HealthStream Regulatory Script

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1 HealthStream Regulatory Script Confined Space Entry Release Date: August 2009 HLC Version: 602 Lesson 1: Introduction Lesson 2: Hazards of Confined Spaces Lesson 3: Permit-Required Confined Spaces Lesson 4: Permits and Emergencies

2 Lesson 1: Introduction 1001 Introduction Welcome to the introductory lesson on confined space entry. IMAGE: 3004.jpg As your partner, HealthStream strives to provide its customers with excellence in regulatory learning solutions. As new guidelines are continually issued by regulatory agencies, we work to update courses, as needed, in a timely manner. Since responsibility for complying with new guidelines remains with your organization, HealthStream encourages you to routinely check all relevant regulatory agencies directly for the latest updates for clinical/organizational guidelines. If you have concerns about any aspect of the safety or quality of patient care in your organization, be aware that you may report these concerns directly to the Joint Commission. Page 1 of 4 2

3 1002 Course Rationale Employees who work in confined spaces are at risk for: Injury Illness Death IMAGE: 1001.JPG OSHA [glossary] has regulations that help protect workers from these risks. This course will teach you what you need to know to: Be compliant with OSHA rules on confined spaces Keep yourself safe when working in a confined space You will learn about: The definition of a confined space The possible hazards of confined spaces OSHA s rules for confined spaces Page 2 of 4

4 1003 Course Goals After completing this course, you should be able to: Define confined space and permit-required confined space List the hazards of confined spaces Identify the duties of different employees related to confined spaces Recognize the features of a confined space permit program NO IMAGE Page 3 of 4

5 1004 Course Outline This introductory lesson gave the course rationale and goals. FLASH ANIMATION: 1004.SWF/FLA Lesson 2 explains what a confined space is. This includes a description of confined space hazards. Lesson 3 discusses permit-required confined spaces (or permit spaces ). Finally, lesson 4 describes requirements for confined space work permits and how to handle confined space emergencies. Page 4 of 4

6 Lesson 2: Hazards of Confined Spaces 2001 Introduction & Objectives Welcome to the lesson on hazards of confined spaces. FLASH ANIMATION: 2001.SWF/FLA After completing this lesson, you should be able to: Define confined space List examples of confined spaces Recall dangers of confined spaces Page 1 of 20

7 2002 Confined Spaces A confined space has three features: The way in or out of the space is restricted or limited. The space is large enough for an employee to enter and work. The space is not meant to be an all-day, everyday workspace. IMAGE: 2002.JPG Page 2 of 20

8 2003 Examples of Confined Spaces There are two main types of confined spaces: Deep spaces with open tops Enclosed spaces with very small entrances Click on each category for more information. CLICK TO REVEAL Deep spaces with open tops These spaces are so deep that air does not flow through them in a typical way. Examples are: Degreasers Pits Some storage tanks Enclosed spaces with small entrances Examples can include: Sewers Laundry areas Tanks Engineering areas Vaults Boilers Storage and electrical areas Page 3 of 20

9 2004 Hazards of Confined Spaces Possible dangers of confined spaces fall into two general categories: Atmospheric dangers Physical dangers Click on each category for types of dangers included in each. On the following screens, we ll take a closer look at each of these dangers. CLICK TO REVEAL Atmospheric dangers These dangers are: Flammable [glossary] air Toxic [glossary] air Corrosive [glossary] air Asphyxiating [glossary] air Physical dangers These dangers include: Mechanical hazards Communication problems Entry and exit dangers Heat Noise Vibration Other physical hazards Page 4 of 20

10 2005 Flammable Air The following factors can lead to flammable air in a confined space: Extra oxygen Flammable gases Byproducts of work Concentration of certain dusts Chemical reactions Release of chemicals from surfaces Click on each factor for more information. CLICK TO REVEAL Extra oxygen The terms air and oxygen are often used to mean the same thing. However, they are not the same thing. Normal air has about 21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen, and 1% other gases. Air in a particular space, however, can sometimes contain more than 21% oxygen. Oxygen is necessary for any fire to burn. Therefore, a confined space with extra oxygen (more than 21%) has a greater risk of fires and explosions. Flammable gases Many gases readily act as fuel for a fire or explosion. These gases can become trapped in certain confined spaces. Examples of these gases include: Acetylene Butane Propane Hydrogen Methane Vapors from liquid hydrocarbons Welding is a major cause of explosions in confined spaces that contain gases that act as fuels. Byproducts of work Certain types of work done in a confined space create byproducts that increase the risk of fire or explosion. An example of this kind of work is spray painting. Concentration of certain dusts Certain types of dust make good fuels. These dusts can become highly concentrated in some confined spaces. This increases the risk of fire or explosion. An example of a dust that is a fire hazard is the finely ground powder of some chemicals. Chemical reactions Chemical reactions that happen in confined spaces can create conditions that increase the risk of fire or explosion. Release of chemicals from surfaces The inner surfaces of some confined spaces may slowly release chemicals. These chemicals can increase the risk of fire. Page 5 of 20

11 2006 Toxic Air The air in a confined space may become toxic for several reasons. These reasons include: Product storage The work done in the space Errors Click on each reason to learn more. CLICK TO REVEAL Product storage A confined space may become toxic if the space is used to store certain materials. Examples of these materials include: Acids Corrosive materials Pesticides Chemotherapy drugs Sterilizing agents Work done in the space Certain work done in a confined space may produce toxic fumes. These fumes can make the air toxic to breath. Here are some examples of work that can produce toxic fumes: Welding Brazing Mixing chemicals Errors Human error or mechanical error can result in toxic air. Error may occur during: Loading materials Unloading materials Mixing materials Producing materials Page 6 of 20

12 2007 Toxic Air: An Example Air with a high carbon monoxide (CO) level is one example of toxic air. IMAGE: 2007.JPG CO is an odorless, colorless gas.this gas can build up in confined spaces where certain work is done. When CO is breathed, the CO combines with hemoglobin in the blood. This blocks hemoglobin from carrying oxygen to the cells of the body. Very high levels of CO can be fatal. Early symptoms of CO poisoning include nausea and headache. A safe reading on a combustible gas meter does NOT mean that there is not high CO. A specific test for CO is needed. Page 7 of 20

13 2008 Corrosive Air Corrosive air contains irritants [glossary]. IMAGE: 2008.SWF/FLA Irritants may be primary or secondary. Primary irritants: Irritate the surface of the body where they make contact. Do NOT have toxic effects throughout the rest of the body. Secondary irritants: Irritate the surface of the body where they make contact. DO have toxic effects throughout the rest of the body. Examples of primary and secondary irritants are listed in the table to the right. Page 8 of 20

14 2009 Asphyxiating Air Remember: Normal air has 21% oxygen. Increased oxygen increases the risk of fire. On the other hand, decreased oxygen can cause asphyxiation. Click on each of the decreased oxygen levels to reveal symptoms: 17% oxygen 14% to 16% oxygen 6% to 10% oxygen Less than 6% oxygen CLICK TO REVEAL 17% oxygen Breathing air with 17% oxygen causes these symptoms: Increased breathing volume Faster heart rate 14% to 16% oxygen Breathing air with this amount of oxygen causes: Increased breathing volume Faster heart rate Poor coordination Getting tired quickly Stops in breathing 6% to 10% oxygen Breathing air with this amount of oxygen causes: Nausea Vomiting Inability to do work Unconsciousness Less than 6% oxygen Breathing air with this amount of oxygen causes: Jerky breathing Jerky movements Death in minutes Page 9 of 20

15 2010 Asphyxiating Air: Causes Low oxygen in a confined space can be caused by: Using oxygen Displacing oxygen Click on each cause to learn more. CLICK TO REVEAL Using oxygen Oxygen is used when: Humans breathe Fuels burn Bacteria or yeast ferment Certain chemicals react If too much oxygen is used, the oxygen level in the confined space may fall to dangerously low levels. Displacing oxygen Oxygen is displaced when: Other gases are used to push normal air out of the confined space. Examples of other gases that may be used for this purpose are helium, argon, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. These other gases are used to push out gases that could burn. This is done to prevent or slow fires or explosions. Carbon dioxide pushes out normal air. This can happen in confined spaces that naturally produce carbon dioxide. Examples of these spaces are sewers, storage bins, and tunnels. Page 10 of 20

16 2011 Mechanical Hazards A mechanical hazard is a device or equipment that creates a danger. IMAGE: 2011.JPG Examples of mechanical hazards in a confined space are: Electrical or mechanical equipment that becomes activated while an employee is working in the confined space Steam valves Pressure lines Page 11 of 20

17 2012 Communication A worker in a confined space should always have a buddy as a standby. IMAGE: 2012.JPG The standby person stays outside the confined space. The worker inside the confined space and the standby person outside must maintain communication. Loss of communication could put the worker at risk. Page 12 of 20

18 2013 Entry and Exit Remember: One feature of a confined space is a restricted or limited way of entering or exiting. NO IMAGE This means it may take extra time to enter or exit the space. How long it takes is directly related to possible danger. For example, suppose a fire breaks out in a confined space. The danger to workers in the confined space will be affected by: How long it takes for rescuers to enter the space through the restricted entry How long it takes for the workers to exit the space through the restricted exit Page 13 of 20

19 2014 Heat Hot confined spaces can put workers at risk for: Heat exhaustion Heat stroke Click on each to learn more. CLICK TO REVEAL Heat exhaustion To cool off in hot temperatures, the body circulates a lot of blood to the skin. This means that less blood goes to the vital organs, including the brain. This can lead to heat exhaustion. Symptoms are: Dizziness Blurred vision Nausea Eventual collapse If heat exhaustion is not treated promptly, it may lead to brain damage. Heat stroke Heat stroke is even more serious than heat exhaustion. During heat stroke, the body stops sweating. This makes it impossible to release body heat. Body temperature can rise to dangerously high levels in a short time. Death can result. Page 14 of 20

20 2015 Noise In small or confined spaces, sounds echo. IMAGE: 2015.JPG This means that noise levels from a given source can become higher than they would in an open environment. High noise levels may cause: Hearing loss Hearing impairment High blood pressure Other health hazards Page 15 of 20

21 2016 Vibration Vibration can affect many body parts and organs. IMAGE: 2015.JPG For example, vibrating hand tools can cause injury to the fingers and hands. Prolonged use of vibrating tools can cause sensory or nerve damage. Page 16 of 20

22 2017 Other Physical Hazards Other physical hazards of confined spaces can include: Scaffolding or ladders Surface residues Structural hazards Click on each to learn more. CLICK TO REVEAL Scaffolding or ladders Scaffolding or ladders may be found in confined spaces. Accidents can happen if: Workers or materials fall. Guardrails are not used properly. Scaffolding is not properly maintained. Surface residues Certain materials can remain as residues on confined space surfaces. Depending on the residue, this can contribute to: Electric shock Dangerous chemical reactions Exposure to toxins Injury due to slips and falls Structural hazards Confined spaces can have structural hazards. Examples are: Overhangs Factors that can lead to slips, trips, and falls Debris hanging out from corners, edges, pipes, etc. Page 17 of 20

23 2018 Review Air and oxygen mean the same thing. a. True b. False TRUE / FALSE INTERACTION CORRECT B A: Incorrect. Normal air has about 21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen, and 1% other gases. More than 21% oxygen in air increases the risk of fire and explosion. Less than 21% oxygen in the air increases the risk of asphyxiation. B: Correct. Normal air has about 21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen, and 1% other gases. More than 21% oxygen in air increases the risk of fire and explosion. Less than 21% oxygen in the air increases the risk of asphyxiation. Page 18 of 20

24 2019 Review FLASH INTERACTION: 2019.SWF/FLA Page 19 of 20

25 2020 Summary You have completed the lesson on hazards of confined spaces. NO IMAGE Remember: A confined space has three features. 1) The entry or exit to the space is restricted. 2) The space is large enough for an employee to enter and do work. 3) The space is not meant as a place for all-day, everyday work. There are two main categories of confined space: 1) deep spaces with open tops and 2) enclosed spaces with small entrances. Confined spaces can have flammable, toxic, corrosive, or asphyxiating air. Other possible hazards of confined spaces are heat, noise, vibration, scaffolding, surface residues, and structural dangers. Page 20 of 20

26 Lesson 3: Permit-Required Confined Spaces 3001 Introduction & Objectives Welcome to the lesson on permit-required confined spaces. FLASH ANIMATION: 3001.SWF/FLA After completing this lesson, you should be able to: Define permit-required confined space List OSHA s requirements for permit spaces Recall what should be addressed in a written permit space program Distinguish between authorized entrants, attendants, and entry supervisors, by identifying the job duties of each Recall the training requirements related to permit space entry Page 1 of 16

27 3002 Permit-Required Confined Spaces A permit-required confined space (or permit space ) has all of the features of a confined space discussed in lesson 2. IMAGE: 3002.SWF/FLA It also has one of the following four features: The space has or could have a hazardous atmosphere. [glossary] The space contains a material that could completely surround someone in the space. The space has a shape that could trap or asphyxiate someone in the space. This shape could be due to walls that lean in. It could also be due to a floor that slopes down and leads to a smaller space. The space contains some other serious safety or heath hazard (see lesson 2). Page 2 of 16

28 3003 OSHA Requirements OSHA requires employers to do the following: Look over the workplace to identify any permit-required confined spaces. Inform exposed employees of any permit spaces. For example, the employer could post a danger sign outside each permit space. Effectively prevent employees from entering permit spaces that should not be entered. Have a written program for permit spaces, if employees will be entering permit spaces to do work. This program must be made available to employees. IMAGE: 3003.JPG Page 3 of 16

29 3004 Reasons for Entering Confined Spaces Remember: A confined space is not meant to be an all-day, everyday workspace. IMAGE: 3004.JPG So when would an employee need to enter a confined space? In general, an employee enters a confined space to do a necessary, but infrequent task. Examples are: Inspection Repair Maintenance (e.g., cleaning or painting) Putting items in storage If employees ever need to enter permit spaces to do their job, the employer must have a written permit space program. This is true even if employees only enter permit spaces once in a while. Page 4 of 16

30 3005 Written Program A permit space program must have a plan for: Identifying and evaluating permit space hazards before allowing employee to enter the space Testing conditions in the permit space before entry, and monitoring the space during entry Testing for atmospheric hazards Preventing unauthorized entry into permit spaces Eliminating or controlling hazards related to working in permit spaces The use of personal protective equipment and any other equipment necessary for employee safety in permit spaces Click on each item above to learn more. CLICK TO REVEAL Identifying and evaluating permit space hazards Before employees enter a permit space to do work, the space must be checked for possible hazards. Testing conditions in the space Before employees enter a permit space, the conditions in the space should be tested to see if they are safe. For example, the temperature of the space should be checked. While employees are working in a permit space, conditions should continue to be monitored. Testing for atmospheric hazards Permit spaces should be tested for: Oxygen Gases or vapors that could act as fuels Toxic gases or vapors Preventing unauthorized entry The employer must take steps to prevent people from entering the permit space when they are not allowed or required to do so. Eliminating or controlling hazards Examples of procedures that can control the hazards in a permit space are: Only allowing workers to enter when conditions in the space are safe Isolating the permit space from the rest of the work area Putting up barriers around the permit space Making the air in the permit space safe, for example, by ventilation Use of personal protective equipment: Personal protective equipment (PPE) means special clothing or other gear that a worker wears or uses to protect against hazards. The employer must provide necessary PPE at no cost to the employee. Page 5 of 16

31 3006 Written Program The permit space program also must have plans for: Making sure that at least one person is standing by outside the permit space, whenever a worker is in the space Coordination between groups when employees of more than one employer will be working in the permit space What to do if there is an emergency in a permit space Reviewing and annually revising the permit-space program NO IMAGE Page 6 of 16

32 3007 Written Program Finally, the written program must: Identify employee job duties. Establish a system for entry permits [glossary]. IMAGE: 3007.SWF/FLA The rest of this lesson will focus on job duties. Lesson four will discuss the permit system. Page 7 of 16

33 3008 Job Duties: Authorized Entrant An authorized entrant is an employee who is allowed to enter a permit space to do work. IMAGE: 3008.JPG The duties of the authorized entrant are to: Know the hazards of the permit space. Use appropriate PPE. Maintain communication with the person standing by outside the space. Alert the standby person when there are signs of danger. Exit from the permit space as soon as possible, when ordered to do so or when there are signs of danger. Page 8 of 16

34 3009 Job Duties: Attendant The attendant is the person who stands by outside the permit space. IMAGE: 3009.JPG The job duties of the attendant are to: Remain outside the permit space while workers are in the space. Perform no-entry rescues as appropriate. Know the hazards of the space. Maintain communication with workers inside the space. Keep track of which workers are inside the space and what those workers are doing. Page 9 of 16

35 3010 Job Duties: Attendant The job duties of the attendant also include: Order evacuation of the space when there are signs of danger. Call rescue services during an emergency. Make sure that unauthorized persons do not enter permit spaces. Inform authorized entrants and the entry supervisor if an unauthorized person does enter the space. Perform no other duties that interfere with attendant duties. IMAGE: 3009.JPG Page 10 of 16

36 3011 Job Duties: Entry Supervisor The entry supervisor is in charge of who enters a permit space to do work. IMAGE: 3011.SWF/FLA The duties of the entry supervisor are to: Know the hazards of the space. Verify that emergency plans are in place before allowing workers to enter the space. Verify that conditions in the space are safe before allowing workers to enter. Not allow further entry when the work is done or if new conditions in the space develop. Take steps to remove unauthorized entrants. Make sure that work in the space goes according to what is stated in the entry permit. Make sure that safe conditions in the space are maintained while workers are present. Page 11 of 16

37 3012 Training and Education Before work is done in a permit space, employers must train employees in their duties. IMAGE: 3012.JPG After training: Employers must verify that employees have learned what they need to know to perform their duties safely. Employees must receive a certificate of training Page 12 of 16

38 3013 Training and Education Additional training must be given when: Job duties change. The permit space program changes. Work in the permit space presents a new hazard. An employee s job performance is not adequate. IMAGE: 3012.JPG Page 13 of 16

39 3014 Review An employer must have a written permit space program if: a. Confined spaces exist within the work area. b. Employees ever enter permit spaces to do work. c. Employees enter permit spaces more often than twice a year to do work. d. Employees enter permit spaces more often than 12 times a year to do work. MULTIPLE CHOICE INTERACTION Correct: B A: Incorrect. The correct answer is B. B: Correct. C: Incorrect. The best answer is B. D: Incorrect. The best answer is B. Page 14 of 16

40 3015 Review The confined space attendant is responsible for no-entry rescue. a. True b. False TRUE / FALSE INTERACTION [CORRECT ANSWER: A] [RESPONSE FOR A: Correct.] [RESPONSE FOR B: Incorrect.] Page 15 of 16

41 3016 Summary You have completed the lesson on permit-required confined spaces. NO IMAGE Remember: A permit-required confined space (or permit space) is a confined space with one or more hazards. OSHA requires employers to do the following: Evaluate the workplace for permit spaces. Inform exposed employees of any permit spaces. Prevent employees from entering permit spaces that should not be entered. Develop a written permit space program if employees will be entering permit spaces to do work. The permit space program must have specific plans for keeping workers in permit spaces safe. Authorized entrants, attendants, and entry supervisors have distinct job duties. Employers must provide training in these duties before work is done in a permit space. Page 16 of 16

42 Lesson 4: Permits and Emergencies 4001 Introduction & Objectives Welcome to the lesson on permits and confined space emergencies. FLASH ANIMATION: 4001.SWF/FLA After completing this lesson, you should be able to: Recall the features of confined space entry permits Identify steps to help ensure worker safety during a confined space emergency Page 1 of 10

43 4002 Permits Before work is done in a permit space, the entry supervisor must sign a permit. IMAGE: 4002.JPG This permit verifies that: Pre-entry testing and other preparations have been completed. The space is safe to enter. Copies of the permit must be posted at entrances to the space, or otherwise made available to entrants. Page 2 of 10

44 4003 Permit Contents An entry permit must include the following information: Hazard test results Tester s initials or signature Name and signature of the entry supervisor Name of the permit space Names of authorized entrants and eligible attendants Purpose of entry and known hazards of the space Steps that will be taken to isolate the space and control hazards IMAGE: 4003.JPG Page 3 of 10

45 4004 Permit Contents An entry permit also must list: Names and telephone numbers of rescue and emergency services Date and authorized length of entry Acceptable entry conditions Procedures and equipment for maintaining communication during entry Any additional permits for specialized work in the permit space Special equipment and procedures that will be used, including PPE and alarm systems Any other information needed to protect employee safety IMAGE: 4004.JPG Page 4 of 10

46 4005 Permit Parameters The length of time for a permit must not be greater than the time needed to complete the work. NO IMAGE When the work is done or when new conditions come up, the entry supervisor must: Allow no further entry into the space Cancel entry permits If a permit is cancelled because of new conditions, these new conditions must be: Noted on the cancelled permit Used in revising the permit space program Employers must keep all cancelled entry permits for at least one year. Page 5 of 10

47 4006 Emergencies In certain cases, all authorized entrants who enter a permit space must wear a chest or full-body harness. IMAGE: 4006.JPG This helps with rescue if there is an emergency. A retrieval line should be attached: To the center of the entrant s back near shoulder level, or Above his or her head. If the employer can show that use of a chest or full-body harness is not possible or creates a greater hazard, wristlets may be used instead. Page 6 of 10

48 4007 Emergencies Worksites are required to keep material safety data sheets (MSDSs) on hazardous substances. IMAGE: 4006.JPG If an entrant is exposed to a hazardous substance, the MSDS or other written information must be given to the medical facility responsible for treating the entrant. Page 7 of 10

49 4008 Training and Education: Rescue Service Personnel All rescuers must be trained in first aid and CPR. IMAGE: 4008.JPG At least one member of the rescue team must be certified in first aid and CPR. In addition, the employer must make sure that rescue service workers: Are provided with and trained in the proper use of PPE and rescue equipment, including respirators Are trained to perform their rescue duties Are trained as authorized entrants The employer also must make sure that: Rescuers practice rescue operations annually. Rescue services have access to permit spaces to practice their operations. Page 8 of 10

50 4009 Review A confined space entry permit may authorize workers to enter a permit space: a. For an indefinite period b. For a period no longer than one work day c. For a period no longer than one work week d. For a period no longer than the amount of time it takes to do the required work MULTIPLE CHOICE INTERACTION Correct: D A: Incorrect. The correct answer is D. B: Incorrect. The correct answer is D. C: Incorrect. The correct answer is D. D: Correct. Page 9 of 10

51 4010 Summary You have completed the lesson on permits and emergencies. NO IMAGE Remember: Before workers enter a permit space, the entry supervisor must sign a permit. Permits must contain information about the permit space, the work that will be done, and the employees involved. Emergency workers who respond to permit space emergencies must be trained in first aid and CPR. They also must be trained in confined space entry. Page 10 of 10

52 Course Glossary # Term Definition 1. authorized entrant person approved to do work in a confined space 2. entry permit written document to allow and control entry into a permit space 3. entry supervisor employee responsible for overseeing confined space entry 4. hazardous atmosphere surrounding air that may expose employees to risk of death or injury 5. flammable capable of catching fire easily and burning rapidly 6. toxic poisonous 7. corrosive able to eat into, wear away, or dissolve flesh or metal 8. attendant employee designated to remain outside the confined space, in constant communication with personnel working inside the confined space 9. asphyxiating tending to deprive of oxygen 10. irritant a substance that causes an adverse response 11.

53 Pre-Assessment 1. Which is a feature of a confined space? a. The exit from the space is open. b. The entrance to the space is restricted. c. The space is an all-day, everyday workspace. d. The space is too small for an employee to enter and work. Correct: B Rationale: A confined space a) has restricted or limited entrance or exit; b) is large enough for an employee to enter and work; and c) is not an allday, everyday workspace. 2. Which of the following is a possible hazard of confined spaces? a. 21% oxygen b. 10% propane c. 78% nitrogen d. 0% carbon monoxide Correct: B Rationale: Propane is a risk for fire or explosion. 3. Which of the following can create corrosive air in a confined space? a. Oxygen b. Chlorine c. Nitrogen d. Carbon dioxide Correct: B Rationale: Chlorine is an irritant that can create a corrosive atmosphere. 4. Which of the following is a risk created by heat in a confined space? a. Toxic air b. Hypothermia c. Heat exhaustion d. Vibration hazards Correct: C Rationale: Heat in a confined space can lead to heat exhaustion or heat stroke.

54 5. Which of the following is a permit space program required to have? a. A plan for creating hazards b. A plan for trapping rodents c. A plan for allowing unauthorized entry d. A plan for testing for atmospheric hazards Correct: D Rationale: A permit space program must establish a plan for testing for atmospheric hazards 6. What is an authorized entrant? a. An employee who stands by outside a permit space b. An employee allowed to enter a permit space to do work c. An employee in charge of who enters a permit space to do work d. An employee whose work is completely unrelated to permit spaces Correct: B Rationale: An authorized entrant is an employee who is allowed to enter a permit space to do work. 7. What is an entry supervisor? a. An employee who stands by outside a permit space b. An employee allowed to enter a permit space to do work c. An employee in charge of who enters a permit space to do work d. An employee whose work is completely unrelated to permit spaces Correct: C Rationale: An entry supervisor is an employee who is in charge of who enters a permit space to do work. 8. Which of these is a duty of a permit space attendant? a. Call rescue services during an emergency b. Exit the permit space when there are signs of danger c. Block further entry to a permit space when the work is done d. Verify safe conditions before allowing workers to enter a permit space Correct: A Rationale: Attendants are responsible for calling rescue services during an emergency.

55 Final Exam 1. Which is a feature of a confined space? a. The exit from the space is open. b. The entrance to the space is restricted. c. The space is an all-day, everyday workspace. d. The space is too small for an employee to enter and work. Correct: B Rationale: A confined space a) has restricted or limited entrance or exit, b) is large enough for an employee to enter and work, and c) is not an allday, everyday workspace. 2. Which is a possible hazard of confined spaces? a. Pure air b. Clear air c. Toxic air d. Room air Correct: C Rationale: One possible hazard of confined spaces is toxic air. 3. Which is a possible hazard of confined spaces? a. Storage of salt b. Storage of sand c. Storage of acids d. Storage of water Correct: C Rationale: A confined space may become toxic if the space is used to store certain materials, for example, acids.

56 4. Which creates a risk of asphyxiation in a confined space? a. 9% oxygen b. 21% oxygen c. 37% oxygen d. 50% oxygen Correct: A Rationale: Oxygen levels of less than 21% create the risk of asphyxiation. 5. Which is a feature of a permit-required confined space? a. The space is empty. b. The space has an open shape. c. The space has a safe atmosphere. d. The space contains a serious safety hazard. Correct: D Rationale: A permit-required confined space is one with a serious safety or health hazard. 6. Which is a requirement of a permit space program? a. A plan for the use of PPE b. A plan for ignoring hazards c. A plan for allowing toxic gases in permit spaces d. A plan for keeping carbon monoxide levels above 10% Correct: A Rationale: A permit space program must have a plan for the use of PPE and other safety equipment for permit spaces. 7. What is an attendant? a. An employee who stands by outside a permit space b. An employee allowed to enter a permit space to do work c. An employee in charge of who enters a permit space to do work d. An employee whose work is completely unrelated to permit spaces Correct: A Rationale: An attendant is an employee who stands by outside a permit space.

57 8. Which is a duty of an authorized entrant related to permit spaces? a. Use appropriate PPE b. Perform no-entry rescues c. Call rescue services in an emergency d. Take steps to remove unauthorized entrants Correct: A Rationale: Authorized entrants must use appropriate PPE when working in a permit space. 9. Which is a duty of an entry supervisor related to permit spaces? a. Know the hazards of a permit space b. Maintain communication with workers inside the space c. Maintain communication with attendants outside the space d. Alert authorized entrants if an unauthorized person enters the space Correct: A Rationale: Entry supervisors need to know the hazards of permit spaces.

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