Rural and Agricultural Finance. Day 1: Block 1 What and Why of Rural Finance?

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1 Rural and Agricultural Finance Day 1: Block 1 What and Why of Rural Finance?

2 Self Introduction 7 Questions 1. Name, institution, and current job title. 2. What activity are you working on now that is related to Rural and Agricultural Finance (RAF)? 3. What was your previous experience in rural areas and agricultural finance? 4. Other than your job, are there other reasons that you interested in rural and agricultural finance? 5. Is there a specific experience relating to RAF that you could share with us later in the course?

3 Why is Rural and Agricultural Finance Important? Food security and MDGs are a priority Reduced government and donor support slowed rural investment and growth Finance is important for agricultural and economic growth Financial linkages are growing in importance and recognition

4 MDG Challenge Rural Development Sub-Saharan Africa less than U$1 a day Middle East & North Africa less than $2 & $1 a day Source: World Bank Estimates 70% of the Extreme Poverty is in Rural Areas

5 Share of People Living on Less than $1 a Day (%) 70% of the Extreme Poverty is in Rural Areas

6 The Many Faces of Poverty Poverty is more than lack of income Poverty is vulnerability Poverty is inequality Poverty is lack of capacity Poverty is lack of infrastructure Poverty is lack of human rights Poverty is not static The poor are often exploited, their ability to make choices and to participate in normal activities in society is limited

7 Faces of Rural Poverty 70% of the Extreme Poverty is in Rural Areas

8 There are Many Reasons for Poverty Drought War & conflicts

9 Lacking Infrastructure and Capacity

10 Producing, But Lacking Scale What other reasons are people poor?

11 Rural and Agricultural Finance and HIV-AIDS > 40 million people are living with HIV/AIDS with 60% in sub-saharan Africa 15,000 new infections each day Socially and financially affected 40 million AIDS is not only a huge health and social issue, it is an economic one! Affected households use financial services as one way to protect and build assets

12 How Do We Define These Terms? Agricultural finance Rural finance Microfinance Value chain Financial institution Financial intermediary

13 Useful Definitions for Rural and Agricultural Finance (RAF) Agricultural finance: A field of work in which people aim to improve the access of the agriculture industry, including farmers and all related enterprises, to efficient, sustainable financial services. Rural finance: A field of work in which people aim to improve the access of rural communities to efficient, sustainable financial services. Microfinance: Financial services for lower-income households and micro and small enterprises; a diverse range of financial institutions offers microfinance services, including specialized microfinance institutions (MFIs), commercial banks, and NGOs. Value chain: The series of transactions necessary to bring a product from inputs to the final market, involving a process of adding value at every stage. Financial institution: An entity regulated or not that specializes in the provision of financial services Financial intermediary: A financial institution that collects, deposits, and lends these deposits.

14 Beyond Agricultural Credit: RURAL FINANCE IN PERSPECTIVE Financial Services Rural Finance Agricultural Finance Microfinance Financial Services Agricultural Credit

15 The Role of Finance in Rural Development Rural Finance has been: A political game A welfare transfer system $ But rural finance is: A multi-purpose tool to facilitate rural development

16 The Role of Rural Finance in Development Rural Finance has been: Politically manipulated to gain votes Seen as a way to deliver subsidies - welfare transfer system (e.g. cheap credit for fertilizer) BUT RURAL FINANCE IS A multi-purpose tool to facilitate rural development

17 Rural Finance and Poverty Alleviation Majority of poor live in rural areas Improved financial markets accelerate agricultural and rural growth contributing to poverty reduction In most countries, economic growth in agriculture - is a key precondition for overall economic growth and poverty reduction (because it directly or indirectly benefits smallholders, tenants and wage labourers)

18 Rural Finance and Poverty Alleviation cont. Rural Finance can provide access to savings, lending, financing to the poor hence increasing the opportunities to the poor and contributing to poverty reduction In many developing countries, the rural production and distribution is still a leading economic sector, the main exporter, and the major employer, especially for the poor and women

19 Rural Finance Investing for a Better Future

20 Rural Finance Is Key to a Bright Future Informal Semi-Formal

21 RF... a catalyst for building capacity Formal Trader Finance

22 Interventions to Improve Rural Livelihoods Weak local government capacity Support systems collapse Disruptions of former livelihoods Improve rural incomes through market-oriented, profitable and resilient enterprises 1. Human & institutional capacity building 2. Marketing system development 3. Policy & program decision support 4. Financial services

23 Facilitating Capital Flows for Rural Investment and Development Saving Saving Up Borrowing Saving Down

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