Confined Space Program

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1 Confined Space Program Environmental Health and Safety 11/01/13

2 Ball State University Environmental Health & Safety Confined Space Entry Plan STATEMENT OF POLICY Ball State University is committed to the responsibility of providing a work environment that is free from recognized hazards for its employees. Consistent with this duty is the Standard for Confined Space Entry (29 CFR ), promulgated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Ball State University is required by OSHA s Confined Space Standard to develop and carry out the provisions of a Confined Space Entry Plan. A Confined Space Entry Plan is defined as the overall program for controlling and, where appropriate, for protecting employees from confined space hazards and for regulating employee entry into areas which are classified as confined spaces. The Ball State University Confined Space Entry Program will be evaluated and updated at least annually. This plan will be made readily available to employees, their representatives, and any representative of OSHA. DRAFT 10/20/94 REVISION: 9/11/95 REVISION: 11/02/95 REVISION: 01/23/96 REVISION: 03/04/96 REVISION: 10/16/03 REVISION: 5/23/05 REVISION: 8/1/13 REVISION:11/1/13 1

3 A. Purpose and Objectives This procedure establishes the minimum standards for entering confined spaces at Ball State University. It is designed to: 1. Ensure that employees who follow the procedure will be protected from the safety and health hazards that are recognized to be present in confined spaces; 2. Comply with the OSHA Confined Space Entry Standard, 29 CFR ; 3. Provide a single approach to the confined-space entries at the University while still providing flexibility; 4. Ensure that the most appropriate entry and rescue equipment is purchased and used. B. Scope This procedure applies to confined-space entries at all Ball State University operations and facilities collectively referred throughout this document as the "University." C. Exemptions 1. Confined spaces that do not contain or, with respect to atmospheric hazards, have the potential to contain any hazard capable of causing death or serious physical harm are only covered by this procedure to the extent that department supervisors shall track changes in the use or configuration of each space and, if necessary, require an entry permit to enter it. These confined spaces are classified as nonpermit-required confined spaces. Examples of these spaces include: a. Crawl spaces b. Large shallow pits that do not have restricted ventilation or barriers such as grating on the top that would seriously restrict an emergency exit. 2

4 c. Attics d. Drop ceilings 2. Atmospheric-hazard-only confined spaces may be exempt from the confinedspace entry procedures if initial air monitoring reveals that a hazardous atmosphere does not exist. Air monitoring must be documented before considering such space exempt. 3. University Tunnel System shall require a permit, but will be subject to a special Tunnel Entrance procedure. If a supervisor has questions about a confined space, the supervisor will consult with a member of the Health and Environmental Safety Office, ext or ext D. Definitions Acceptable entry conditions: the conditions that must exist in a permit space to allow entry and to ensure that employees involved with a permit-required confined-space entry can safely enter into and work within the space. Atmospheric-hazard-only confined space: any confined space that the only hazard posed by that space is an actual or potentially hazardous atmosphere. Attendant: an individual stationed outside one or more permit spaces who monitors the authorized entrants and who performs all attendant's duties assigned in the employer's permit space program. Authorized entrant: an employee who is authorized by the employer to enter a permit space. 3

5 Blanking or blinding: the absolute closure of a pipe, line, or duct by the fastening of a solid plate (such as a spectacle blind or a skillet blind) that completely covers the bore and that is capable of withstanding the maximum pressure of the pipe, line, or duct with no leakage beyond the plate. Confined space is a space that: (1) Is large enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter and perform assigned work; and (2) Has limited or restricted means for entry or exit (for example, tanks, vessels, silos, storage bins, hoppers, vaults, and pits are spaces that may have limited means of entry); and (3) Is not designed for continuous employee occupancy. (4) Has one of more of the following: potentially dangerous atmosphere, Potential for engulfment, Dangerous internal configuration, slope or downward taper, Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard. Double block and bleed: the closure of a line, duct, or pipe by closing and locking or tagging two in-line valves and by opening and locking or tagging a drain or vent valve in the line between the two closed valves. Emergency: any occurrence (including any failure of hazard control or monitoring equipment) or event internal or external to the permit space that could endanger entrants. Engulfment: the surrounding and effective capture of a person by a liquid or finely divided, free flowing, solid substance that can be aspirated to cause death by filling or plugging the respiratory system or that can exert enough force on the body to cause death by strangulation, constriction, or crushing. 4

6 Entry: the action by which a person passes through an opening into a permit-required confined space. Entry includes ensuing work activities in that space and is considered to have occurred as soon as any part of the entrant's body breaks the plane of an opening into the space. Entry permit (permit): the written or printed document that is provided by the employer to allow and control entry into a permit space (See Attachment B). Entry supervisor: the person (such as the director, supervisor, or group leader) responsible for determining if acceptable entry conditions are present at a permit space where entry is planned, for authorizing entry and overseeing entry operations, and for terminating entry as required by this section. Note: An entry supervisor may also serve as an attendant or as an authorized entrant, as long as that person is trained and equipped as required by this section for each role he or she fills. Also, the duties of entry supervisor may be passed from one individual to another during the course of an entry operation, provided that all parties have been appropriately trained and certified as Entry Supervisors by the University. Hazardous atmosphere: an atmosphere that may expose employees to the risk of death, incapacitation, impairment of ability to self-rescue (that is, escape unaided from a permit space), injury, or acute illness from one or more of the following causes: (1) Flammable gas, vapor, or mist in excess of 10 percent of its lower flammable limit (LFL); (2) Airborne combustible dust at a concentration that meets or exceeds its LFL; (Note: This concentration may be approximated as a condition in which the dust obscures vision at a distance of 5 feet (1.52 m) or less.) (3) Atmospheric oxygen concentration below 19.5 percent or above 23.5 percent; (4) Atmospheric concentration of any substance for which a dose or a permissible exposure limit is published in Subpart G, Occupational Health 5

7 and Environmental Control, or in Subpart Z, Toxic and Hazardous Substances, of the OSHA Standards for General Industry and which could result in employee exposure in excess of its dose or permissible exposure limit; (Note: An atmospheric concentration of any substance that is not capable of causing death, incapacitation, impairment of ability to selfrescue, injury, or acute illness due to its health effects is not covered by this provision.) (5) Any other atmospheric condition that is immediately dangerous to life or health. (Note: For air contaminants for which OSHA has not determined a dose or permissible exposure limit, other sources of information, such as Material Safety Data Sheets that comply with the Hazard Communication Standard, , published information, and internal documents can provide guidance in establishing acceptable atmospheric conditions.) Hot-work permit: the employer's written authorization to perform operations (for example, riveting, welding, cutting, burning, and heating) capable of providing a source of ignition. Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH): any condition that poses an immediate or delayed threat to life or that would cause irreversible adverse health effects or that would interfere with an individual's ability to escape unaided from a permit space. (Note: Some materials--hydrogen fluoride gas and cadmium vapor, for example--may produce immediate transient affects that, even if severe, may pass without medical attention, but are followed by sudden, possibly fatal collapse 12 to 72 hours after exposure. The victim "feels normal" from recovery from transient affects until collapse. Such materials in hazardous quantities are considered to be "immediately" dangerous to life or health.) Inerting: the displacement of the atmosphere in a permit space by a noncombustible gas (such as nitrogen) to such an extent that the resulting atmosphere is noncombustible. (Note: This procedure produces an IDLH oxygen-deficient atmosphere.) 6

8 Isolation: the process by which a permit space is removed from service and completely protected against the release of energy and material into the space by such means as: blanking or blinding; misaligning or removing sections of lines, pipes, or ducts; a double block and bleed system; lockout or tagout of all sources of energy; or blocking or disconnecting all mechanical linkages. Line breaking: the intentional opening of a pipe, line, or duct that is or has been carrying flammable, corrosive, or toxic material, an inert gas, or any fluid at a volume, pressure, or temperature capable of causing injury. Non-permit confined space: a confined space that does not contain or, with respect to atmospheric hazards, have the potential to contain any hazard capable of causing death or serious physical harm. Oxygen-deficient atmosphere: an atmosphere containing less than 19.5 percent oxygen by volume. (Note: Possible adverse health affects may result.) Oxygen-enriched atmosphere: an atmosphere containing more than 23.5 percent oxygen by volume. (Note: Potential for explosion may exist.) Permit-required confined space program (permit space program): the employer's overall program for controlling, and, where appropriate, for protecting employees from permit space hazards, and for regulating employee entry into permit space. Permit system: the employer's written procedure for preparing and issuing permits for entry and for returning the permit space to service following termination of entry. Prohibited condition: any condition in a permit space that is not allowed by the permit during the period when entry is authorized. Rescue service: the personnel designated to rescue employees from permit spaces. 7

9 Retrieval system: the equipment (including a retrieval line, chest or full-body harness, wristlets, if appropriate, and a lifting device or anchor) used for non-entry rescue of persons from permit spaces. Testing: the process by which the hazards that may confront entrants of a permit space are identified and evaluated. Testing includes specifying the tests that are to be performed in the permit space. (Note: Testing enables employers both to devise and implement adequate control measures for the protection of authorized entrants and to determine if acceptable entry conditions are present immediately prior to, and during, entry.) E. Program Elements 1. Permit Management System A single standardized permit is required to enter any confined space. A copy of the blank permit is in Attachment B. The detailed permit provides the attendants, entrants, and the entry supervisor with the essential information needed to assess the hazards, take the appropriate precautions, conduct necessary testing and monitoring, and certify the entry is being conducted properly. Attendants shall be posted outside of permit-required confined spaces to monitor the entry whenever an entrant is inside the confined space. Specifically, the entry supervisor shall: a. Document the completion of pre-entry precautions by preparing an entry permit before entry is authorized. b. Have the authorized entrants and attendants initial the permit form. c. Before entry begins, sign the entry permit to authorize entry. d. Make the completed permit available at the time of entry to all authorized entrants, by posting it at the entry portal or by any other equally effective 8

10 means, so that the entrants can confirm that pre-entry preparations have been completed. e. Limit the duration of the permit to the time required to complete the assigned task or job identified on the permit. f. Terminate entry and cancel the entry permit when: i. The entry operations covered by the entry permit have been completed; or ii. iii. A condition that is not allowed under the entry permit (prohibited condition) arises in or near the permit space. A second or subsequent shift is to take over entry operations. g. Note any problems encountered during an entry operation on the pertinent permit. h. Give the completed entry permit to the supervisor who will then forward it to the Facilities Planning and Management Safety Specialist, SV205. The Facilities Planning and Management Health and Environmental Safety Office shall retain each canceled entry permit for at least one year to facilitate the annual review of this program. 2. Equipment The following equipment shall be provided to employees: a. Atmospheric testing and monitoring equipment: A combination combustible gas indicator, oxygen meter, and carbon monoxide meter shall be used for all permit-required confined space 9

11 entries. The monitor shall sound an audible alarm, in addition to its visual readout, whenever one of the following conditions is encountered: i. Oxygen concentration less than 19.5 percent or above 23.5 percent; ii. iii. iv. Flammable gas or vapor at 10 percent or more of the lower flammable limit (LFL); or Carbon monoxide at or above its PEL of 50 ppm; or Hydrogen sulfide at or above 10 ppm. (Note: Substance-specific devices such as gas detector tubes should be used under the supervision of the Health and Environmental Safety Office whenever actual contaminants have been identified.) b. Ventilating equipment needed to obtain acceptable entry conditions; c. Communications equipment necessary for attendants to: i. Monitor entrant status; ii. Alert entrants of the need to evacuate the space; and iii. Summon rescue services. d. Personal protective equipment necessary when feasible engineering and work practice controls do not adequately protect employees; e. Lighting equipment needed to enable employees to see well enough to work safely and to exit the space quickly in an emergency; f. Barriers and shields as necessary to protect entrants from external hazards such as pedestrians, vehicles, or falling objects; 10

12 g. Equipment, such as ladders, needed for safe ingress and egress by authorized entrants; h. Rescue and emergency equipment including a: i. Chest or full body harness for each authorized entrant that allows a retrieval line to be attached at the center of the entrant's back near shoulder level, or above the entrant's head. ii. iii. Retrieval line for each authorized entrant. Mechanical retrieval device to retrieve personnel from confined spaces that require a vertical lift of more than five feet. i. Any other equipment necessary for safe entry into and rescue from permit spaces. 3. Atmospheric Testing Before and During Entry Under the supervision of the entry supervisor and the authorized entrants, the attendant (or authorized entrant if entry is required to test the atmosphere) shall evaluate permit space conditions as follows before each entry (including re-entries after breaks and lunch): a. Test conditions in the permit space to determine if acceptable entry conditions exist before entry is authorized to begin, except that, if isolation of the space is infeasible because the space is large or is part of a continuous system (such as a sewer), pre-entry testing shall be performed to the extent feasible before entry is authorized and, if entry is authorized, entry conditions shall be continuously monitored in the areas where authorized entrants are working; 11

13 b. Test or monitor the permit space as necessary to determine if acceptable entry conditions are being maintained during the course of entry operations; and c. When testing for atmospheric hazards, test first for oxygen, then for combustible gases and vapors, and then for toxic gases and vapors. d. Measurement of values for each atmospheric parameter should be made for at least the minimum response time of the test instrument as specified by the manufacturer. e. The atmospheric envelope should be tested a distance of approximately four feet in the direction of travel and to each side. If a sampling probe is used, the entrant's rate of progress should be slowed to accommodate the sampling speed and detector response. The entry supervisors shall select and use equipment of sufficient sensitivity and specificity to identify and evaluate any hazardous atmospheres that are likely to exist or arise. If questions arise regarding the selection and use of the equipment, the entry supervisor shall request the assistance of the Health and Environmental Safety Office (ext or ). 4. Training a. Each supervisor shall identify the persons they supervise who will be: i. Authorized entrants; ii. iii. Attendants; or Entry supervisors. 12

14 b. With the assistance of the Facilities Planning and Management Health and Environmental Safety Office, the supervisor shall ensure that each employee receives sufficient Confined Space training and has the understanding, knowledge, and skills necessary for the safe performance of their duties. Training shall be provided to each employee: i. Before the employee is first assigned confined space entry duties; ii. iii. iv. Before there is a change in assigned duties; Whenever there is a change in permit-space operations that presents a hazard about which an employee has not previously been trained; Whenever the supervisor has reason to believe either that entry procedures are not being followed or that there are inadequacies in the employee's knowledge or use of these procedures. c. The supervisor shall certify that the training has been accomplished. The certification shall contain each employee's name, the signatures of the trainers, and the dates of training. The certification shall be available for inspection by employees and their authorized representatives. d. The supervisor shall maintain a list of certified employees and the duties they are trained to fulfill. A copy of this list shall be forwarded to the Facilities Planning and Management Safety Specialist, SV205. e. The Facilities Planning and Management Health and Environmental Safety Office shall evaluate the content of the training programs to determine their adequacy. 13

15 f. The Facilities Planning and Management Health and Environmental Safety Office shall ensure that each University employee who enters a permit space to perform rescue services: i. Is trained and certified as an entrant; and ii. Is proficient in the use of the personal protective equipment and rescue equipment necessary for making rescues from permit spaces; and iii. Practices making permit-space rescues at least once every 12 months, by means of simulated rescue operations in which they remove dummies, manikins, or actual persons from the actual permit spaces or from permit spaces, representative of permit spaces typically found at the University. Representative permit spaces shall, with respect to opening size, configuration, and accessibility, simulate the types of permit spaces from which rescue is to be performed; and iv. Is trained and certified in basic first-aid and in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). 5. Contractors When Ball State University arranges to have employees of another employer perform work that involves permit-space entry, the work shall be done as set forth in Section F7 (page 32 ), Duties of the Construction Superintendent. 6. Program Revisions 14

16 The supervisor responsible for the confined space and the Facilities Planning and Management Health and Environmental Safety Office shall review entry operations when there is reason to believe that the measures taken under this program may not protect employees and revise the program to correct deficiencies found to exist before subsequent entries are authorized. It is the responsibility of the Supervisor to contact the Safety Specialist (ext ) when these problems are identified. Examples of circumstances requiring the review include: a. Any unauthorized entry of a permit space, b. The detection of a permit-space hazard not covered by the permit, c. The detection of a condition prohibited by the permit, d. The occurrence of an injury or near-miss during entry, e. A change in the use or configuration of a permit space, and f. Employee complaints about the effectiveness of the entry program. Note: All injuries or near-misses occurring during entry shall be immediately reported to the Facilities Planning and Management Health and Environmental Safety Office ( or ) so that an incident report may be recorded. 7. Annual Review The Facilities Planning and Management Health and Environmental Safety Office shall review this program at least annually, using the canceled permits retained by the supervisors. The program shall be revised as necessary to ensure that employees participating in entry operations are protected from permit-space hazards. The supervisors shall be responsible for forwarding all canceled permits to the Safety Specialist (SV205) within one work day of their cancellation. 15

17 F. Other Safety Precautions 1. Mechanical Ventilation Mechanical ventilation shall meet the following requirements: 1. Mechanical ventilation shall consist of either general mechanical ventilation systems or local exhaust systems. 2. General mechanical ventilation shall be of sufficient capacity and so arranged as to produce the number of air changes necessary to maintain welding fumes and smoke within safe limits. 3. Local exhaust ventilation shall consist of freely movable hoods intended to be placed by the welder or burner as close as practicable to the work. This system shall be of sufficient capacity and so arranged as to remove fumes and smoke at the source and keep the concentration of them in the breathing zone within safe limits. 4. Contaminated air exhausted from a working space shall be discharged into the open air or otherwise clear of the source of intake air. 5. All air replacing that withdrawn shall be clean and respirable. 6. Oxygen shall not be used for ventilation purposes, comfort cooling, blowing dust from clothing, or for cleaning the work area. 2. Welding, cutting, and heating in confined spaces. 1. Either general mechanical or local exhaust ventilation meeting the requirements above shall be provided whenever welding, cutting, or heating is performed in a confined space. 16

18 2. When sufficient ventilation cannot be obtained without blocking the means of access, employees in the confined space shall be protected by air line respirators, and an employee on the outside of such a confined space shall be assigned to maintain communication with those working within it and to aid them in an emergency. 3. Lifelines. Where a welder must enter a confined space through a manhole or other small opening, means shall be provided for quickly removing him in case of an emergency. When safety belts and lifelines are used for this purpose they shall be so attached to the welder s body that his body cannot be jammed in a small exit opening. An attendant with a pre-planned rescue procedure shall be stationed outside to observe the welder at all times and be capable of putting rescue operations into effect. G. Responsibilities The Director of Facilities Management, Director of Facilities Engineering, and Director of Facilities Planning shall ensure that individuals who have the following roles in confined space entry are properly trained and adequately perform their assigned duties. 1. The supervisor has the following duties: a. For confined spaces within his/her area of responsibility: i. Classify each confined space as either a: Non-permit-required confined space; Permit-required confined space; Atmospheric hazard only. ii. Track changes in the use or configuration of each confined space and, if necessary, revise its classification. 17

19 iii. iv. Consult with Facilities Planning and Management Health and Environmental Safety Office if questions about the proper classification arise. Maintain a list of identified confined spaces and their classification. v. Prevent unauthorized entry during normal, non-entry operations in two manners: Where practical, post danger signs at each entrance to each confined space that require an entry permit. See attachment A for recommended sign. When practical, or whenever a danger sign is not posted, barricade each entrance to each confined space with a manhole cover, a bolted panel, a locked door, or similar device. vi. vii. Ensure that the proper equipment necessary for safe entry, including testing, monitoring, communication, and personal protective equipment is available and used. Ensure the entry and rescue equipment has been inspected and maintained as needed. b. For each person they supervise, i. Identify who will be an: Authorized entrant; Attendant; or Entry supervisor. 18

20 ii. iii. iv. Provide, with the assistance of the Facilities Planning and Management Health and Environmental Safety Office, training to ensure each employee has the understanding, knowledge, and skills necessary for the safe performance of their duties. Training shall be provided to each employee as noted in item 4b, pages 17 to 18. Certify that the training has been accomplished. The certification shall contain each employee's name, the signatures of the trainers, and the dates of training. Maintain a list of each certified person and the duties they are trained to fulfill. c. Review entry operations when he/she has reason to believe that the measures taken under this program may not protect employees and recommend to the Facilities Planning and Management Office Health and Environmental Safety Office the program revisions needed to correct deficiencies found to exist. These revisions must be completed prior to the authorization of subsequent entries. d. Forward copies of canceled entry permits to the Facilities Planning and Management Safety Specialist, SV The Facilities Planning and Management Health and Environmental Safety Office has the following duties: a. Ensure that new employee orientation training includes a brief explanation of the: 19

21 i. Hazards of confined spaces, ii. iii. Methods to identify confined spaces. Importance of a properly completed entry permit, iv. Rule that the employee cannot serve as an attendant or entrant without specialized training. b. Coordinate training for entry supervisors, authorized entrants, and attendants. c. Evaluate the content of training programs to determine their adequacy. d. Review this program at least annually, using the canceled permits retained by the supervisors. The program shall be revised as necessary to ensure that employees participating in entry operations are protected from permit-space hazards. The supervisors shall be responsible for forwarding all canceled permits to the Safety Specialist (SV205) within one work day of their cancellation. e. Review this program, using the canceled permits retained by the supervisors within one year after each entry and revise the program as necessary, to ensure that employees participating in entry operations are protected from permit-space hazards. f. Receive and properly file completed confined-space entry permits; and g. Advise the entry supervisor of the proper selection and use of confined-space entry and rescue equipment. 3. The Entry Supervisor (person signing the permit) has the following duties. 20

22 a. Know the hazards that may be faced during entry, including information on the mode, signs or symptoms, and consequences of the exposure; b. Select and use equipment of sufficient sensitivity and specificity to identify and evaluate any hazardous atmospheres that are likely to exist or arise. If questions arise regarding the selection and use of the equipment, the entry supervisor shall request assistance from the Facilities Planning and Management Health and Environmental Safety Office. c. Verify, by checking that the appropriate entries have been made on the permit, that all tests specified by the permit have been conducted and that all procedures and equipment specified by the permit are in place before endorsing the permit and allowing entry to begin; d. Verify that rescue services are available and that the means for summoning them are operable; e. Before entry is authorized, document the completion of pre-entry precautions by preparing an entry permit. f. Before entry begins, sign the entry permit to authorize entry. g. Make the completed permit available at the time of entry to all authorized entrants, by posting it at the entry portal or by any other equally effective means, so that the entrants can confirm that preentry preparations have been completed. 21

23 h. Limit the duration of the permit to the time required to complete the assigned task or job identified on the permit. i. Remove unauthorized individuals who enter or deny access to those who attempt to enter the permit space during entry operations; j. Determine, whenever responsibility for a permit space entry operation is transferred and at intervals dictated by the hazards and operations performed within the space, that entry operations remain consistent with terms of the entry permit and that acceptable entry conditions are maintained. k. Terminate the entry and cancel the entry permit when: i. The entry operations covered by the entry permit have been completed; or ii. A condition that is not allowed under the entry permit arises in or near the permit space. l. Note any problems encountered during an entry operation on the pertinent permit. m. Give the completed entry permit to the supervisor responsible for the confined space. 4. The Authorized Entrant has the following duties: a. Know the hazards that may be faced during entry, including information on the mode, signs or symptoms, and consequences of the exposure. 22

24 b. Properly use equipment. c. Communicate with the attendant as necessary to enable the attendant to monitor entrant status and to enable the attendant to alert entrants of the need to evacuate the space. d. Alert the attendant whenever: i. The entrant recognizes any warning sign or symptom of exposure to a dangerous situation, or ii. The entrant detects a prohibited condition; and e. Exit the permit space as quickly as possible whenever: i. An order to evacuate is given by anyone involved in the entry process. ii. iii. iv. The entrant recognizes any warning sign or symptom of exposure to a dangerous situation, The entrant detects a prohibited condition, or An evacuation alarm is activated. 5. The Attendant has the following duties: a. Know the hazards that may be faced during entry, including information on the mode, signs or symptoms, and consequences of the exposure: 23

25 b. Be aware of possible behavioral effects of hazard exposure in authorized entrants; c. Continuously maintain an accurate count of authorized entrants in the permit space and ensure that the means used to identify authorized entrants accurately identifies who is in the permit space; d. Remain outside the permit space within view of the entrance during entry operations until relieved by another attendant; e. Cover the entrance to the confined space before leaving the area when the authorized entrants exit the confined space (e.g., for lunch or a break); f. Communicate with authorized entrants as necessary to monitor entrant status and to alert entrants of the need to evacuate the space. Acceptable means of communication are verbal-direct, line of sight, and/or by two-way radio. Note: Two-way radios shall not be used where there is potential for a combustible atmosphere; g. Monitor activities inside and outside the space to determine if it is safe for entrants to remain in the space and order the authorized entrants to evacuate the permit space immediately under any of the following conditions; i. If the attendant detects a prohibited condition; ii. iii. If the attendant detects the behavioral effects of hazard exposure in an authorized entrant; If the attendant detects a situation outside the space that could endanger the authorized entrants; or 24

26 iv. If the attendant cannot effectively and safely perform all the required duties. h. Summon rescue and other emergency services as soon as the attendant determines that authorized entrants may need assistance to escape from permit-space hazards; i. Take the following actions when unauthorized persons approach or enter a permit space while entry is underway: i. Warn the unauthorized persons that they must stay away from the permit space; ii. Advise the unauthorized persons that they must exit immediately if they have entered the permit space; and iii. Inform the authorized entrants and the entry supervisor if unauthorized persons have entered the permit space; j. Perform non-entry rescues as specified by the employer's rescue procedure; and k. Perform no duties that might interfere with the attendant's primary duty to monitor and protect the authorized entrants. 6. The Department of Public Safety has the following duties: a. To order unauthorized persons to vacate entry site and escort them from the area when requested by an entry supervisor, attendant, or Health and Environmental Safety Office representative. 25

27 b. In the event of an emergency, provide site security and assist emergency response personnel appropriate to their technical capabilities. 7. The Construction Superintendent has the following duties when Ball State University arranges to have a contractor perform work that involves permit space-entry: a. Inform the contractor that the workplace contains permit spaces and that permit-space entry is allowed only through compliance with a permit-space program meeting the requirements of 29 CFR ; b. Apprise the contractor of the elements, including the hazards identified and past experience with the space, that make the space in question a permit space; c. Apprise the contractor of any precautions or procedures that Ball State University has implemented for the protection of employees in or near permit spaces where contractor personnel will be working; d. Coordinate entry operations with the contractor and the Facilities Planning and Management Safety Specialist, when both Ball State University employees and contractor personnel will be working in or near permit spaces; (Note: In this case, the Contractor shall initiate their own permit for their employees and the University shall do the same.) and e. Debrief the contractor at the conclusion of the entry operations regarding the permit-space program followed and regarding any hazards confronted or created in permit spaces during entry operations. 8. The Emergency Response Team has the following duties: 26

28 Ball State University will rely upon the Muncie Fire Department and other local emergency services as the primary rescue service for confined space-related emergencies on the Ball State Campus. The University will, however, assemble and maintain a Confined-Space Emergency First- Response Team. This team will be authorized to perform non-entry rescues only. Their primary purpose will be to provide local fire and EMS authorities with support in the event of a confined-space emergency on the Ball State campus. The Confined-Space Emergency First-Response Team has the following responsibilities: a. The team shall be coordinated through a cooperative effort between the Facilities Planning & Management Safety Specialist and the Muncie Fire Department's Training Officer. b. The University shall ensure that each member of the First- Response Team is provided with, and is trained how to use properly, all personal protective equipment and rescue equipment necessary for making non-entry rescues from permit-required confined spaces. c. Each member of the First-Response Team shall be trained to perform their assigned rescue duties. Each member of the First- Response Team shall also receive the training required of Attendants, Authorized Entrants, and Entry Supervisors. It will be the responsibility of the Health & Environmental Safety Office to maintain documentation of this training. d. Each member of the First-Response Team shall hold current certification in basic first aid and cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by American Red Cross standards. At least two members of the First-Response Team holding such certification shall be available during permit-required entries. It is the responsibility of the Entry Supervisor to ensure the availability of the First-Response Team personnel. 27

29 e. Upon arrival on the scene of a confined-space emergency on University property, the First-Response Team shall evaluate the scene for safety. Methods of scene evaluation shall include, but not be limited to, visual assessment, discussion with witnesses, and atmospheric testing of the affected area (if possible without entry). The First-Response Team shall assemble any additional rescue equipment that they deem as necessary to the rescue operations. If necessary, the First-Response Team will be responsible for initiating requests for necessary utility disconnections, additional support staff needed, etc. f. If it is deemed possible by the First-Response Team that rescue operations may be initiated from outside of the confined space, the First-Response Team shall commence said operations. g. Upon the arrival of the Muncie Fire Department, the First-Response Team shall be responsible for briefing the fire department as to the nature of the entry operations and the ensuing emergency, hazards contained in the confined space, and an assessment of the scene. h. The First-Response Team shall assist the Muncie Fire Department to the best of their ability and shall relinquish Incident Command to the Muncie Fire Department upon their arrival. i. Each member of the First-Response Team shall participate in permit-space rescue practice sessions with the Muncie Fire Department at least once every twelve (12) months. These practices shall be by means of simulated rescue operations in which dummies, manikins, or actual persons are removed from the actual permit spaces on campus or from permit spaces that are representative of those typically encountered at the University. Representative permit spaces shall, with respect to opening, size, 28

30 configuration, and accessibility, simulate the types of permit spaces from which rescue is to be performed. Note: It will be the responsibility of the Facilities Planning & Management Safety Specialist and the Muncie Fire Department Training Officer to ensure that these training sessions are completed annually. All applicable training documentation shall be maintained in the Ball State Health & Environmental Safety Office. H. Policies 1. Each confined space at the University shall be evaluated to determine whether it is a permit-required, atmospheric-hazard-only, or a non-permitrequired confined space. 2. A sign shall be posted at each entrance to each permit-required confined space. The sign shall meet the requirements of 29 CFR A Ball State University Confined-Space Entry Permit Form must be properly completed prior to entering any permit-required confined space. 4. Prior to entry, atmospheric testing shall be conducted on permit-required and atmospheric-hazard-only confined spaces. The Entry Supervisor shall ensure that there are acceptable entry conditions prior to entry. 5. Attendants are required to stand by outside all permit-required confined spaces during entry. 6. Entrants, attendants, and entry supervisors shall be properly trained to implement this procedure and follow all appropriate precautions. This training shall be updated annually. 29

31 7. The confined-space entry procedure shall be followed by all University employees and contractors. All employees are required to comply with the restrictions and limitations imposed upon them during use of the confinedspace entry procedures. Failure to comply with this procedure may result in disciplinary action as outlined in Rule 16 "Violation of major safety rules and practices" of the University Employee Handbook. 30

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