Overview: Internet vs Data Center Networks

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1 Overview: Inter vs Data Center Networks Hakim Weatherspoon Assistant Professor, Dept of Computer Science CS 5413: High Performance Systems and Networking August 29, 2014

2 Overview What is the Inter? Goals for Today What is it and how did we get here? What is about Data Centers? Network Structure Inter Data center

3 What is the Inter? PC server wireless laptop smartphone wireless links wired links millions of connected computing devices: hosts = end systems running work apps communication links fiber, copper, radio, satellite transmission rate: bandwidth mobile work home work global ISP regional ISP router Packet switches: forward packets (chunks of data) routers and switches institutional work

4 What is the Inter? Web-enabled toaster + weather forecaster IP picture frame Tweet-a-watt: monitor energy use Inter refrigerator Slingbox: watch, control cable TV remotely Inter phones

5 What is the Inter? Inter: work of works Interconnected ISPs protocols control sending, receiving of msgs e.g., TCP, IP, HTTP, Skype, Inter standards RFC: Request for comments IETF: Inter Engineering Task Force mobile work home work global ISP regional ISP institutional work Introduction 1-5

6 What is the Inter? Infrastructure that provides services to applications: Web, VoIP, , games, e- commerce, social s, provides programming interface to apps hooks that allow sending and receiving app programs to connect to Inter provides service options, analogous to postal service mobile work home work global ISP regional ISP institutional work Introduction 1-6

7 How did we get here: Inter History : Early packet-switching principles 1961: Kleinrock - queueing theory shows effectiveness of packetswitching 1964: Baran - packetswitching in military s 1967: ARPA conceived by Advanced Research Projects Agency 1969: first ARPA node operational 1972: ARPA public demo NCP (Network Control Protocol) first host-host protocol first program ARPA has 15 nodes

8 How did we get here: Inter History : Interworking, new and proprietary s 1970: ALOHA satellite work in Hawaii 1974: Cerf and Kahn - architecture for interconnecting works 1976: Ether at Xerox PARC late70 s: proprietary architectures: DEC, SNA, XNA late 70 s: switching fixed length packets (ATM precursor) 1979: ARPA has 200 nodes Cerf and Kahn s interworking principles: minimalism, autonomy - no internal changes required to interconnect works best effort service model stateless routers decentralized control define today s Inter architecture

9 Overview What is the Inter? Goals for Today What is it and how did we get here? What is about Data Centers? Network Structure Inter Data center

10 How did we get here: Inter History : new protocols, a proliferation of works 1983: deployment of TCP/IP 1982: smtp protocol defined 1983: DNS defined for name-to-ip-address translation 1985: ftp protocol defined 1988: TCP congestion control new national works: Cs, BIT, NSF, Minitel 100,000 hosts connected to confederation of works

11 How did we get here: Inter History 1990, 2000 s: commercialization, the Web, new apps early 1990 s: ARPA decommissioned 1991: NSF lifts restrictions on commercial use of NSF (decommissioned, 1995) early 1990s: Web hypertext [Bush 1945, Nelson 1960 s] HTML, HTTP: Berners-Lee 1994: Mosaic, later Netscape late 1990 s: commercialization of the Web late 1990 s 2000 s: more killer apps: instant messaging, P2P file sharing work security to forefront est. 50 million host, 100 million+ users backbone links running at Gbps

12 How did we get here: Inter History 2005-present ~750 million hosts Smartphones and tablets Aggressive deployment of broadband Increasing ubiquity of high-speed wireless Emergence of online social works: Facebook: soon one billion users Service providers (Google, Microsoft) create their own works Bypass Inter, providing instantaneous to search, emai, etc. E-commerce, universities, enterprises running their services in cloud (eg, Amazon EC2)

13 What is different about Data Centers? Cost It is the economics stupid James Hamilton, VP & Distinguished engineer, Amazon Web Services In 2008, data center staff to servers was 1:1000 Today, closer to 1:10,000 Scale Millions of servers, billions of users, trillions of objects Scale out instead of scale up Efficient Massive scale in the same location eases design and lowers costs Global scale data centers Data Centers strategically placed where power is cheap and close to consumers

14 Where do the costs go? Breakdown 45% Servers - CPU, memory, storage subsystems 25% Infrastructure - Power distribution and cooling 15% Power draw - Electrical utility costs 15% Network - Links, transit, equipment

15 Breakdown Where do the costs go? 45% Servers - CPU, memory, storage subsystems 25% Infrastructure - Power distribution and cooling 15% Power draw - Electrical utility costs 15% Network - Links, transit, equipment How to reduced costs Servers and Infrastructure Let servers fail and infrastructure fail Software, Replication and work efficiency can help Power and Network High utilization (better on than off) Agility (ability to run applications anywhere in data center)

16 Networking in Data Centers Core Switch (CS) Inter Aggregate Switch (AS) ToR

17 Networking in Data Centers Core Switch (CS) Inter Aggregate Switch (AS) ToR

18 Geo-distributed Data Centers

19 Overview What is the Inter? Goals for Today What is it and how did we get here? What is about Data Centers? Structure Inter Data Centers

20 Inter Structure Network Protocols Edge Network Core Networks

21 Network Protocols human protocols: what s the time? I have a question introductions specific msgs sent specific actions taken when msgs received, or other events work protocols: machines rather than humans all communication activity in Inter governed by protocols protocols define format, order of msgs sent and received among work entities, and actions taken on msg transmission, receipt

22 Network Protocols a human protocol and a computer work protocol: Hi Hi Got the time? 2:00 time TCP connection request TCP connection response Get <file>

23 Network Protocol Layers Networks are complex, with many pieces : hosts routers links of various media applications protocols hardware, software Question: is there any hope of organizing structure of work?

24 Network Protocol Layers Similar to Traveling protocol ticket (purchase) baggage (check) gates (load) runway takeoff airplane routing airplane routing ticket (complain) baggage (claim) gates (unload) runway landing airplane routing a series of steps

25 Network Protocol Layers Similar to Traveling protocol ticket (purchase) ticket (complain) ticket baggage (check) baggage (claim baggage gates (load) gates (unload) gate runway (takeoff) runway (land) takeoff/landing airplane routing airplane routing airplane routing airplane routing airplane routing departure airport intermediate air-traffic control centers arrival airport layers: each layer implements a service via its own internal-layer actions relying on services provided by layer below

26 Why layering? dealing with complex systems: explicit structure allows identification, relationship of complex system s pieces layered reference model for discussion modularization eases maintenance, updating of system change of implementation of layer s service transparent to rest of system e.g., change in gate procedure doesn t affect rest of system layering considered harmful?

27 Inter Protocol Stack application: supporting work applications FTP, SMTP, HTTP transport: process-process data transfer TCP, UDP work: routing of datagrams from source to destination IP, routing protocols link: data transfer between neighboring work elements Ether, (WiFi), PPP physical: bits on the wire application transport work link physical

28 ISO/OSI Reference Model Not used with due to Inter Protocol Stack presentation: allow applications to interpret meaning of data, e.g., encryption, compression, machine-specific conventions session: synchronization, checkpointing, recovery of data exchange Inter stack missing these layers! these services, if needed, must be implemented in application needed? application presentation session transport work link physical

29 source Encapsulation segment datagram frame message H l H t H n H t H n H t M M M M application transport work link physical link physical switch H l H n H n H t H t H t M M M M destination application transport work link physical H l H n H n H t H t M M work link physical H n H t M router Introduction 1-29

30 What About Data Centers? Data Centers use the same work protocol stack But, is this a good thing?

31 What About Data Centers? Data Centers use the same work protocol stack But, is this a good thing? Pro Con Standard for all applications and services Efficiency Can prevent full utilization of data center resourcces

32 Inter Structure Network Protocols Edge Network Core Networks

33 Inter Structure work edge: hosts: clients and servers servers often in data centers mobile work global ISP works, physical media: wired, wireless communication links home work regional ISP work core: interconnected routers work of works institutional work

34 Inter Structure Q: How to connect end systems to edge router? residential s institutional works (school, company) mobile works keep in mind: bandwidth (bits per second) of work? shared or dedicated?

35 Inter Structure The work Core mesh of interconnected routers packet-switching: hosts break application-layer messages into packets forward packets from one router to the next, across links on path from source to destination each packet transmitted at full link capacity Introduction 1-35

36 Inter Structure Two key work core functions routing: determines sourcedestination route taken by packets routing algorithms forwarding: move packets from router s input to appropriate router output routing algorithm local forwarding table header value output link dest address in arriving packet s header Network Layer 4-36

37 Inter Structure Alternative Core: Circuit Switching end-end resources allocated to, reserved for call between source & dest: In diagram, each link has four circuits. call gets 2 nd circuit in top link and 1 st circuit in right link. dedicated resources: no sharing circuit-like (guaranteed) performance circuit segment idle if not used by call (no sharing) Commonly used in traditional telephone works Introduction 1-37

38 Inter Structure Circuit Switching: FDM vs TDM FDM Example: 4 users frequency TDM time frequency time Introduction 1-38

39 Inter Structure Packet switching versus circuit switching packet switching allows more users to use work! example: 1 Mb/s link each user: 100 kb/s when active active 10% of time N users 1 Mbps link circuit-switching: 10 users packet switching: with 35 users, probability > 10 active at same time is less than.0004 * Q: how did we get value ? Q: what happens if > 35 users? Introduction * Check out the online interactive exercises for more examples 1-39

40 Inter Structure is packet switching a slam dunk winner? great for bursty data resource sharing simpler, no call setup excessive congestion possible: packet delay and loss protocols needed for reliable data transfer, congestion control Q: How to provide circuit-like behavior? bandwidth guarantees needed for audio/video apps still an unsolved problem (chapter 7) Q: human analogies of reserved resources (circuit switching) versus on-demand allocation (packet-switching)? Introduction 1-40

41 Inter Structure: Network of Networks End systems connect to Inter via ISPs (Inter Service Providers) Residential, company and university ISPs Access ISPs in turn must be interconnected. So that any two hosts can send packets to each other Resulting work of works is very complex Evolution was driven by economics and national policies Let s take a stepwise approach to describe current Inter structure

42 Inter Structure: Network of Networks Question: given millions of ISPs, how to connect them together?

43 Inter Structure: Network of Networks Option: connect each ISP to every other ISP? connecting each ISP to each other directly doesn t scale: O(N 2 ) connections.

44 Inter Structure: Network of Networks Option: connect each ISP to a global transit ISP? Customer and provider ISPs have economic agreement. global ISP

45 Inter Structure: Network of Networks But if one global ISP is viable business, there will be competitors. ISP A ISP B ISP C

46 Inter Structure: Network of Networks But if one global ISP is viable business, there will be competitors. which must be interconnected Inter exchange point ISP A IXP IXP ISP B ISP C peering link

47 Inter Structure: Network of Networks and regional works may arise to connect s to ISPS ISP A IXP IXP ISP B ISP C regional

48 Inter Structure: Network of Networks and content provider works (e.g., Google, Microsoft, Akamai ) may run their own work, to bring services, content close to end users ISP A ISP B ISP B IXP Content provider work IXP regional

49 Inter Structure: Network of Networks Tier 1 ISP Tier 1 ISP Google IXP IXP IXP Regional ISP Regional ISP ISP ISP ISP ISP ISP ISP ISP ISP at center: small # of well-connected large works tier-1 commercial ISPs (e.g., Level 3, Sprint, AT&T, NTT), national & international coverage content provider work (e.g, Google): Introductionprivate work that connects it data centers to Inter, often bypassing tier-1, regional ISPs 1-49

50 Inter Structure: Network of Networks E.g. AT&T POP: point-of-presence to/from backbone peering to/from customers Introduction 1-50

51 Overview What is the Inter? Goals for Today What is it and how did we get here? What is about Data Centers? Network Structure Inter Data center

52 Networking in Data Centers Core Switch (CS) Inter Aggregate Switch (AS) ToR

53 Networking in Data Centers Core Switch (CS) Inter Aggregate Switch (AS) ToR

54 Geo-distributed Data Centers

55 Perspective Large cloud service provides have deployed their own works Private works, perhaps as large as the Inter But, bypass the Inter core and connect directly with ISPs Near instantaneous betwee consumers and data centers Economies of scale dominate in cloud data centers

56 Before Next time No required reading and review due But, review chapter 2 from the book, Application Layer Create a project group Start asking questions about possible projects Check website for updated schedule

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