THE USE OF HIGH CADENCE IN CYCLING AND THE APPLICATIONS TO RPM TM A REVIEW John Lythe MHSc, CSCS, BCom

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "THE USE OF HIGH CADENCE IN CYCLING AND THE APPLICATIONS TO RPM TM A REVIEW John Lythe MHSc, CSCS, BCom"

Transcription

1 THE USE OF HIGH CADENCE IN CYCLING AND THE APPLICATIONS TO RPM TM A REVIEW John Lythe MHSc, CSCS, BCom Summary The use of high cadence in the cycling community is encouraged due to the relationship between the use of such cadences and success in elite cycling competition. Although the self-selected cadence of cyclists is usually considered higher than the scientifically estimated optimum, research suggests that muscle force and neuromuscular fatigue are reduced, and cycling power output is maximised with relatively high cadences of rpm. However, these cadences also increase the metabolic cost of cycling and reduce energy efficiency. It is therefore recommended that high cadences are used when speed and power are the key determinants of performance and that lower cadences are used when efficiency and economy are key. It does not appear that cycling at high cadences increases injury risk with the risk factors being mostly related to bike set-up and technique errors and issues around excessive training volume and sudden changes in training intensity. Although it has has been prepared with regard to outdoor cycling it appears that the literature supports the selective use of high cadence during RPM TM. If participants are appropriately skilled and fitted to their bikes then it would appear that the high cadences would increase the exercise stimulus and caloric expenditure, encourage activation of type II muscle fibres while not increasing the injury risk. Introduction RPM is an instructor-led, stationary bike-based indoor cycling program. A typical class involves a single instructor who uses an interval training model to lead participants through a routine that simulates terrain and situations similar to riding a bike outdoors. Some of the movements and positions include hill climbs, sprints and steady efforts. The bikes used during RPM TM have a heavy fly wheel and the level of frictional resistance placed on this fly wheel is one factor that determines the difficulty of the workout. Other factors to modify the exercise intensity are changes in pedalling cadence and body position. Classes have a duration of approximately 50 minutes and have the primary aim of improving the cardiovascular fitness and increasing the caloric expenditure of their participants, who range from novice to experienced. The typical exercise intensity and energy expenditure of an RPM TM class was reported by Lythe and Pfitzinger (2000). By collecting heart rates and expired gases in six subjects they found that RPM TM participants consumed 582 ± 93 calories, exercised at 78.7 ± 7.3% of HR max and exerted an aerobic demand of 36.5 ± 2.6 ml/kg/min. The science of cycling is a passion for countless athletes, coaches and academics and as a consequence the literature is heavy with research. The area is so popular that a recent review into the science of cycling had to be broken into two large 20+ page articles published by E.W. Faria et al in the journal Sports Medicine, each with over 150 references.(faria et al 2005a, Faria et al 2005b) Although the application of cycling research to RPM is relatively intuitive, it is important to remember that objective of the sport of cycling is to maximise performance whereas the primary objectives of RPM are to maximise the physiological training stimulus and to burn calories. With this in mind, the following review and discussion seeks to discuss the variable of pedalling cadence and the effects of, and issues relating to, the use of periods of high cadence during RPM classes. Pedal cadence is widely accepted as an important factor influencing the economy, power output, perceived exertion and the development of fatigue during cycling. Research into cadence has generally fallen into two categories; studies which have documented and discussed the cadences used by elite and recreational cyclists during training and competition and studies which have examined the effects of

2 cadence on a variety of physiological and biomechanical variables such as muscle activity, energy expenditure, pedal forces and aerobic efficiency. Observational research has demonstrated that elite cyclists use a wide range of cadence during competition from 130 rpm (revolutions per minute) during flat stages to 80 rpm during climbing stages.(lucia, 2001). It has been identified that the self-selected cadence that most cyclists choose to ride at is appropriate at high intensity activity levels but during low and moderate activity levels is actually higher than what would be considered the optimal cadence. This self-selected cadence varies significantly between individuals and is affected by age, experience level, maximal aerobic power, muscle fibre types, and the gradient, workload and duration of the required task.(hansen 2009) It appears that these factors combine to create a preferred cadence that becomes set in the central nervous system for each individual. Elite cyclists develop their technique to the extent that they become more efficient at higher cadences compared to recreational cyclists. The Effect of Cadence on Efficiency Despite being used by most elite cyclists it has been found that higher cadences are actually less metabolically efficient than lower cadences. When cycling at constant power outputs, higher cadences result in increased oxygen cost per unit of performance (i.e. reduced gross efficiency)(chavarren, 1999). Much of the reason for a reduced energy efficiency at higher cadences is due to the simple increase in leg movement repetitions.(takaishi et al, 1998). Bieuzen (2007) demonstrated that the most efficient cadence for energy consumption is significantly lower than self selected cadence and Hansen (2009) supported this by commenting that energy efficiency was reduced, there was a shorter time to exhaustion during a maximal cycling test and subjects took longer to complete time trials when using cadences that were faster than the self-selected cadence. In contrast to this however is the reduction in the mechanical cost of cycling when using increased cadences. Marsh et al (1997) showed, using moment based calculations that muscle movement efficiency increases at higher cadences with reductions in muscle forces and reduced neuromuscular fatigue.(abiss, 2009) It is this reduction in fatigue that may cause elite cyclists to adopt this higher than ideal cadence. The Effect of Cadence on Muscle Activity and Joint Forces The muscles work in a coordinated fashion to generate power to the crank during cycling. In the power phase or downstroke, the hip, knee and ankle joints simultaneously extend to create the pushing action, whilst in the recovery phase or upstroke, they flex together to pull the pedal back up to the top dead center of the crank cycle. It appears therefore, that the influence of cadence on the level of EMG or muscle activity depends on the muscle considered and its functional role(bieuzen 2007). In general, muscle activation levels are only slightly affected by increases in cadence. The activity of the knee extensors (vastus lateralis and vastus medialis) is reduced or unaffected whereas muscle activation of gastrocnemius lateralis and biceps femoris has been shown to slightly increase at faster pedal rates. The most significant effect of cadence is on the timing of muscle activation and coordination, particularly for proximal musculature with EMG studies indicating that muscles turn-on earlier in the crank cycle. Alterations in cadence may also influence muscle fibre recruitment patterns, largely due to decreases in muscle force levels. It is believed that a reduction in myoelectrical activity observed during high cadence cycling may indicate less recruitment of fast twitch/type II muscle fibres or, conversely, greater recruitment of slow twitch/type I muscle fibres. The pedalling movement has been divided into muscular and non-muscular components. The muscular component consists of forces or torques provided by muscular activity, while the nonmuscular component comprises all other factors that contribute to the forces or torques acting on the pedal or crank and may include gravity and inertia. Non-muscular pedal forces have been shown to increase linearly as cadence increases from 60 rpm up to 120 rpm while muscular pedal forces decrease

3 (Baum, 2003). The increase in the non-muscular component reflects an increase of the inertial influence on pedal forces at greater cadences. With the heavy flywheel used in RPM TM it seems likely that this intertia would be even greater and result in less force being required from the working muscles. The Effect of Cadence on Power Output The average power output produced over an entire pedal revolution may be determined by the following equation: Power (W) = average net effective pedal torque x average angular velocity (cadence) Based on the above formula, the average force/torque applied to the pedals over an entire pedal revolution at a fixed power output is reduced at higher cadences. This is because the torque that can be applied to the pedals during cycling is reduced at faster muscle contraction velocities [relatively more time is consumed at higher cadences by the activation and relaxation process]. To determine the effect of high pedalling cadences on maximal cycling power output Mora- Rodiguez et al (2006) recruited nine well-trained cyclists to perform a continuous, incremental cycle test either at 80rpm, 100rpm or 120rpm. Power was found to be approximately 9% lower during the 120rpm condition in comparison with 80rpm and 100rpm. Additional increases in blood lactate were also found at both the higher cadences compared to 80rpm. The Effect of Cadence on Injuries The literature relating to injuries in cycling is dominated by traumatic injuries sustained during accidents, in particular injuries to the head. Thankfully these issues do not apply to indoor cycling. Common sites for non-traumatic/overuse cycling-related injuries include the knee, neck/shoulder, hands, buttock and perineum.(dettori, 2006) In recreational cyclists, a very high number (80%+) report overuse injuries.(wilber 1995) with significant differences in causative variables for men and women. Injuries in male cyclists were most affected by distances covered per week, the use of low gears and inexperience. For female cyclists, training characteristics which had the most significant effect upon overuse injuries were frequency of training and competition and the amount of stretching before cycling. The impact of cadence on cycling injuries is only occasionally mentioned in the literature, and usually only in speculation. One such mention was the potential relationship between cadence and an overuse injury to the knee called iliotibial band friction syndrome. It was suggested that a cadence that is too high in conjunction with a high seat position may contribute to the development of this injury.(farrell, 2003) Further investigation revealed however, that other factors such as bike set-up, anatomical leg length discrepancies, varus knee alignment, excessive pronation, and external tibial rotation of more than 20 were more significant issues. Additional issues such as sudden increases in mileage, the inclusion of hills, and time trials were also linked to the injury and were assumed to be more significant than high cadence. In fact, lower cadences were reported by another author to be more responsible for injury symptoms with (Mellion, 1991) commenting that riding with a high pedal resistance is a major cause of overuse problems. Application to RPM TM and Recommendations The research presented above suggests that an increase in cadence results in a variety of changes relating to energy expenditure and efficiency, muscle activity and power output. Given that the primary objectives of RPM TM are to create an intense exercise stimulus and to burn calories it would appear that most of the cycling research findings support the occasional use of high cadences in RPM TM. Specifically: a reduction in energy economy during the high cadence periods results in a greater physical demand and an increased exercise stimulus and caloric expenditure

4 the use of both high, moderate and low cadences results in a thorough muscle activation with both fast twitch/type II muscle fibres and slow twitch/type I muscle fibres being exercised a reduction in power output presents no issue as participants are on stationary bikes and are neither measuring performance or quantitatively competing The significant and unanswered issue around the appropriateness of high cadences in RPM TM classes appears to be the safety of participants. It does not appear that any causative link between high cadences and an increase risk of knee or other injuries has been made. Non-traumatic Injury risk is most closely linked to bike set-up, sudden changes in training and poor technique.(dettori, 2006) As for any exercise programme there are a number of basic physiological principles that should be applied to RPM TM. The first principle is exercise progression. New participants should be advised to spend some time developing a base level of fitness and becoming familiar with the specific activities and skill requirements. If necessary, potential participants may be first encouraged to engage in activities that have a lower intensity level and skill requirement such as aqua aerobics or walking. Once they become involved in the RPM TM programme the periods of high cadence should be viewed as a further progression. Inexperienced and/or unfit participants should be encouraged to reduce the cadence and intensity to allow for gradual skill development. The more experienced that a participant becomes with the techniques of RPM TM the more likely they will have developed the necessary skill and fitness to appropriately exercise at the higher cadences. The principle of progression would suggest that as the skill level improves, the participant may be able to increase the maximum cadence that they achieve during the high speed tracks by a small amount per week. Also and very importantly, the more experienced that are the more likely that they will have identified and refined the ideal bike set up for their physical characteristics. Other physiological principles that apply to RPM TM are periodisation and recovery. Performing activities that require high skill levels when in a state of fatigue will not promote training adaptations and may expose the participant to increased injury risk. Consequently, participants should be encouraged to rest and recover appropriately after intense sessions and after high volume periods of exercise. It is the role of the instructor to appropriately establish the abilities of class participants and to identify if anyone is unsuitable for the task. Participants should be advised on the resistance level, cadence and body positions that are suitable for them and given feedback and refinement each session. Also of significant importance is the issue of bike-fit with correct set-up being stressed at all times to all participants. Proper bicycle fit requires careful review of bicycle selection, saddle height for proper leg extension, fore-and-aft positioning of the knee over the pedal, saddle tilt, handlebar position, and positioning of the upper body for optimum comfort. Provided these basic checks are performed then it does not appear that there are any reasons why high cadence cycling should be restricted to elite level athletes. References 1. Abbiss, C.R., Peiffer, J.J, Laursen, P.B. (2008) Optimal cadence selection during cycling. International SportMed Journal, 10(1): Baum, B.S. & Li, L. (2003) Lower extremity muscle activities during cycling are influenced by load and frequency. J Electromyography and Kinesiology 13: Bieuzen, F., Vercruyssen, F., Hausswirth, C., et al. (2007) Relationship between strength level and pedal rate. Int J Sports Med 28: Bisswalter J, Hausswirth C, Smith D, et al. (2000) Energetically optimal cadence versus freely-chosen cadence during cycling: effect of exercise duration. Int J Sports Med. 20(1): Burke, E.R. (1994) Proper fit of the bicycle. Clin Sports Med. 13(1):1-14

5 6. Chapman, A., Vicenzinoa, B., Blanch, P., Hodges, P. (2009) Do differences in muscle recruitment between novice and elite cyclists reflect different movement patterns or less skilled muscle recruitment? J Sci Med Sport 12, Chavarren J, and Calbet JA. (1999). Cycling efficiency and pedalling frequency in road cyclists. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 80: Dettori NJ, Norvell DC. (2006) Non-traumatic bicycle injuries : a review of the literature. Sports Med. 36(1): Ettema G, Lorås HW (2009) Efficiency in cycling: a review. Eur J Appl Physiol 106: Faria, E.W. (2009) Recent advances in specific training for cycling. International SportMed Journal 10(1): Faria, E.W., Parker, D.L., Faria, I.E. (2005a) The science of cycling: physiology and training part 1. Sports Med. 35(4): Faria,E.W., Parker,D.L. & Faria, I.E. (2005b) The science of cycling. Factors affecting performance Part 2. Sports Medicine 35(4): Farrell, K.C., Reisinger, K.D., Tillman MD. (2003) Force and repetition in cycling: possible implications for iliotibial band friction syndrome. Knee 10 (1): Gregor, R. J., & Conconi, F. (2000). Anatomy, biochemistry and physiology of road cycling. In R. J. Gregor, & F. Conconi (Eds.),Road Cycling (pp. 1 17). Oxford: Blackwell Science. 15. Kohler, G., Boutellier, U. (2005) The generalized force-velocity relationship explains why the preferred pedalling rate of cyclists exceeds the most efficient one. Eur J Appl Physiol 94: Lucia, A., Hoyos, J., Chicharro, J.L. (2000) Physiological responses to professional road cycling: Climbers vs. time trialists. Int J Sports Med 2000; 21: Lucia, A., Hoyos, J., Chicharro, J.L. (2001) Preferred pedalling cadence in professional cycling. Med Sci Sports Exerc 33: Lucia, A., San Juan, A.F., Montilla, M. et al. (2004) In professional road cyclists, low pedalling cadences are less efficient. Med Sci Sports Exerc 36: Lythe, J. and Pfitzinger, P. (2000) Caloric expenditure and aerobic demand of Body Step, Body Attack, Body Combat and RPM. University of Auckland. 20. Marsh, A.P., Martin, P.E. (1997) Effect of cycling experience, aerobic power, and power output on preferred and most economical cycling cadences. Med Sci Sports Exerc 29: Marsh, A.P., Martin, P.E., (1995) The relationship between cadence and lower extremity EMG in cyclists and noncyclists, Med Sci Sports Exerc 27: Mellion M.B. (1991) Common cycling injuries. Management and prevention. Sports Med. 11(1): Mora-Rodriguez, R., Aguado-Jimenez, R. (2006) Performance at high pedal cadences in well-trained cyclists. Med Sci Sports Exerc 38: Neptune, R.R. Herzog, W. (1999) The association between negative muscle work and pedaling rate. J. Biomech. 32 (1999) Raasch, C.C., Zajac, F.E., Ma, B., & Levine, W.S. (1997). Muscle coordination of maximum-speed pedaling. J. Biomech 30: So, R. (2005) Muscle recruitment pattern in cycling: a review. Physical Therapy in Sport 6: Takaishi, T., Yamamoto, T., Ono, T., et al. (1998) Neuromuscular, metabolic and kinetic adaptations for skilled pedaling performance in cyclists. Med Sci Sports Exerc 30: Wilber, C.A, Holland, G.J., Madison, R.E., Loy, S.F. (1995) An epidemiological analysis of overuse injuries among recreational cyclists. Int J Sports Med. 16(3):201-6

Biomechanics of cycling - Improving performance and reducing injury through biomechanics

Biomechanics of cycling - Improving performance and reducing injury through biomechanics Biomechanics of cycling - Improving performance and reducing injury through biomechanics Biomechanics is the science concerned with the forces that act on the human body and the effects these forces produce.

More information

Review epidemiology of knee pain. Discuss etiology and the biomechanics of knee pain utilizing current literature/evidence

Review epidemiology of knee pain. Discuss etiology and the biomechanics of knee pain utilizing current literature/evidence Jenny Kempf, MPT Review epidemiology of knee pain Discuss etiology and the biomechanics of knee pain utilizing current literature/evidence Review commonly seen knee injuries Discuss treatment strategies

More information

CYCLING INJURIES. Objectives. Cycling Epidemiology. Epidemiology. Injury Incidence. Injury Predictors. Bike Fit + Rehab = Happy Cyclist

CYCLING INJURIES. Objectives. Cycling Epidemiology. Epidemiology. Injury Incidence. Injury Predictors. Bike Fit + Rehab = Happy Cyclist Objectives CYCLING INJURIS Bike Fit + Rehab = Happy Cyclist Jenny Kempf MPT, CSCS 1. pidemiology 2. Biomechanics 3. Overuse injuries 4. Prevention Cycling pidemiology 100 million Americans ride bicycles

More information

Spinning Basics Page 1 of 7

Spinning Basics Page 1 of 7 Spinning Basics Page 1 of 7 Why Spinning? Its fun, challenging and you get a great cardiovascular workout in a short amount of time in a group environment. It is like taking a two-hour bike ride in 45

More information

12 week Century Ride Training Program

12 week Century Ride Training Program 12 week Century Ride Training Program by Daniel M. Healey Graham Watson 2014 If you are contemplating doing your first Century Ride, a guaranteed route to success is to simply spend more time riding your

More information

Tri ing. to Run. Faster

Tri ing. to Run. Faster Tri ing to Run Faster Tri ing to Run Faster Regular Exercise Outdoor Activities Active and Fit and Balanced Cross-training What? Cross training is typically defined as an exercise program that uses several

More information

BP MS 150 lunch and learn: Stretching and injury prevention. Dr. Bart Kennedy (Sports Chiropractor) and Josh Thompson February 04, 2015

BP MS 150 lunch and learn: Stretching and injury prevention. Dr. Bart Kennedy (Sports Chiropractor) and Josh Thompson February 04, 2015 BP MS 150 lunch and learn: Stretching and injury prevention Dr. Bart Kennedy (Sports Chiropractor) and Josh Thompson February 04, 2015 Epidemiology Overuse injuries most common, traumatic event second

More information

Tests For Predicting VO2max

Tests For Predicting VO2max Tests For Predicting VO2max Maximal Tests 1.5 Mile Run. Test Population. This test was developed on college age males and females. It has not been validated on other age groups. Test Procedures. A 1.5

More information

Exercise Prescription Case Studies

Exercise Prescription Case Studies 14 Exercise Prescription Case Studies 14 14 Exercise Prescription Case Studies Case 1 Risk Stratification CY CHAN is a 43-year-old man with known history of hypertension on medication under good control.

More information

Metabolic Cost of Weighted Vests During Standing Cycling. Presented by Len Kravitz, Ph.D. Research Team Colin Carriker, Reid McLean, Jeremy McCormick

Metabolic Cost of Weighted Vests During Standing Cycling. Presented by Len Kravitz, Ph.D. Research Team Colin Carriker, Reid McLean, Jeremy McCormick Metabolic Cost of Weighted Vests During Standing Cycling Presented by Len Kravitz, Ph.D. Research Team Colin Carriker, Reid McLean, Jeremy McCormick American Council on Exercise June 2013 Abstract Whether

More information

THE BADMINTON ASSOCIATION OF ENGLAND MISSION STATEMENT

THE BADMINTON ASSOCIATION OF ENGLAND MISSION STATEMENT THE BADMINTON ASSOCIATION OF ENGLAND MISSION STATEMENT Badminton is an Olympic Sport It is played by groups, families and individuals of all ages and it provides a healthy, lifelong sport activity that

More information

IMGPT: Exercise After a Heart Attack 610 944 8140 805 N. RICHMOND ST (Located next to Fleetwood HS) Why is exercise important following a heart

IMGPT: Exercise After a Heart Attack 610 944 8140 805 N. RICHMOND ST (Located next to Fleetwood HS) Why is exercise important following a heart Why is exercise important following a heart attack? Slow progression back into daily activity is important to strengthen the heart muscle and return blood flow to normal. By adding aerobic exercises, your

More information

Strength and Conditioning Program

Strength and Conditioning Program Strength and Conditioning Program Guidelines All speed work must be performed when the body is fully rested. Proper sprinting techniques must be taught and mastered by the player. Adequate rest must follow

More information

How to read Dashboard Reports

How to read Dashboard Reports How to read Dashboard Reports The premise behind RPM 2 is to assess bilateral equivalence of the lower limbs. It has long been understood that bi-lateral equivalence is the key to improved athletic performance.

More information

LW Coaching 100 km Marathon Mountain Bike Race Personal Record Training Plan

LW Coaching 100 km Marathon Mountain Bike Race Personal Record Training Plan .. LW Coaching 100 km Marathon Mountain Bike Race Personal Record Training Plan Week 1 Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Day 7 Strength Bike Bike Bike Strength Bike MTB 15:40 0:45 1:10 2:00 2:00 0:45

More information

TRI TRAINING PROGRAME 12-WEEK OLYMPIC - INTERMEDIATE

TRI TRAINING PROGRAME 12-WEEK OLYMPIC - INTERMEDIATE Triathlon Performance Solutions Presents: The Twelve-Week Race Plan Race distance: Olympic Athlete level: Intermediate level with at least two years of Olympic distance racing experience Hours Per Week:

More information

Exercise Principles and Guidelines for Persons with Cerebral Palsy and Neuromuscular Disorders

Exercise Principles and Guidelines for Persons with Cerebral Palsy and Neuromuscular Disorders Exercise Principles and Guidelines for Persons with Cerebral Palsy and Neuromuscular Disorders INTRODUCTION: Health and well being are the result of many factors: Physical activity is one of these factors.

More information

This program is an intermediate to advanced plan to train you for a Half Ironman with power.

This program is an intermediate to advanced plan to train you for a Half Ironman with power. 12 Week Half Ironman 70.3 NOLA with Power This program should be used for an athlete who has: 1. A very strong base of 4-6 months of consistent training 2. A strong swim or run background 3. Has trained

More information

Fitness Training A Sensible Guide to Preparing for Selection in the Gurkhas

Fitness Training A Sensible Guide to Preparing for Selection in the Gurkhas Fitness Training A Sensible Guide to Preparing for Selection in the Gurkhas Background Physical fitness has a number of components: aerobic endurance (stamina), strength, speed, flexibility, muscle endurance,

More information

WINGATE ANAEROBIC TEST

WINGATE ANAEROBIC TEST WINGATE ANAEROBIC TEST Presented by Coaching and Sports Science Division of the United States Olympic Committee August 2004 WINGATE ANAEROBIC TEST INTRODUCTION: Many sports involve quick bursts of speed

More information

Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program - Home Exercise Program

Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program - Home Exercise Program Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program - Home Exercise Program Getting Started Regular exercise should be a part of life for everyone. Exercise improves the body's tolerance to activity and work, and strengthens

More information

Predicting Aerobic Power (VO 2max ) Using The 1-Mile Walk Test

Predicting Aerobic Power (VO 2max ) Using The 1-Mile Walk Test USING A WALKING TEST 12/25/05 PAGE 1 Predicting Aerobic Power (VO 2max ) Using The 1-Mile Walk Test KEYWORDS 1. Predict VO 2max 2. Rockport 1-mile walk test 3. Self-paced test 4. L min -1 5. ml kg -1 1min

More information

Recreational cyclists: The relationship between low back pain and training characteristics

Recreational cyclists: The relationship between low back pain and training characteristics Original Research Recreational cyclists: The relationship between low back pain and training characteristics SAMANTHA J. SCHULTZ* and SUSAN J. GORDON School of Public Health, Tropical Medicine and Rehabilitation

More information

CYCLING PROBLEMS IN THE KNEE

CYCLING PROBLEMS IN THE KNEE CYCLING PROBLEMS IN THE KNEE Mr D Raj FRCS (Tr & Orth) Consultant Lower Limb Orthopaedic Surgeon Bostonian Private Wing Pilgrim Hospital, Boston Lincolnshire PE21 9QS Tel: 0845 6439597 Email: contact@medskills.co.uk

More information

What muscles do cyclists primarily use?

What muscles do cyclists primarily use? Stress & Injury The following information has been taken from freely available articles from British Cycling and other Cycling organisations. Sources are noted at the end of this document. Please note

More information

Some cross-training workouts to improve your energy system fitness

Some cross-training workouts to improve your energy system fitness Some cross-training workouts to improve your energy system fitness In the previous post (http://www.danbakerstrength.com/free-articles/recent-trends-inhigh-intensity-aerobic-training/), I detailed how

More information

Basic Principles of Bike Fitting: The Role of the Physical Therapist Matthew S. Briggs, PT, DPT, SCS, ATC

Basic Principles of Bike Fitting: The Role of the Physical Therapist Matthew S. Briggs, PT, DPT, SCS, ATC Basic Principles of Bike Fitting: The Role of the Physical Therapist Matthew S. Briggs, PT, DPT, SCS, ATC School of Health & Rehabilitation Sciences, The Ohio State University; Improving People s Lives

More information

www.cyclesportcoaching.com Cycling Training David Ertl USA Cycling Level 1 Coach www.cyclesportcoaching.com

www.cyclesportcoaching.com Cycling Training David Ertl USA Cycling Level 1 Coach www.cyclesportcoaching.com Basics www.cyclesportcoaching.com of Cycling Training n David Ertl USA Cycling Level 1 Coach www.cyclesportcoaching.com 0 Disclaimer This e-book is intended to inform the reader of the basics of a cycling

More information

Exercise Science Concentration In the Biomedical Sciences Program

Exercise Science Concentration In the Biomedical Sciences Program Exercise Science Concentration In the Biomedical Sciences Program Contact: Bill Brewer, MLS, CES Director of Exercise Science Rochester Institute of Technology CBET Office 75-3161 153 Lomb Memorial Drive

More information

University of South Florida, Tampa, FL. Nutrition Laboratory

University of South Florida, Tampa, FL. Nutrition Laboratory Bill Campbell, PhD, CSCS, FISSN Assistant Professor of Exercise Science at the University of South Florida, Tampa, FL. Director of the Exercise and Performance Director of the Exercise and Performance

More information

UNIVERSAL FITNESS NETWORK, Inc. 2315 West Monica Dunlap, IL 61525 (309)-360-5615 bahenso@comcast.net FACTS ABOUT THE PHYSICAL FITNESS ASSESSMENT TESTS

UNIVERSAL FITNESS NETWORK, Inc. 2315 West Monica Dunlap, IL 61525 (309)-360-5615 bahenso@comcast.net FACTS ABOUT THE PHYSICAL FITNESS ASSESSMENT TESTS UNIVERSAL FITNESS NETWORK, Inc. 2315 West Monica Dunlap, IL 61525 (309)-360-5615 bahenso@comcast.net FACTS ABOUT THE PHYSICAL FITNESS ASSESSMENT TESTS Universal Fitness Network, Inc. specializes in physical

More information

ILIOTIBIAL BAND SYNDROME

ILIOTIBIAL BAND SYNDROME ILIOTIBIAL BAND SYNDROME Description The iliotibial band is the tendon attachment of hip muscles into the upper leg (tibia) just below the knee to the outer side of the front of the leg. Where the tendon

More information

TRAINING SCHEDULE & TIPS

TRAINING SCHEDULE & TIPS TRAINING SCHEDULE & TIPS January Training Schedule February Training Schedule March/April Training Schedule May/June Training Schedule Consult your physician or medical care provider before starting this,

More information

This chapter presents

This chapter presents Chapter 8 Aerobic Fitness Programs T This chapter presents programs for three levels of aerobic fitness: a starter program for low fit or previously sedentary individuals (fitness under 35 ml/kg min);

More information

USCGA Health and Physical Education Fitness Preparation Guidelines

USCGA Health and Physical Education Fitness Preparation Guidelines USCGA Health and Physical Education Fitness Preparation Guidelines MUSCULAR STRENGTH Muscular strength and endurance can be improved by systematically increasing the load (resistance) that you are using.

More information

Basic Principles of Strength Training and Conditioning

Basic Principles of Strength Training and Conditioning Basic Principles of Strength Training and Conditioning John M. Cissik, MS, CSCS Whether you are a recreational weight trainer, a weekend athlete, or a strength coach working with elite athletes, it is

More information

Effects of Different Warm-Up Durations on Wingate Anaerobic Power and Capacity Results

Effects of Different Warm-Up Durations on Wingate Anaerobic Power and Capacity Results Sportif Bakış: Spor ve Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 1(1), 43-52, 2014 www.sportifbakis.com ISSN:2148-905X Effects of Different Warm-Up Durations on Wingate Anaerobic Power and Capacity Results Halit Harmancı,

More information

Archery: Coaching Young Athletes. Developing Fundamental Movement Skills

Archery: Coaching Young Athletes. Developing Fundamental Movement Skills Archery: Coaching Young Athletes Developing Fundamental Movement Skills Make a long term commitment Long Term Athlete Development Long Term Athlete Development (LTAD) is a strategy for helping youngsters

More information

Strength Training HEALTHY BONES, HEALTHY HEART

Strength Training HEALTHY BONES, HEALTHY HEART Strength Training HEALTHY BONES, HEALTHY HEART No matter what your age, strength training can improve your bone health and your balance. As we age, our bones lose both tissue and strength. This condition

More information

GET FIT, GET FAST! Use a heartrate monitor to gauge your level in order to determine the right effort.

GET FIT, GET FAST! Use a heartrate monitor to gauge your level in order to determine the right effort. GET FIT, GET FAST! The Trainer Workouts in this document are really tough. Be certain to get a thorough medical checkup before attempting any portion of this series. The set of 12 workouts addresses the

More information

thetrilife.com 12 Week First Sprint Triathlon Training Program

thetrilife.com 12 Week First Sprint Triathlon Training Program thetrilife.com 12 Week First Sprint Triathlon Training Program Is this the program for you? This program has been designed for someone with 3 to 5 hours a week to train. It is assumed that you have been

More information

Training on the Concept 2 Rower

Training on the Concept 2 Rower Training on the Concept 2 Rower Before your first row: 1. Consult your physician. Be sure that it is not dangerous for you to undertake a strenuous exercise program. 2. Carefully review the rowing technique.

More information

Cycling-Specific Leg Strength Training

Cycling-Specific Leg Strength Training Cycling-Specific Leg Strength Training There are a lot of theories on strength training for cycling out there, and unfortunately not a lot of science to back them up. Therefore, the following strength

More information

The Royal Military College - Duntroon Army Officer Selection Board Bridging Period Conditioning Program

The Royal Military College - Duntroon Army Officer Selection Board Bridging Period Conditioning Program The Royal Military College - Duntroon Army Officer Selection Board Bridging Period Conditioning Program CONTENTS Page Contents i INTRODUCTION 1 FAQS 2 CYCLE 1: NEUROMUSCULAR CONDITIONING FOCUS (WEEKS 1

More information

REPs CPD UPSKILLING PAPER 14 16 year olds (Children's Fitness)

REPs CPD UPSKILLING PAPER 14 16 year olds (Children's Fitness) Young People This guidance relates to the provision of safe exercise instruction to young people in a gym and studio environment (aged 14 to 17). Gym and studio environments are typically designed with

More information

Runner's Injury Prevention

Runner's Injury Prevention JEN DAVIS DPT Runner's Injury Prevention Jen Davis DPT Orthopedic Physical Therapy Foot Traffic 7718 SE 13th Ave Portland, OR 97202 (503) 482-7232 Jen@runfastpt.com www.runfastpt.com!1 THE AMAZING RUNNER

More information

INTERVAL THROWING PROGRAM

INTERVAL THROWING PROGRAM MGH Sports Medicine Center 175 Cambridge St., 4 th floor Boston, MA 02114 http://orthodoc.aaos.org/mdprice The purpose of an interval throwing program is to slowly help you regain strength, motion and

More information

Strength Training For Runners

Strength Training For Runners Strength Training For Runners Be the strongest, fastest athlete you can be Agenda Why to strength train and the benefits Myths about runners and strength training What to do How often Example program About

More information

GALLAND/KIRBY INTERVAL DISTANCE RUNNING REHABILITATION PROGRAM

GALLAND/KIRBY INTERVAL DISTANCE RUNNING REHABILITATION PROGRAM GALLAND/KIRBY INTERVAL DISTANCE RUNNING REHABILITATION PROGRAM PHASE I: WALKING PROGRAM Must be able to walk, pain free, aggressively (roughly 4.2 to 5.2 miles per hour), preferably on a treadmill, before

More information

Muscle recruitment pattern in cycling: a review

Muscle recruitment pattern in cycling: a review Physical Therapy in Sport 6 (2005) 89 96 www.elsevier.com/locate/yptsp Literature review Muscle recruitment pattern in cycling: a review Raymond C.H. So a,b, Joseph K.-F. Ng b, *, Gabriel Y.F. Ng b a Sports

More information

ise Performance Centre

ise Performance Centre A winning team must perform consistently at a high level game after game. Make your team faster, stronger, more alert and better prepared with the ise Performance Centre ise PERFORMANCE CENTRE FOOTBALL

More information

Cycling Injury Prevention Workshop

Cycling Injury Prevention Workshop Cycling Injury Prevention Workshop Focus on Thoracic-Shoulder & Associated Conditions Ian Wee Occupational Therapist / Cycle Coach Chris Thompson Physiotherapist / Cycle Coach/ Exercise Physiologist Workshop

More information

GCE PHYSICAL EDUCATION PE2 UNIT GUIDE. Content Title: Methods of training. Practical Application/Explanation. Fartlek training. Continuous training

GCE PHYSICAL EDUCATION PE2 UNIT GUIDE. Content Title: Methods of training. Practical Application/Explanation. Fartlek training. Continuous training Content Title: Methods of training Key points GCE PHYSICAL EDUCATION Different methods of training How to design specific training sessions How to design a training programme PE2 UNIT GUIDE Practical Application/Explanation

More information

Lancelin Hell of the North Suggested General Training Program

Lancelin Hell of the North Suggested General Training Program Lancelin Hell of the North Suggested General Training Program Introduction BWA has done it again with the creation of a new iconic event which will see many serious recreational riders participate in another

More information

Proper bicycle fit is essential for comfort, safety, injury

Proper bicycle fit is essential for comfort, safety, injury PRACTICAL MANAGEMENT Road Bicycle Fit Marc R. Silberman, MD,* David Webner, MD, Steven Collina, MD, and Brian J. Shiple, DO (Clin J Sport Med 2005;15:271 276) Proper bicycle fit is essential for comfort,

More information

Standard Grade. Swimming. Name. Teacher. Class. P.E. Department Crieff High School. Miss Steele Jan 10 1

Standard Grade. Swimming. Name. Teacher. Class. P.E. Department Crieff High School. Miss Steele Jan 10 1 Standard Grade Swimming Name Teacher Class P.E. Department Crieff High School Miss Steele Jan 10 1 Contents Tens Workbook Reference Swimming Section p87-92 and p127-128. Background Information Page 3 Stroke

More information

CLASS DESCRIPTIONS BY FITNESS LEVEL

CLASS DESCRIPTIONS BY FITNESS LEVEL LOW IMPACT/ BEGINNER FITNESS: Beginner s Yoga: Come explore the basics of yoga. This class is perfect for beginner students, seniors or someone interested in exploring the foundations of the practice in

More information

High-Resistance Interval Training Improves 40-km Time-Trial Performance in Competitive Cyclists

High-Resistance Interval Training Improves 40-km Time-Trial Performance in Competitive Cyclists SPORTSCIENCE Original Research / Training High-Resistance Interval Training Improves 40-km Time-Trial Performance in Competitive Cyclists Amy M Taylor-Mason Sportscience 9, 27-31, 2005 (sportsci.org/jour/05/amt-m.htm)

More information

Stretching for Young Athletes. Shawn P. Anderson, SPT Duke University Doctor of Physical Therapy

Stretching for Young Athletes. Shawn P. Anderson, SPT Duke University Doctor of Physical Therapy Stretching for Young Athletes Shawn P. Anderson, SPT Duke University Doctor of Physical Therapy Sports and exercise are usually integral parts of many adolescents life. Whether they play at school or in

More information

Rowing Physiology. Intermediate. Editors: Ted Daigneault (CAN), Matt Smith (USA) Author: Thor S. Nilsen (NOR)

Rowing Physiology. Intermediate. Editors: Ted Daigneault (CAN), Matt Smith (USA) Author: Thor S. Nilsen (NOR) 2 Intermediate Rowing Physiology Author: Thor S. Nilsen (NOR) Editors: Ted Daigneault (CAN), Matt Smith (USA) 34 1.0 INTRODUCTION The FISA CDP booklet titled BASIC ROWING PHYSIOLOGY provided information

More information

Assessment of Anaerobic & Aerobic Power

Assessment of Anaerobic & Aerobic Power Assessment of Anaerobic & Aerobic Power The most popular anaerobic cycling test is the Wingate Anaerobic test (WAnT), named after the university in Israel where it originated. The original test was designed

More information

Cardiorespiratory Fitness

Cardiorespiratory Fitness Cardiorespiratory Fitness Assessment Purpose Determine level of fitness & set goals Develop safe & effective exercise prescription Document improvements Motivation Provide info concerning health status

More information

Interval Training. Interval Training

Interval Training. Interval Training Interval Training Interval Training More work can be performed at higher exercise intensities with same or less fatigue than in continuous training Fitness Weight Loss Competition Baechle and Earle, Essentials

More information

Aqua Running by PRIME. In the beginning, the AquaJogger was conceived in Eugene, Oregon USA as a way to take the impact out of running for world

Aqua Running by PRIME. In the beginning, the AquaJogger was conceived in Eugene, Oregon USA as a way to take the impact out of running for world Aqua Running by PRIME In the beginning, the AquaJogger was conceived in Eugene, Oregon USA as a way to take the impact out of running for world class runners like Mary Decker. Mary s coach, Dick Brown,

More information

Speed-Strength Training Basics:

Speed-Strength Training Basics: Speed-Strength Training Basics: Tips for All Athletes from All Sports Derek Hansen, CSCS SPS Athletic Training Group 1. Introduction The Truth About Getting Faster It is common for people to think of elite

More information

This very important area is often the least understood or completely ignored by some coaches when designing a fitness program for their athletes.

This very important area is often the least understood or completely ignored by some coaches when designing a fitness program for their athletes. This very important area is often the least understood or completely ignored by some coaches when designing a fitness program for their athletes. An understanding of the various energy systems of our body

More information

INNOVATION & PRIVACY IN AQUA THERAPY

INNOVATION & PRIVACY IN AQUA THERAPY INNOVATION & PRIVACY IN AQUA THERAPY Spabike is a revolution in aqua-fitness. A hydro-massage bath with a hydraulic resistance pedaling system, its ergonomic design combines comfort and quality for the

More information

The Peak Centre for Human Performance. Who are these programs for? Description of Training Zones

The Peak Centre for Human Performance. Who are these programs for? Description of Training Zones The Peak Centre for Human Performance The Peak Centre for Human Performance is Canada's leader in individualized training solutions. Whether you exercise for performance improvements, health or fitness,

More information

Strength Training for the Knee

Strength Training for the Knee Strength Training for the Knee This handout is to help you rebuild the strength of the muscles surrounding the knee after injury. It is intended as a guideline to help you organize a structured approach

More information

1. Warmup To warm up participants and increase ROM. 2. Mixed Impact Track To move into higher levels of impact and intensity

1. Warmup To warm up participants and increase ROM. 2. Mixed Impact Track To move into higher levels of impact and intensity 60-minute Class Format BODYATTACK 1. Warmup To warm up participants and increase ROM 2. Mixed Impact Track To move into higher levels of impact and intensity 3. Aerobic Track To get the class into their

More information

Hamstring Strain. Alex Petruska, PT, SCS

Hamstring Strain. Alex Petruska, PT, SCS Hamstring Strain Alex Petruska, PT, SCS ANATOMY There are three muscles in the back of the thigh that are collectively called the hamstrings. They are named biceps femoris, semitendinosis and semimembranosis.

More information

Clinical Care Program

Clinical Care Program Clinical Care Program Therapy for the Cardiac Patient What s CHF? Not a kind of heart disease o Heart disease is called cardiomyopathy o Heart failure occurs when the heart can t pump enough blood to meet

More information

Basic Training Methodology. Editors: Thor S. Nilsen (NOR), Ted Daigneault (CAN), Matt Smith (USA)

Basic Training Methodology. Editors: Thor S. Nilsen (NOR), Ted Daigneault (CAN), Matt Smith (USA) 4 Basic Training Methodology Editors: Thor S. Nilsen (NOR), Ted Daigneault (CAN), Matt Smith (USA) 58 4. BASIC TRAINING METHODOLOGY 1.0 INTRODUCTION The role of the coach in the development of athletic

More information

Fitter, Faster, Stronger, Longer: Precor Cardio Development Program

Fitter, Faster, Stronger, Longer: Precor Cardio Development Program Fitter, Faster, Stronger, Longer: Precor Cardio Development Program The Precor Cardio Development Program is a 3 phase training program that progressively guides your clients towards aerobic fitness and

More information

Analysis of Peak Oxygen Consumption and Heart Rate During Elliptical and Treadmill Exercise

Analysis of Peak Oxygen Consumption and Heart Rate During Elliptical and Treadmill Exercise Analysis of Peak Oxygen Consumption and Heart Rate During Elliptical and Treadmill Exercise John A. Mercer, Janet S. Dufek, and Barry T. Bates Mercer JA, Dufek JS, Bates BT. Analysis of peak oxygen consumption

More information

Marathon Training Program for Your First Marathon. By Ben Wisbey Coach Endurance Sports Training

Marathon Training Program for Your First Marathon. By Ben Wisbey Coach Endurance Sports Training Marathon Training Program for Your First Marathon By Ben Wisbey Coach Endurance Sports Training Endurance Sports Training offers individually written training programs for runners of all abilities. For

More information

GA-3 Disaster Medical Assistance Team. Physical Fitness Guide

GA-3 Disaster Medical Assistance Team. Physical Fitness Guide GA-3 Disaster Medical Assistance Team Physical Fitness Guide PURPOSE: The purpose of this Physical Fitness Guide is to provide physical fitness training information to the members of the GA-3 Disaster

More information

Concussion Management Protocol for G-Force Program

Concussion Management Protocol for G-Force Program Concussion Management Protocol for G-Force Program Baseline ImPACT testing Recommended but not mandatory - Can be done anytime but ideally recommended before season begins - Ideally this should be done

More information

Running Injury Prevention Tips & Return to Running Program

Running Injury Prevention Tips & Return to Running Program Department of Rehabilitation Services Physical Therapy The intent of these guidelines is to provide the athlete with a framework for return to sports activity following injury. These guidelines should

More information

Batavia Triathlon/LITH Triathlon- 12 Week Sprint Triathlon Training Plan (Race Day-June 10th)

Batavia Triathlon/LITH Triathlon- 12 Week Sprint Triathlon Training Plan (Race Day-June 10th) Batavia Triathlon/LITH Triathlon- 12 Week Sprint Triathlon Training Plan (Race Day-June 10th) Monday, March 19 Tuesday, March 20 Thanks for using this 12-week SPRINT Training Plan. Monday and Fridays each

More information

Go and Track Console Training Guide. Name. Date

Go and Track Console Training Guide. Name. Date Name Date Go and Track Console Training Guide, a division of Brunswick Corporation. All rights reserved. Life Fitness is a registered trademark of Brunswick Corporation. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1 Chapter

More information

4 Energy transformations in the pole vault

4 Energy transformations in the pole vault 358 Chapter IV. Elasticity 4 Energy transformations in the pole vault Abstract by N.P. Linthorne Centre for Sports Medicine and Human Performance, School of Sport and Education, Brunel University, Uxbridge,

More information

Hip Rehab: Things to Consider. Sue Torrence, MS, PT, ATC Lead Physical Therapist

Hip Rehab: Things to Consider. Sue Torrence, MS, PT, ATC Lead Physical Therapist Hip Rehab: Things to Consider Sue Torrence, MS, PT, ATC Lead Physical Therapist Where to Start? Objectives: Discuss injuries related to hip dysfunction Review commonly used functional tests for posteriolateral

More information

Strength and Stability Training for Distance Runners By Ben Wisbey

Strength and Stability Training for Distance Runners By Ben Wisbey Strength and Stability Training for Distance Runners By Ben Wisbey Strength training is one of the most commonly discussed topics amongst distance runners, generating great debates with many strong opinions.

More information

Knee Conditioning Program. Purpose of Program

Knee Conditioning Program. Purpose of Program Prepared for: Prepared by: OrthoInfo Purpose of Program After an injury or surgery, an exercise conditioning program will help you return to daily activities and enjoy a more active, healthy lifestyle.

More information

COMMON OVERUSE INJURIES ATTRIBUTED TO CYCLING, AND WAYS TO MINIMIZE THESE INJURIES

COMMON OVERUSE INJURIES ATTRIBUTED TO CYCLING, AND WAYS TO MINIMIZE THESE INJURIES COMMON OVERUSE INJURIES ATTRIBUTED TO CYCLING, AND WAYS TO MINIMIZE THESE INJURIES Listed are a few of the most common overuse injuries associated with cycling long distances. 1. Cervical and upper back

More information

12-week Half Marathon Training Program By Ben Wisbey

12-week Half Marathon Training Program By Ben Wisbey 12-week Half Marathon Training Program By Ben Wisbey Introduction The half marathon is often the intermediate goal for those runners looking at doing their first marathon. It is also the longest distance

More information

X-Plain Neck Exercises Reference Summary

X-Plain Neck Exercises Reference Summary X-Plain Neck Exercises Reference Summary Introduction Exercising your neck can make it stronger, more flexible and reduce neck pain that is caused by stress and fatigue. This reference summary describes

More information

Fitness Training Program

Fitness Training Program Sample Endurance Factor Introduction Fitness Training Congratulations on completing your Metabolic Profile! Until recently, this type of assessment was available only to human performance labs and training

More information

Always warm up before commencing any exercise. Wear the correct clothing and footwear; do not train if you are unwell or injured.

Always warm up before commencing any exercise. Wear the correct clothing and footwear; do not train if you are unwell or injured. SUGGESTED FITNESS PROGRAMME General Exercise Guidance Good exercise training advice is highly specific to the individual. It should be understood, therefore, that the advice provided here can only be general.

More information

Riding position and lumbar spine angle in recreational cyclists: A pilot study

Riding position and lumbar spine angle in recreational cyclists: A pilot study Original Research Riding position and lumbar spine angle in recreational cyclists: A pilot study SAMANTHA J. SCHULZ* and SUSAN J. GORDON School of Public Health, Tropical Medicine and Rehabilitation Sciences,

More information

Strength Training for the Runner

Strength Training for the Runner Strength Training for the Runner Strength Training for the Runner What? The goal of resistance training for runners is not necessarily adding muscle mass but 1. improving muscular strength, 2. improving

More information

THE INFLUENCE OF WALL PAINTING ON SHOULDER MUSCLE ACTIVITY AND HORIZONTAL PUSH FORCE

THE INFLUENCE OF WALL PAINTING ON SHOULDER MUSCLE ACTIVITY AND HORIZONTAL PUSH FORCE THE INFLUENCE OF WALL PAINTING ON SHOULDER MUSCLE ACTIVITY AND HORIZONTAL PUSH FORCE Background: Patricia M. Rosati and Clark R. Dickerson Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON

More information

BACKPACKING TRIP DIFFICULTY SNAPSHOT

BACKPACKING TRIP DIFFICULTY SNAPSHOT BACKPACKING TRIP DIFFICULTY SNAPSHOT Of course these ratings are only an indicator of hike difficulty - every hike has its variables beyond elevation gain and distance including weather, experience/fitness,

More information

Training Plan for a Successful Cycle Challenge Overview

Training Plan for a Successful Cycle Challenge Overview Ten Weeks to Riding Fitness Training Plan for a Successful Cycle Challenge Overview This training programme has been designed for single day cycling challenges, and should be used as a guide to give you

More information

Heart Rate and Physical Fitness

Heart Rate and Physical Fitness Heart Rate and Physical Fitness The circulatory system is responsible for the internal transport of many vital substances in humans, including oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nutrients. The components of the

More information

Cardiovascular Training & Intelli-Fit System Guide

Cardiovascular Training & Intelli-Fit System Guide with Cardiovascular Training & Intelli-Fit System Guide MOVE PROVE = IMPROVE Contents Foreword JOURNEY OF IMPROVEMENT 3 Introduction A MESSAGE FROM PAUL ROBBINS 4 Chapter 1 THE SCIENCE BEHIND CARDIO TRAINING

More information

EDUH 1017 - SPORTS MECHANICS

EDUH 1017 - SPORTS MECHANICS 4277(a) Semester 2, 2011 Page 1 of 9 THE UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY EDUH 1017 - SPORTS MECHANICS NOVEMBER 2011 Time allowed: TWO Hours Total marks: 90 MARKS INSTRUCTIONS All questions are to be answered. Use

More information

Patient Information. and Physical Activity Diary. Wythenshawe Hospital Cardiac Rehabilitation. Name:... The ticker club Registered Charity No.

Patient Information. and Physical Activity Diary. Wythenshawe Hospital Cardiac Rehabilitation. Name:... The ticker club Registered Charity No. Wythenshawe Hospital Cardiac Rehabilitation Patient Information Remember : Lifelong regular physical activity - 0 minutes, five times per week is important for your general health. I feel so much better

More information

Overtraining with Resistance Exercise

Overtraining with Resistance Exercise ACSM CURRENT COMMENT Overtraining with Resistance Exercise One of the fastest growing and most popular types of exercise in recent years is resistance exercise, whether used for the purpose of general

More information