample Checklist for Permit Required Confined Spaces Program 29 CFR 1910.146 - Permit Required Confined Spaces for General Industry Item Description Yes No N/A Section C (General Requirements) 1. (1) -
FCX Department of Occupational Health and Safety Confined Space Policy Approval Date: 8/5/13 Original Date: SOP # FCX-05 Revision # 04 Supersedes 03 X High Task Risk Medium Low NA Contents 1.0 Policy...2
Health & Safety Services Unit name goes here Safety Code of Practice 39 1 st Edition, July 2011 RESTRICTED ACCESS AND CONFINED SPACES University of Reading 2015 Page 1 Contents 1 Summary... 3 2 Introduction...
OSHA REGULATION: 9 CFR 90.5 WELDING, CUTTING, AND BRAZING ( HOT WORK ) A. POLICY. This procedure follows requirements set forth in 9 CFR 90.5.. This policy applies to all Hot Work operations being done
Cross Connection Control and Backflow Prevention Program Guidelines February 2010 EPB #422 Note: As of October 1, 2012 The Water Security Agency and Saskatchewan Ministry of Environment share responsibility
3 68 Metal Industry Guidelines for Safe Work section 3 high-risk 3 activities Metal Industry Guidelines for Safe Work 69 section 3 high risk activities 3.1 working at heights Falls from heights have been
Permit Required Confined Space/Boot Pit Evaluation Guide for Grain Elevators National Grain and Feed Association September 2013 Copyright 2013 By the National Grain and Feed Association 1250 I St., N.W.,
THE UOSH SAFETY LINE JULY 2010 Inside this issue: Confined Space 2-3 Safety Compliance Corner 4 Can You See It 5 Contact Us Utah Occupational Health and Safety Division (UOSH) 130 East 300 South Salt Lake
INTRODUCTION Confined space rescue represents one of the most challenging and dangerous rescue operations undertaken by fire protection agencies and industry today. Nearly 60% of all confined space deaths
WORK IN CONFINED SPACES STFC Safety Code No 11 Rev. 1.4, Issued April, 2015 Note - This document may have been superseded by a more recent version. Revisions 1 Initial Launch November 2007 1.1 Minor changes
Appendix A - Sample Department Confined Space Inventory List Area X Maintenance Spaces Evaluated as Permit-Required Confined Spaces: A4-001 Boyd Law, Passenger elevator pit, (Hydraulic), Air, C-7 A4-002
LOS ANGELES UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT Confined Space Policy and Procedures Office of Environmental Health and Safety 333 South Beaudry Avenue, 20 th Floor Los Angeles, California 90017 (213) 241-3199 February
LEADER S GUIDE: CONFINED SPACE ENTRY PROGRAM TABLE OF CONTENTS Section I INTRODUCTION Page 3 Section II DEFINITIONS Page 5 Section III DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES Page 8 Section IV TRAINING REQUIREMENTS