ADVANCED FIRE ALARMING SYSTEM THROUGH MOBILE PHONE

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1 ADVANCED FIRE ALARMING SYSTEM THROUGH MOBILE PHONE A PROJECT BY SOUNAK SARKAR SAYAN DAS ARINDAM BOSE ECE, 4TH YEAR OF FUTURE INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT DEPT. OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We wish to thank Prof. Somnath Maiti, former Head of the Dept. of Electronics and Communication Engineering, for his valuable suggestions and advices throughout the project that helped us a lot to sort out all the problems. We would like to thank Prof. Debashis Chakraborty, Head of the Dept. of Electronics and Communication Engineering. We are grateful to other honorable faculty of our college to prop up confidence level and motivating me throughout the process, that help us to move ahead towards the completion of the project. We also acknowledge Birla Industrial and Technological Museum with thanks for selecting our model for demonstration in Science and Engineering Fair, SOUNAK SARKAR SAYAN DAS ARINDAM BOSE Page 1 of 16

3 ABSTRACT Cultural property management is entrusted with the responsibility of protecting and preserving an institution's buildings, collections, operations and occupants. Constant attention is required to minimize adverse impact due to climate, pollution, theft, vandalism, insects, mold and fire. Because of the speed and totality of the destructive forces of fire, it constitutes one of the more serious threats. Vandalized or environmentally damaged structures can be repaired and stolen objects recovered. Items destroyed by fire, however, are gone forever. An uncontrolled fire can obliterate an entire room's contents within a few minutes and completely burn out a building in a couple hours. The first step toward halting a fire is to properly identify the incident, raise the occupant alarm, and then notify emergency response professionals. This is often the function of the fire detection and alarm system. Several system types and options are available, depending on the specific characteristics of the protected space. The following project presents an overview of fire detection and automatic fire alert to the emergency response professionals. Page 2 of 16

4 Table of Contents Chapters Page no. 1. INTRODUCTION AVAILABLE FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS AUTOMATION IN FIRE ALERT IN OUR SYSTEM 5 2. PROJECT DESIGN METHODOLOGY ALGORITHM BLOCK DIAGRAM CIRCUIT DIAGRAM GENERATION OF PCM SOUND 9 3. COMPONENT DESCRIPTION ATMEGA16 MICROCONTROLLER IC LS373 OCTAL D-TYPE TRI-STATE TRANSPARENT LATCH LM35 PRECISION CENTIGRADE TEMPERATURE SENSORS ADVANTAGES PRICE LIST CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY 15 Page 3 of 16

5 1. INTRODUCTION An automatic fire alarm system is designed to detect the unwanted presence of fire by monitoring environmental changes associated with combustion. In general, a fire alarm system is classified as either automatically actuated, manually actuated, or both. Automatic fire alarm systems are intended to notify the building occupants to evacuate in the event of a fire or other emergency, report the event to an off-premises location in order to summon emergency services, and to prepare the structure and associated systems to control the spread of fire. A key aspect of fire protection is to identify a developing fire emergency in a timely manner, and to alert the building's occupants and fire emergency organizations. This is the role of fire detection and alarm systems. Depending on the anticipated fire scenario, building and use type, number and type of occupants and criticality of contents and mission, these systems can provide several main functions AVAILABLE FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS There are some fire alarms available in the market. They often are used in various areas. Some of them are: 1. Manual Call Point 2. Single Action Pull Station 3. Activated Call Point 4. Honeywell Speaker 5. Fire Alarm With a Strobe Light 6. Street Fire Alarm Page 4 of 16

6 They are as shown in pictures below, Fig. 1: Manual Call Point Fig. 2: Single Action Pull Station Fig. 3: Activated Call Point Fig. 4: Honeywell Speaker Fig. 5: Fire Alarm with a Strobe Light Fig.6: Street Fire Alarm The main faults of these systems are, Most of these technologies are manual, i.e. if there is a fire incident, we have to ring the alarm bell manually to aware the concerned Authority and Fire-station. If there be a fire incident in a remote place where there is no one to aware the Fire-station, it will be a great loss. In general Automated Fire Alarming System, there must be a Computer installed. So cost is much higher AUTOMATION IN FIRE ALERT IN OUR SYSTEM This system is a typical Fire Alarming system with great efficiency and advancement. When It will detect that there is fire nearby by measuring the temperature, it will call concerned authority or Fire-station automatically, so that action can be taken rapidly. It will also switch on other fire extinguishing system installed on the premises. Page 5 of 16

7 2. PROJECT DESIGN METHODOLOGY 2.1. ALGORITHM Start Measure Temperature Is Temperature higher than Danger limit? Call Intended Authority or Fire Station Switch on Installed Fire Extinguishing System Fig.7: Algorithm When +5v power supply is given to the microcontroller, temperature sensor and display, the circuit starts to function. Data is collected from the temperature sensor; this data is fed into the ADC located in the MCU and hence converted into digital value and sent to the display unit, where we can see the temperature. When the temperature is above the danger limit it will activate the call processing by the attached mobile phone, as well as it will switch on other fire extinguishing circuit. Page 6 of 16

8 2.2. BLOCK DIAGRAM Power Supply Display Microcontroller Sender Receiver Temperature Sensor Switch on Fire Extinguishing System Fig.8: Block Diagram The heart of the project is the microcontroller. There is a temperature sensor, here we have used LM35, precision centigrade temperature sensor. The MCU will have ADC inbuilt. The display unit can be a 7 segment display or an LCD display. The mobile can be of any type of GSM module inbuilt. And the Fire Extinguishing System is the other logically controllable Fire Extinguishing System. Page 7 of 16

9 2.3. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM Fig.9: Circuit Diagram Page 8 of 16

10 2.4. GENERATION OF PCM SOUND In this project we have arranged such a system, where the alarm receiving party through mobile phone will experience an alarming voice, which will say the emergency message as well as the fireaffected address. This is essential for a fire alarming system because a simple call or a missed call does not alert the intended person effectively. So we decided to play an emergency voice message. This voice message is nothing but digital PCM values to a phone speaker which are stored in the same microcontroller used here. But our voice is an analog signal. So these PCM values are generated in following process. Step 1: Generate a 32-bit voice file through recording media or by Text-to-Speech Converter. Step 2: Convert the 32-bit voice file to a 8-bit, PCM Uncompressed, 8000 Hz, Mono channel File. Step 3: Now this file is converted to an array of PCM values. Now these values are ready to use. These values can be stored in the microcontroller and can be converted again to analog voltage level and can be fed to the mobile microphone and hence can be played through the phone. Page 9 of 16

11 3. COMPONENT DESCRIPTION 3.1. ATMEGA16 MICROCONTROLLER IC The ATmega16 is a 40 pin low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR enhanced RISC architecture. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the ATmega16 achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz allowing the system designers to optimize power consumption versus processing speed. The Atmega16 has three key features that satisfy our objective. These are as follows:- 512 Bytes EEPROM 32 Programmable I/O Lines 8 bit multi-channel analog-to-digital converter Fig.10: ATmega16 Fig.11: Pin Description of ATmega16 Page 10 of 16

12 LS373 OCTAL D-TYPE TRI-STATE TRANSPARENT LATCH These 8-bit registers feature totem-pole TRI-STATE outputs designed specifically for driving highly-capacitive or relatively low-impedance loads. Features: Switching specifications at 50 pf. Switching specifications guaranteed over full temperature and VCC range. Advanced oxide-isolated, ion-implanted Schottky TTL process. Functionally and pin for pin compatible with LS TTL counterpart. Improved AC performance over LS373 at approximately half the power. TRI-STATE buffer-type outputs drive bus lines directly. Fig.12: Connection Diagram of 74LS373 Page 11 of 16

13 3.3. LM35 PRECISION CENTIGRADE TEMPERATURE SENSORS The LM35 series are precision integrated-circuit temperature sensors, whose output voltage is linearly proportional to the Celsius (Centigrade) temperature. Features: Calibrated directly in Celsius (Centigrade). Linear mv/ C scale factor. 0.5 C accuracy guaranteeable (at +25 C). Rated for full 55 to +150 C range. Suitable for remote applications. Low cost due to wafer-level trimming. Operates from 4 to 30 volts. Less than 60 μa current drain. Low self-heating, 0.08 C in still air. Nonlinearity only ±1 4 C typical. Low impedance output, 0.1 W for 1 ma load. Page 12 of 16

14 This design has some advantages: 4. ADVANTAGES 1. A complete solution to alarming system. 2. High precision, rapid action can be taken. 3. Small size, easy to install. 4. No computer is needed, so cost is very low. 5. Low power consumption. 6. Secondary backup power supply from battery. 7. High temperature withstanding capability. 8. Easily incorporable to other alarming systems. 9. Fully automated, least man power is needed. Page 13 of 16

15 5. PRICE LIST No. Part s Name Quantity Price in INR. 1 Microcontroller IC: ATMEGA Pin Base 1+1 `150+`5 2 Latch IC: 74HCT Pin Base 2+2 `20+`6 3 Voltage Regulator IC: `8 4 Temperature Sensor IC: LM35 1 `40 5 Resistance: 150Ω + 1kΩ 15+1 `3+` Capacitors: 1000 pf + 10 µf/63v 2+2 `1 +`2 7 Transformer: 15V/750 ma in secondary 1 `60 8 Diodes: (1N4007) 4 `4 9 7 segment Display 3 `24 10 LEDs: Red 2 `2 11 Connecting wires `3 12 Vero Board 1 ` V Battery + Battery Holder 4+1 `28+`20 14 Casing + Screws `20 Total `430 - `450 only. This is the price of only one module. This excludes the price of the GSM Mobile phone. One can use any GSM mobile phone he/she chooses. So the total price of the design depends on the price of the Mobile phone. It can be noted that maximum 8 numbers of this alarming module can be connected to a single mobile phone at a time through a priority encoder. Page 14 of 16

16 6. CONCLUSION We have made provisions for a single call to be forwarded to the emergency response officials. In Future more than one call can be initiated to the concerned authorities Our system is designed to forward an emergency call in response to a fire to the concerned firefighting officials. In future SMS technology can be incorporated. The accuracy and speed of operation can be upgraded by using sensors of higher sensitivity. The speed of operation can be increased by using high speed microcontroller and other integrated components used. 7. BIBLIOGRAPHY We have consulted some websites for this project. These are Page 15 of 16

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