Monitoring Report 2008

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1 Monitoring Report 2008

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3 Monitoring Report 2008

4 Colophon Oxfam Novib PO Box GX The Hague The Netherlands Telephone: +31 (0) Telefax: +31 (0) Website: Oxfam Novib, April 2009 Photograph front cover: Rajendra Shaw/Oxfam Photograph back cover: Tom Pietrasik/Oxfam

5 Index Introduction Oxfam Novib s five programmes Introduction Right to a sustainable livelihood programme Oxfam Novib s Activities and Output Output of partner organisations Outcome for the target group Sustainability Risk management Conclusion on the progress in programme Right to basic social services programme Oxfam Novib s Activities and Output Output of partner organisations Outcome for the target group Sustainability Risk management Conclusions on the progress of programme Right to life and security programme Oxfam Novib s activities and output Output of partner organisations Outcome for the target group Sustainability Risk management Conclusions on the progress in programme Right to social and political participation programme Oxfam Novib s activities and output Output of partner organisations Outcome for the target group Sustainability Risk management Conclusions on the progress of programme Right to an identity programme Oxfam Novib s activities and output Output of partner organisations Outcome for the target group Sustainability Risk management Conclusions on the progress of programme Evaluations Introduction Thematic evaluations Evaluations in the Partos context IOB evaluations Core country evaluations, meta evaluations and evaluations in the Oxfam framework Project evaluations Lessons learned for the future Right to a sustainable livelihood Right to basic social services Right to life and security The right to social and political participation The right to an identity Internal organisation Introduction Leadership, strategy and policy Management of processes Appreciation by and results for clients and other stakeholders Financial results Resources management and appreciation by society Staff management and staff appreciation Innovation and learning Risk management Conclusion Input indicators Annexes Tables monitoring protocol Specification MFS Project Evaluations Published Reports

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7 Introduction 2008 was the second year in the Business Plan period This report speaks of the activities of Oxfam Novib and its partner organisations and of the results to date, on the road to the results expected by the end of This report follows the tailor-made monitoring protocol agreed with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The report has the same sections as the monitoring protocol: The programme component (chapter 1) The evaluation agenda (chapter 2) The organisation component (chapter 3) The input indicators (section 4). The tables with indicators and the financial specification of the co-financing subsidy are attached as annexes. vis-à-vis the goals set for 2010 for the programme component and the organisation component. The tables that this analysis provided are annexed. The SPM Progress Reports also contained an assessment of progress, analysing per programme in the concerned portfolio the progress vis-à-vis the four-year plan. These analyses form the basis for the internal reflection of all bureaux and for writing this report. In addition to the monitoring information, the evaluations supplied important material for the internal reflection. These evaluation give a picture of the achievements of Oxfam Novib and its partner organisations over a period longer than (2007 and) Chapter 2 mentions the lessons drawn from the different evaluations. The monitoring report reports in main lines, both at the organisation level and at the level of the five programmes in the Business Plan There are set Balanced Score Card of separate bureaux Reporting of Oxfam Novib s activities Reporting by Partner Organisations programme indicators for each programme. The necessary information is drawn from the SPM Progress Reports. They are the progress reports of the Strategic Portfolio Management that Oxfam Novib uses for its work in the 19 core countries, the 10 regional clusters, Netherland/Linkis and Global Programmes. The SPM Progress Reports are in turn based on the reports of Board of Directors Score Card SAP Performance Registration System SPM Progress Reports partner organisations and the work of staff members in the fields of lobby, campaigning and corporate social responsibility. Indicators Organisation Component Indicators Programme Componentl The indicators at the organisation level follow the Balanced Score Card system that Oxfam Novib uses in its internal monitoring. The BSC has been expanded with several specific components, in line with the guidelines for tailor-made monitoring. See the schedule below. The different bureaux (departments) of Oxfam Novib completed their Balance Score Cards and wrote their SPM Progress Reports in January The staff bureaux Q&C and R&D analysed and aggregated this information. An analysis was made of the progress In the different chapters of this report we indicate which interim results were achieved on the road to Where relevant we elaborate on the necessary revisions. The measures that were taken are mentioned briefly and were included in greater detail in the 2009 Annual Business Plan. The conclusion regarding the progress in each of the programmes also indicates the planned revisions for the future (chapter 1). The same was done on the basis of the results of the different evaluations (chapter 2). Introduction 5

8 This monitoring report contains above all business-like data and analyses. It may appear tough reading. But behind the overviews and detailed data are the people who have directly benefited from the work of Oxfam Novib and its partner organisations. Alongside this report for the Ministry Oxfam Novib also publishes a public Annual Report. It presents the results over 2008, supplemented with examples, stories and images of the work of partner organisations and others involved in Oxfam Novib s work and in Oxfam Novib itself. The public Annual Report is again published in digital form this year. The reader can click on to obtain a quick insight in what he or she wants to know. Transparency and tailor-made information are the most important basic principles. In time the digital format also reduces the costs of the Annual Report, fits in with the environmental policy and reduces the use of paper. This public Annual Report can be found at 6

9 1. Oxfam Novib s five programmes 1.1 Introduction This chapter describes the activities of Oxfam Novib and its partner organisations in 2008, and their results. Oxfam Novib has divided its work in five programmes, based on the five basic rights that Oxfam International uses. Indicators for measuring progress were set for each programme. There are indicators for input, Oxfam Novib s output, partner organisations output, outcome for the target group and sustainability. Together they make up the structure of the tailor-made monitoring protocol. This chapter follows the same structure. For each programme the results are mentioned and compared with the goals set for Annex 1 gives in table-form an overview of indicators, goals and their realisation. They include a brief explanation of the positive and negative deviations from the plan. In the paragraphs Oxfam Novib s Activities and Output in chapter 1, the indicators of input and Oxfam Novib s output are mentioned per programme. These paragraphs are about both the indicators from the monitoring protocol and the activities from the Annual Business Plan The output of the partner organisations, the progress in expected outcomes for the target group and the sustainability of Oxfam Novib s investments are described in the paragraphs that follow. For each programme the management of the risks mentioned in the monitoring protocol is then elaborated. Each paragraph concludes with a short conclusion on the progress in implementing the concerned programme compared with the intended goals for 2010 as set in the Business Plan. These numbers are, however, only an indication of the numbers of people participating in the activities of partner organisations and say nothing about the impact of their participation on improving their living conditions. Oxfam Novib has set ambitious goals in the field of gender justice. For monitoring the progress of partner organisations in realising these goals use is made of the gender traffic light. This traffic light is a method whereby ten indicators are used to determine the level of gender sensitivity of an organisation. When they score 0 to 6 the light is red, which means that Oxfam Novib will stop its funding unless (in particular with new partner organisations) there is clear potential for improvement. Tables 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3 given an overview of the distribution of available money over Oxfam Novib s five programmes, the distribution over the three intervention strategies and the distribution by programme and by continent. Outreach numbers are mentioned with Output of Partner Organisations. They are about the total number of people who in one way or another participated in the activities of partner organisations. These activities are in part funded by Oxfam Novib and in part by other donors. Oxfam Novib s five programmes 7

10 Table 1.1 Distribution money by programme (million euro) Annual Plan in % Sustainable livelihood % Basic social services % Life and security % Social and political participation % Identity % Total % The figures related to Oxfam Novib s total spending minus spending on fundraising and support-base building, and minus spending related to the emergency appeals of SHO and other Oxfams. Table 1.2 Distribution money by intervention strategy (million euro) Annual Plan in % Direct poverty reduction % Civil society building % Advocacy % Total % The figures related to Oxfam Novib s total spending minus spending on fundraising and support-base building, and minus spending related to the emergency appeals of SHO and other Oxfams. Table 1.3 Distribution allocated subsidies per programme and per continent in 2009 (in million euro) Sustain. Basic social Life and Particip- Identity Total In % livelihood services security ation Africa % Asia % Latin America % E Europe, FSU, M East and % Maghreb Global % Linkis south % Total % In % 31% 16% 16% 22% 16% 100% The figures related to the so-called non-operational programme costs of Oxfam Novib, i.e. the subsidies allocated to partner organisations. In 2007 Oxfam International s new Strategic Plan came into force. It describes the shared goals and strategies. They are elaborated in operational plans for the regions where Oxfam works. Four Change Goals were determined for the period to They unite the joint work of the Oxfams in a strategic manner; lobby and campaigning as well as project financing. The Change Goals are: Economic Justice (see programme 1, sustainable livelihood, in paragraph 1.2) Access to Essential Services (see programme 2, basic social services, in paragraph 1.3) Rights in Crisis (see programme 3, life and security, in paragraph 1.4) Gender Justice (see programme 5 in paragraph 1.6) 8

11 Oxfam International did not formulate a separate Change Goal for the programme on social and political participation (programme 4). This is because participation, human rights, democratisation and such must play an important role in all Change Goals and are therefore integrated in the work on all programmes. promoting good government policies and maintaining policy space, to restraining competition to food production, such as biofuels, which are possibly unsustainable. Financing Partner Organisations Alongside the Change Goals, the Oxfams new strategic plan mentions four issues that must receive attention in the work on all programmes: active citizenship, gender, the role of the business sector, and HIV and AIDS. Staff of Oxfam Novib has participated in drawing up the strategic plan and contribute to the implementation in various fields. Oxfam Novib s contribution to the joint work of Oxfam International is included in the monitoring protocol per programme under Oxfam Novib s Activities and Output. 1.2 Right to a sustainable livelihood programme Oxfam Novib s Activities and Output For people with insecure livelihoods 2008 was a dangerous year, with fast rising food and fuel prices in the spring, a global economic crisis in the fall and a continuing climate crisis. The number of people structurally getting too little to eat rose from 800 million to almost one billion. Food security and the development of agriculture and rural economies have been a priority for Oxfam Novib for decades. The more so in Much work in lobby and campaigning, such as the Oxfam campaign for Economic Justice, was focused on this. The work ranges from In 2008 Oxfam Novib invested 43.3 million euro (31% of the total funding of partner organisations) in the work of 423 partner organisations working with people to realise their right to a sustainable livelihood. The largest amount went to Africa (39%), followed by Asia (24%). Of the 423 partner organisations in this programme, 222 are specialised in this work. The other partners also work on other programmes. In microfinance institutions, in different phases of development, provided financial services for people living in poverty. Twenty of these institutions were starting organisations. Oxfam Novib supported them with grants for developing their organisation. In 2008 the Oxfam Novib Fund, managed by the social company Triple Jump, extended loans to seventy one organisations no longer in the starting phase but still too risky for commercial investors. Fifty institutions were sufficiently mature for borrowing money from the commercial ASN-Novib Fund. This fund, also managed by Triple Jump, is especially meant for the larger micro-credit organisations where investments are safe. Individual citizens can invest in this fund. Seven institutions received funding for microinsurance. Oxfam Novib s goal for 2010 is to have 200 microfinance institutions serve 4.1 million clients. Oxfam Novib also supports various microfinance networks. The networks aim to enhance the beneficial impact of microfinance on the lives of people. Examples Table 1.4 Funds and partner organisations per region for programme 1 Million euro In % No. of partners Of which specialised* Africa % Asia % Latin America % E Europe, FSU, M East and 3.3 8% Maghreb Global % Linkis south 1.0 2% Total % * Oxfam Novib calls a partner organisation specialised when more than 70% of the subsidy is spent on activities for the basic right concerned. Oxfam Novib s five programmes 9

12 of such networks are INAFI, active around the world, AEmfi in Ethiopia, COPEME in Peru, Senabel in the Middle East and PNSMF in the Palestinian territories. Campaign for Economic Justice In the context of Oxfam International s Economic Justice campaign Oxfam Novib worked on fourteen issues in Examples are the food crisis (causes, solutions), adaptation to climate change, biofuels, and the Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) between the EU and developing countries in Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific. Oxfam Novib intends to have been working on 20 campaign themes by It is expected that this goal will be met, although the emphasis is more on quality and the enduring impact of the campaign themes than on their intended number. The food crisis forced a response to the new dangers, but also offered opportunities to obtain better government food security policies at the international and national levels. From governments of developing countries and donors who had retreated from agriculture over the past decades, we now expect them to invest more in agriculture. Oxfam addressed the issue through the publication of two reports reminding governments of developing countries and donor countries of their responsibilities. With these reports in hand Oxfam lobbied the UN Summit in Rome in June, where a Comprehensive Framework for Action for food security was adopted. However, the results have so far been disappointing and demand a continuous engagement. In part due to the economic crisis, there seems to be insufficient political willingness with donors to make more money available. However, in the developing countries concerned one can discern a revaluation of the role of governments regarding food security. Oxfam Novib promotes national campaigns for food security, reinforced and carried by the work of partners. In the Netherlands Oxfam Novib asked for attention to biofuels. Various authoritative institutions (UN, IMF) have called the demand for biofuels an important cause of food price rises. Earlier on the European Commission had proposed, spurred on by the climate crisis, to make the mixing of fossil fuels with biofuels mandatory. Oxfam Novib played an important role in the co-ordinated lobby against this intention. The result is that the measure will be evaluated ad interim and if needed revised, on the basis of the availability of sustainably produced biofuels, which is a reference to their impact on food prices. In this Europe follows the debate in the Netherlands. Here the government has embraced the Cramer Criteria (named after Jacqueline Cramer, Minister of VROM) for distinguishing sustainable from unsustainable biofuels. Both in the Netherlands and in Europe it is now the case of working out well criteria and implementing them. That is a tougher job than getting the principles accepted. For example, the Dutch government concluded a Memorandum of Understanding on biofuels trade with Brazil, without agreements on sustainability, because Brazil resisted. In May 2008 Oxfam Novib had an extensive conversation with President Lula on the issue, during his visit to the Netherlands. The conversation was proof of his appreciation of Oxfam Novib s position, without agreeing with it. The president did invite Oxfam Novib to a big conference on biofuels in Brazil in November. The discussion between the Netherlands and Brazil continues. Oxfam Novib has called on the Dutch government to convert the Cramer criteria into hard regulations, both in the framework of the Memorandum of Understanding and when taking other decisions. Agriculture and food security are important issues in various trade talks. The Doha negotiations in the World Trade Organisation (WTO), monitored by Oxfam s Make Trade Fair campaign from the start, were not very dynamic in As in 2007 the negotiations on the EPAs with the ACP countries from Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific attracted the attention. Together with different partners (Acord, Third World Network Africa, Civil Society Trade Network Zambia, EcoNews Africa, Seatine) and the intergovernmental South Centre, Oxfam Novib organised a training seminar for forty Members of Parliament from ten countries in East and Southern Africa. The goal was more insight with the Members of Parliament in the EPA negotiations, benefiting the democratic process in the participating countries. Oxfam also published a series of critical expert analyses of the different components of (interim) agreements concluded late At the UNCTAD XII Conference in Accra Oxfam Novib presented its own influential report. It secured the greater engagement of politicians and other parties from the ACP countries. As a result of this attention the balance at the negotiations table is gradually shifting; the ACP countries are taking the 10

13 initiative more and more. In the European Council of Ministers too, the emphasis is shifting to flexibility and pragmatism. The negotiations are being delayed by these shifts, but it is necessary to prevent the policy margins of ACP countries from being limited unnecessarily, for instance for taking measures in response to the food crisis and the economic crisis. Another important issue in international negotiations is climate change. In December 2009 Copenhagen must become the venue for agreeing on a successor to the Kyoto Protocol. A co-ordinated lobby and public campaign is being conducted in the Oxfam framework, where Oxfam Novib is leading the European lobby among others. The involvement in the negotiations of partners from various countries is also supported. The new agreement must enable developing countries to adapt to the impact of climate change. This requires a sizeable money flow from the polluting countries to start flowing, on top of the development aid. In the Netherlands Oxfam Novib works in various alliances, such as the HIER campaign and the campaign for a Climate Act led by Friends of the Earth Netherlands. Seventy thousand citizens have signed for putting this bill of law initiative on the agenda of the Lower House of Parliament. This law must ensure that the Netherlands reduces its emissions to sustainable levels, and annually pays (0.25 percent of GNP, in addition to the agreed development aid) towards tackling climate change in developing countries. Although the Dutch government itself has hardly released any money, it has declared itself a supporter of a considerable transfer of financial resources for adaptation, following the principle the polluter pays. Influencing businesses An important strategy of Oxfam Novib is the influencing of businesses. The goal set for 2010 is to give fifteen businesses an insight in the production chain and move them to take responsibility in the chain from producer to consumer. That number has already been reached. An important means is working with controlled certificates for sustainable products and chains. Oxfam Novib and partner organisations often play a role in this. They start discussions, stimulate businesses to take part, and criticise business that do not take part, as well as certificates that are not really sustainable. There is the project Utz and several multinationals (Cargill, Nestlé, Heinz, Mars) in Ivory Coast. It is building the capacities of farmers co-operatives to comply with Utz s demands in exchange for a fair price. Verkade s obtaining the Max Havelaar certificate for the cocoa chain was an important result of Oxfam Novib s campaign and its co-operation with Max Havelaar and Verkade. An important friend of Oxfam Novib played the lead: the Green Santa. In 2008 Oxfam Novib, among others, stood at the cradle of the Tropical Commodities Coalition. In intensive negotiations Sara Lee/Douwe Egberts was convinced to start buying more sustainable coffee, from 17 percent of its purchases in 2007 to 25 percent in Regarding tea, after discussions with Oxfam Novib, among others, Sara Lee committed itself publically to certify its well known Pickwick tea. In 2008 the first ship with certified palm oil sailed into Rotterdam harbour. The certificate is from the Round Table on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO). In the Netherlands Unilever, Albert Heijn and Etos have committed themselves to it. Criticism from Greenpeace provided fresh space for civil society organisations in the Round Table, including Oxfam International and the WWF. Oxfam Novib sits in the RSPO on behalf of Oxfam International. In the RSPO Oxfam Novib achieved the inclusion of social standards, land rights and labour rights in the certificate s criteria, in addition to ecological standards. Oxfam Novib also became a member of a coalition of businesses and NGOs fighting deforestation caused by palm plantations. Businesses commit to buying only RSPO certified palm oil, and not from businesses that cause deforestation, and to lobby jointly for market agreements and regulations to this end. This coalition has among its members Pepsico, Friesland Foods, Kraft, Cadbury and Unilever. The last one took the initiative to join as a result of a consumer campaign of Greenpeace. The MFA Forum, a global multi-stakeholder consultation of the garments industry that includes Oxfam Novib, urged the Bangladesh authorities to raise the minimum wage, which is well below the minimum for survival. International garment brands, including H&M, promised Bangladeshi garment manufacturers to pay higher prices if they paid higher wages. After questions from Parliament and lobby from Oxfam Novib 2008 Minister Cramer (VROM) promised in 2008 no longer to publish public tenders without sustainability Oxfam Novib s five programmes 11

14 criteria from the spring of Exporters to the European Union are also facing more frequently private quality demands for the products they wish to export. They are in particular the standards of EuroGap/ GlobalGap, an organisation of agricultural producers and wholesalers. Thanks to Oxfam Novib s involvement GlobalGAP has included social standards in a certificate for cultivated shrimp in The certificate is not only based on fundamental labour standards, but also asks producers to resolve conflicts over land rights. Fair conditions in contract farming are also a component of the standard. and their participation in campaigns and advocacy for agriculture and trade policies. In the latter activity there is much co-operation with Oxfam International. For instance, in campaigns on the WTO and EPA negotiations. Being able to access land is emerging as an issue ever more. Several partners are working on this by advocating laws and regulations and critically monitoring the application of laws. That is often quite a challenge, in part also because of the growing competition over land. Worldwide the demand is growing for land and water for cattle (feed), biofuels and other industrial applications Output of partner organisations In 2008 partner organisations work in the programme Right to a Sustainable Livelihood reached 7.4 million people. In one way or another they participated in one or more activities of a partner organisation. Examples are public education and training (such as in the field of food security), advocacy and campaigning, negotiating with businesses and the capacity building of micro-credit organisations. Services delivery of partner organisations With Oxfam Novib s financial support partner organisations were able to promote the food security of poor male and female farmers, pastoralists and fisher folk. After training, farmers in Egypt, India and Georgia could change over to sustainable and organic agriculture (low external input). Partners in East Africa were able to give agricultural education to small farmers who are not yet producing for export markets. Oxfam Novib s programme is acquiring an ever more integral character. Partner organisations in Niger complement each other well. Some encourage improvements in arable or cattle farming, others support this with lobby and microfinance. In the vulnerable North of Bangladesh this integrated approach to agricultural development is also visible. There seven partner organisations stood up for the right of particular groups to using communal land. They supported these groups in accessing government programmes and the UN s World Food Programme (WPF). Other partners secured pension allowances and cattle vaccinations, or gave training ranging from arable and cattle farming to entrepreneurship. Advocacy and campaigns of partner organisations Recently large tracks of land have also been leased long-term to foreign governments and companies that want to secure their food security in this manner. When claims conflict, tensions and conflict arise. That is also why it is important that land rights are arranged well and respected. In Southeast Asia partners have organised across borders for more influence on ASEAN governments. An important issue is the access of people living in poverty to land and fishing grounds. In Indonesia the fisheries network KIARA was able to improve the application of the laws on coastal zones. Obtaining licences no longer depends on the arbitrary preferences of individuals. Consultation with businesses Just like Oxfam Novib, partners too address businesses on their compliance with labour laws and on corporate social responsibility. In the Palestinian territories leaflets informed 78,000 people on their labour rights, and 16,000 workers have accessed free legal aid. Oxfam Novib s partner WAC in Cambodia has investigated seven factories with 7,500 employees and addressed them on their compliance to labour laws. In Brazil the Red Puentes network has had talks with about six hundred businesses and sixty government bodies in the region on corporate social responsibility (CSR). The alliance of 241 NGOs and trade unions has in the meantime trained 2,500 people. In Brazil, Chile, Uruguay and Mexico they are lobbying effectively, with the result that the ISO 26,000 standard (a CSR standard) now also includes social criteria including labour rights. Through the strategic alliances of partners and trade unions, more than two million pamphlets were distributed across Latin America to inform women and men of their labour rights. Oxfam Novib supports about sixty farmers organisations around the world, both the services they offer farmers 12

15 Microfinance Late 2008 microfinance programmes had a total of 3.9 million clients (71 percent women), closing in on the end goal of 4.1 million in The Oxfam Novib Fund lent 24.2 million euro, reaching more than 2 million people, of whom 79 percent were women. The ASN-Novib Fund had more than 60 million euro outstanding with microcredit organisations late The 50 organisations borrowing from the ASN-Novib Fund served 1.9 million clients, of whom 63 percent were women. In 2008 partner organisations in India, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Peru, Armenia and Georgia also began work on micro-insurance. It is clearly emerging, such as credit insurance, but also funeral, life and health insurance. There are even pilot projects on rain insurance (India, Ethiopia) and calamity insurance (Bangladesh). Partner organisations work with different organisation models, such as community-based insurance against health costs in Burkina Faso, partneragent models and Islamic insurance in Indonesia Outcome for the target group Livelihoods and food security Oxfam Novib is aiming to have improved the income and food security of 6.8 million people by 2010, among whom 5 million women. In million people (among whom 2.8 million women) have seen their income and food security improve. This is 75 percent of the target for 2010 and a considerable increase compared to Oxfam Novib does not exclude that the current crisis is going to have a negative impact on these numbers in the coming years. In Southern Africa many integrated livelihood programmes are designed for people living with HIV and AIDS. More than 195,000 people improved their harvests and food security with technical assistance, improved seeds and materials, more varied crops, vegetable cultivation, micro-irrigation, cattle farming and fisheries. But here too the work is combined with microfinance. These partner organisations have helped about 46 farmers organisations to negotiate better prices for their products and their purchases of materials and seeds. In India traditional methods for collecting rain water are being restored. 75,000 families have already benefited. In Sudan there is much progress despite the complex situation. Food security was promoted by expanding access to water, new sources of income, improvements in cattle and microfinance. In Latin America partners took the opportunities that the market offered small farmers and their products. They responded well to the favourable conditions in 2008: the economic growth in the continent and the high prices for agricultural products. Above all partners working with small coffee farmers have clearly seen their target groups income rise, also due to the strong rise of the market for organic and fair trade coffee. The incomes of plantation workers have also increased, improving the income and food security of about 50,000 people. Years of lobbying for land rights have once again secured land titles for 4,000 indigenous households in Labour conditions Oxfam Novib wants to have improved the labour conditions of 2.6 million people (of whom 70 percent women) by 2010 compared to In 2008 they numbered almost 600,000. It does not look that the target will be met. This objective was too ambitious. Oxfam Novib s partner FAT has campaigned in Mexico and the United States against the easing of labour laws and in favour of better wages and working conditions on Florida s plantations, where mainly migrants from Mexico, Guatemala and Haiti work. After a successful campaign Burger King agreed to a 50 percent rise in wages for its tomato pickers. Because the plantation owners are still refusing to co-operate, the money is placed in a fund for the moment. In Chile a declaration of good will was signed between representatives from the agrarian sector and the representatives of about three thousand seasonal labourers. This agreement provides a basis for a liveable income and other improvements for temporary male and female workers Sustainability Oxfam Novib has formulated several indicators to assess the programme s sustainability: the number of partner organisations exchanging knowledge, the number of microfinance institutions that is sufficiently mature to lend on the commercial market, the number of policy changes for fair trade and labour rights, the number of partner organisations addressing the problems of HIV and AIDS in their field of work, and the number of businesses committed to the principles of CSR. Oxfam Novib s five programmes 13

16 Partner organisations in different parts of the world have realised changes in government policies in the fields of fair trade and labour rights in at least fifteen instances, thanks to pressure from civil society organisations on governments or international organisations. The target of ten real policy changes in 2010 has thus been exceeded. This refers, among others, to successes in Colombia, Bolivia, Brazil and Peru (fair trade) and Pakistan and Guinea Bissau (labour rights). Oxfam s campaigns (Make Trade Fair) have also contributed to developing countries demanding more space in international trade negotiations for national measures against the food crisis and the economic crisis. This concerned in particular negotiations in the WTO and negotiations on bilateral treaties like the EPA and Association Agreements. Seven microfinance institutions (MFIs) were sufficiently mature to borrow from the ASN-Novib Fund: Credo in Georgia, Microinvest in Tajikistan, Fundeser in Nicaragua, BRAC in Uganda, D frif in Bolivia, Funbodem in Bolivia and Findev in Azerbaijan. Added to the eight from last year, Oxfam Novib is on schedule to meeting the number of 20 MFIs graduating from the Oxfam Novib Fund to the ASN-Novib Fund by The number of African MFIs sufficiently mature to borrow money from the commercial ASN-Novib Fund is still limited. But in 2008 two African MFIs did outgrow the stage of starting organisations and are now able to borrow from the Oxfam Novib Fund: Tujijenge in Tanzania and BRAC Sudan. The businesses with which Oxfam Novib maintains relations have taken steps this year to make their production and supply chains (wages, labour rights, environment) more sustainable. Douwe Egberts is putting into practice its intention regarding its purchasing of sustainable coffee. Verkade even made the surprising big move to fair trade chocolate for its entire product range. Other big corporations have taken a first step, such as Cargill, which wants to make its cocoa chain more sustainable in co-operation with Oxfam Novib, among others Risk management Late 2007 and early 2008 the prices of crude oil and the most important food crops rose sharply. Food and other agricultural products, as well as energy, are becoming scarcer around the world. For many developing countries the import of food and energy costs a relatively large share of export income. They were hit hard by the energy crisis and food crisis. That became less when the prices began to drop again. But that has not solved the structural problems in the global supply of food and energy. In the fall the world rudely awoke to an economic crisis. Late 2007 international negotiations also began on tackling yet another global crisis: climate change. Each of these crises carries risks and opportunities for partner organisations and Oxfam Novib. Food security deserves most attention. To this end Oxfam Novib has set up a special team for co-ordinating national and international lobby, also in the framework of Oxfam. The team also saw to it that food security was a point of attention in every funding of a partner organisation. A comparable team was set up late 2008 to co-ordinate the response to the economic crisis. It is already clear that the credit crisis is putting pressure on microfinance repayments. Oxfam Novib is therefore focusing more clearly the monitoring of its loans portfolio and supports where necessary micro-credit institutions in their financial management. In the coming years Oxfam Novib will continue to support programmes from which small producers benefit. With an eye on food security and resilience against the economic crisis, Oxfam Novib is investigating the opportunities for promoting the social security of people living in poverty. Oxfam Novib supports its partner organisations in adapting to the impact of climate change, for instance in Bangladesh. Through lobby Oxfam Novib exerts pressure on the European Union for sufficient and reliable funding for developing countries to be able to adapt to climate change. This is an important target in the current climate negotiations, which must lead to an agreement in Copenhagen in December Oxfam Novib s own travel policy has also been adapted. The number of intercontinental flights will be reduced for as much as the work allows in the coming years. Travel in Europe shorter than 8 hours is in principle by train Conclusion on the progress in programme 1 Halfway Oxfam Novib s Business Plan for we are in general past the halfway mark in achieving the intended results. Of the 6.8 million people planned for 2010, 5.1 million were already reached in 2008: their living conditions have improved. It will be a great challenge to hold on to this result during the economic 14

17 crisis. The ambition to improve the labour conditions of 2.6 million people appears to be too high. Food security is demanding increased attention. Oxfam Novib s work in this field is expanding from supporting small-scale agriculture and access to markets, to developing social security for the most vulnerable groups. In some countries, such as Zimbabwe, work is of necessity shifting from sustainable development to humanitarian assistance and the distribution of seeds and other agricultural inputs. Farmers organisations are co-operating more often in their joint lobby of governments and international organisations. It is remarkable that organic agriculture or LEISA (low external input sustainable agriculture) is gaining in interest. As is the awareness of the risks linked to export oriented agriculture. This has consequences for the discussions with the business sector. Oxfam Novib will have to get a clearer picture of the role of local businesses and local supermarkets, on which Oxfam Novib now has little influence. The many crises of 2008 have again made clear that a good synergy between the different programmes is essential, for instance between programme 1 (sustainable livelihoods) and programme 3 (security). The big challenges there relate to reaching the poorest people and making the results sustainable. Oxfam Novib s increasing commitment to social security and disaster risk reduction bears witness to that The importance of better education systems and better healthcare, for instance by investing in teachers and healthcare workers, is recognised ever more widely. Still, as it now appears, many African countries will not reach the Millennium Development Goals for education and healthcare. UNESCO s last EFA Global Monitoring Report concluded that the most important barrier to education for all lies in persistent inequalities between people based on income, sex, race and place of residence. It is therefore important that 0xfam Novib, in its own programmes as well as in its lobby and campaigning, pays attention to the position of the most marginalised groups, especially after the start of the economic crisis late Oxfam Novib s response to these challenges are the emphasis on education for girls, specific attention to fragile states, involving people living with HIV in the programmes and the (Essential Services) For All campaign Oxfam Novib s Activities and Output In 2008 Oxfam Novib financed partner organisations working in the field of education and healthcare, but also introduced innovations in its policy and programmes on education and healthcare. By lobbying governments in the North and, via partners, governments in the South, pressure was exerted for quality basic social services. In this way we have contributed to realising the Millennium Development Goals for education and healthcare. Funding partner organisations 1.3 Right to basic social services programme 2 The positive trend of gradually more people receiving better education and medicines against HIV continued in In 2008 Oxfam Novib spent 22.4 million euro (16 percent of the total financing of partner organisations) on the work of 262 partner organisations working with people on realising their right to basic social services. The largest share went to Africa (40%), followed by Asia (33%). The funding is reasonably equally divided between healthcare Table 1.5 Funds and partner organisations per region for programme 2 Million euro In % No. of partners Of which specialised* Africa % Asia % Latin America 0.5 2% 15 0 E Europe, FSU, M East and Maghreb 1.7 8% 20 4 Global % 16 5 Linkis south 0.9 4% Total % * Oxfam Novib calls a partner organisation specialised when more than 70% of the subsidy is spent on activities for the basic right concerned. Oxfam Novib s five programmes 15

18 and education. Of the 262 partner organisations in this programme 91 are specialised in this programme; the others are also working on other programmes. The estimate for 2010 was that 375 organisations would be working in this programme, of which 85 specialised in the right to a sustainable livelihood. Innovation fund and capacity building A special form of financing partner organisations and crosscutting innovations is done through the innovation fund, set up in It is meant for innovative projects at the interface of education, sexual and reproductive rights, and HIV and AIDS. In 2008 this fund gave rise to valuable discussions and stronger programmes in the regions. The innovation fund supported 47 organisations. That is well on schedule to the goal of 50 organisations in In the last months of 2008 Oxfam Novib organised a midterm review to evaluate the opportunities and challenges the innovation fund had met to date. It revealed that programme officers needed extra support, both in terms of content and in terms of management (time and risk management). In 2009 this will be followed up and a new policy will be designed to get the innovation fund to work even better. The innovation fund played an important role in 2008 in supporting partners in implementing Oxfam Novib s policy on quality education with much attention to sexual education, HIV prevention and gender relations. In West Africa, Oxfam Novib and 20 partners from the region have developed a shared vision on quality education. Partners exchanged experiences and determined several priorities for their future co-operation and knowledge exchange. These priorities connect with the trend that Oxfam Novib s partners in basic social services are calling their governments to account and are critically monitoring the spending of government budgets. In addition, partners remain interested for their own work in exchange innovative teaching methods. They also want to learn from each other how to bring these new methods to the attention of their governments, through lobby and co-operation, for instance, with teachers unions. Oxfam Novib has encouraged co-operation with teachers unions through exploratory studies in seven countries into the opportunities for improving teacher training. This happened in consultation with Education International, the international union of teaching staff. Oxfam Novib s partners and national teachers unions in Mali and Uganda are now coming with proposals for which Oxfam Novib will seek external funding in Although the project is going more slowly than wanted, the building of national level alliances between NGOs, governments, unions is an important result for In 2008 Oxfam Novib did an exploratory study into education in fragile states. The report was presented to the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs. During the budget debates in the fall of 2008 the Lower House of Parliament asked Oxfam Novib to pay attention to education in fragile states. Oxfam Novib is one of the partners of the Schokland Accord Education in Fragile States. The report fed into the discussions and activities of partners. In 2009 Oxfam Novib will expand its work for education in fragile states. Development organisations in sub-sahara Africa have begun in general to pay more attention to HIV. Oxfam Novib is promoting this with the innovation fund and capacity building of organisations. It organised an exchange between partner organisations in East and Central Africa on HIV, agriculture and microfinance. It proved that in particular in post-conflict countries, such as Burundi, there is a huge demand for resources for treating HIV. For organisations not specifically working in the field of HIV and AIDS, the temptation is big to set up separate HIV programmes, for instance for testing on HIV infections, even though it is not the organisation s core activity. This creates a difficult position for these organisations. Because partners are working more on HIV in their regular programmes, the demand for HIV related services is increasing. But they cannot refer people, because these regions do not have good healthcare services. Oxfam Novib deals with this by supporting the lobby and campaigning of partner organisation RBP+ for better healthcare provisions. In Southern Africa partners were trained in budget tracking on the issues HIV and gender. In Malawi partner organisations of Oxfam Novib and other Oxfams have exchanged experiences on the meaning of gender relations for effective HIV prevention. In the joint Oxfam programme in South Africa (JOHAP) a newsletter, mailing list and the KIC network were means for using the lessons of a learning and exchange process co-ordinated by Oxfam Australia. In the partnership with Stop Aids Now! several microfinance organisations in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda were brought together to help them make their programme more inclusive of people infected with HIV or affected in other ways. In 2008 Oxfam Novib has placed more emphasis, in its own programming and distribution of money from Stop Aids Now!, on financial support to networks of people living with HIV and on building the capacities of these networks. 16

19 Viewed from the rights-based approach it is important that people living with HIV are involved as much as possible in the planning, development and implementation of programmes. Evaluations have shown that this leads to more effective and sustainable results, because the programmes connect better with the reality of the most marginalised groups. Campaign Essential Services for All In the Netherland, Europe and worldwide, Oxfam Novib has lobbied and campaigned in 2008 for, among others, improved basic social services. Much of this took place in the context of Oxfam International s campaign Essential Services for All. In this campaign Oxfam will play an active and sometimes leading role on 20 themes. In 2008 the number of campaign themes was not expanded compared to Instead Oxfam Novib emphasised quality rather than the number of campaign themes. As a result the target of 20 themes in 2010 may not be reached. In Europe Oxfam Novib, on behalf of Oxfam International, has lobbied for the conclusion of contracts on the Millennium Development Goals. This a new form of budget support of the European Commission for a maximum of ten African countries. General and sector budget support are the most effective ways to help countries realise quality healthcare and education. In particular the fact that this form of aid is committed for the longer term enables governments to pay recurrent costs, such the salaries of teachers and healthcare workers. In part due to Oxfam s lobby, proposals for such MDG contracts were worked out and the first contracts were signed late In 2009 Oxfam will monitor the implementation of these contracts. In the Dutch debate and inside Oxfam International Oxfam Novib has nuanced its view on budget support, in the sense that budget support needs to be linked more directly to transparency and civil society s space for participating in decision-making on state budgets. During the UN Millennium Summit In September 2008 government leaders were again addressed on the need to keep the Millennium Development Goals high on the agenda. The financial crisis broke out not long afterwards and several donors began to focus on the recovery of their own economies. Yet important donors like the World Bank, the IMF, the European Commission and the Netherlands, in part due to Oxfam s focused lobby, spoke out in favour of holding on to the commitment for more aid for basic social services, the standard of 0.7 percent of GNP for development aid, and the standards agreed in the Paris Declaration. Oxfam Novib s lobby of donors is supported by the national campaigns of partners, especially in the eight countries that are the focus of Oxfam International s For All campaign: Mali, Malawi, Georgia, Nicaragua, India, Bangladesh, Philippines and Thailand (also see paragraph 1.3.4). In other countries too links were laid between the Northern and Southern lobby in In Mozambique a methodology was developed to determine the impact of budget support on access to education and healthcare and on the role played in this by a strong civil society that calls governments to account. Unfortunately it was not possible to do the same in Nicaragua, as the result of the growing political oppression of NGOs (including an investigation into Oxfam GB). The Dutch government has reduced its (budget) support to Nicaragua. In 2009 Oxfam Novib, in co-operation with other development organisations and embassies, will investigate how government accountability can be improved in Mali and Burundi. Oxfam Novib s project on accountability and budget tracking will also contribute to this. The growing criticism from politics and the media in the Netherlands of the effectiveness of aid and the fact that worldwide aid levels have been falling for several years, whilst the crisis is calling for more aid, argue that Oxfam Novib continues to call for attention to honouring aid commitments. Oxfam Novib is also mobilising the Dutch to hold government leaders to their promises. In 2008 more than 25,000 people joined Oxfam Novib s Care for Care campaign by letting volunteers hug them or voicing their support through internet. With these hugs nurses asked for public attention to the lack of healthcare workers, which has led to 1.3 billion people without access to quality healthcare. The warm votes of supports were presented to Minister Koenders of Development Co-operation. He said that he would work on achieving better healthcare systems and measures to reduce the shortage in healthcare staff. So far this promise has not been converted into concrete new policy. In 2008 Oxfam Novib also lobbied the Dutch government for more funding for healthcare for the most marginalised people. The government should take a critical look at the role private health insurance plays in financing healthcare. Research from Oxfam International in 2008 showed that private insurance often leads to exclusion and is not always the most efficient way for making Oxfam Novib s five programmes 17

20 healthcare serve everybody. Other NGOs, like Plan International, Save the Children and Médecins Sans Frontières, co-signed the report. It received a lot of international attention. The European Commission referred to it regularly. The report was also presented during a debate at the international AIDS Conference in Mexico and during the European Conference on Microfinance in November In Mexico, also in the Oxfam framework, Oxfam Novib was successful in putting the female condom on the international agenda. As a result more money has become available and more counties and organisations are recognising the female condom. Oxfam Novib brought the Millennium Development Goals to the attention of the Dutch people through its participation in the Global Campaign for Education (GCE) and the EEN campaign, and through Linkis projects in the Netherlands. During the Environment Summit in New York in September, Oxfam Novib, on behalf of Oxfam International, participated in The Class of 2015, an initiative of the GCE. This class had the participation of representatives of multinationals like Coca Cola, multi and bilateral donors, governments of developing countries, NGOs, churches and organisation like the football federation FIFA. They promised to contribute to the goal of Education for All in In this manner the GCE has engaged several new players in Education for All. The GCE is also still expanding its regional and national coalitions. Oxfam Novib has played an important role in founding the coalition in the Middle East. In 2009 too Oxfam Novib will stay committed to this inside GCE. Worldwide GCAP (Global Call to Action against Poverty) mobilised almost 117 million people against poverty on World Poverty Day on October 17. In the Netherlands almost 13,000 people stood up to be counted, the greater part online via the Across the country schools, communities, churches and organisations had Stand Up actions. On that day EEN organised a Stand Up and Be Counted event in downtown Utrecht. Seven representatives of different religious and philosophical currents called for additional efforts in a joint statement against poverty and injustice. Oxfam Novib often achieves better results in cooperation with others. Before 2010 Oxfam Novib wants yet to conclude four new partnerships with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and a Dutch company. In 2008 Oxfam Novib signed a declaration of intent for a public-private collaboration with the Dutch government (DGIS), Rabobank, DSM and knowledge institutes: the Resource Centre for Development Partnerships. Oxfam Novib s ambition of working in different alliances is furthermore expressed in the Universal Access to Female Condoms joint programme (UAFC). Alongside Oxfam Novib, DGIS, the World Population Foundation and IDA solutions are part of this programme. The goal is to roll out the programme large scale in three countries in Africa (Nigeria, Cameroon and possibly Mozambique). In addition, there is a common lobby agenda. This is very much necessary because many people remain sceptical of the female condom, also people in the world of sexual and reproductive rights and healthcare, whilst it is the only contraceptive available that both protects against unwanted pregnancies, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, and is controlled by women. Furthermore, it does not have side effects and research has shown that women and men are content when using it. In short: there is a huge potential, but to date little has been done to make the female condom available and affordable. In co-operation with the Dutch government, NORAD, DANIDA, the Hewlett Foundations and the partners in the UAFC, Oxfam Novib is disseminating this message among NGOs, governments, UN institutions and the business community. In the framework of the Schokland Accords on education, Oxfam Novib is working with other NGOs, like War Child, Save the Children, Woord and Daad, and the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs on better education in fragile states. In Colombia and Afghanistan education partners of the various NGOs and embassies involved have exchanged their experiences. To be followed up with field visits to each other s programmes in Finally, Oxfam Novib has contributed to the successful launch of the first Access to Medicines Index in June Oxfam Novib supports financially and in terms of substance the foundations that manages the index, and sits on the International Advisory Board. The Index s first report was received with much enthusiasm in the international press and among investors. In 2009 Oxfam Novib will focus on more in-depth contents of the Index, by linking the foundations with its partner organisations in developing countries that work on healthcare and medicines Output of partner organisations In 2008 partner organisations working on the right to basic social services reached 30.1 million people. They participated in one way or another in one or more 18

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