Computer Network Architecture

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1 Computer Network Architecture ECE 156 Fall 2007 Romit Roy Choudhury Dept. of ECE and CS 1

2 Course Logistics 2

3 Welcome to ECE 156 Timings: Location: Course TA: Tu/Thu 1:15pm to 2:30pm 212 Engineering TBA Insructor: Office hours: Romit Roy Choudhury New faculty in ECE & CS. Ph.D from UIUC in Summer, 2006 Research in Networking and Distributed Sys. Tu/Th 2:30-3:30 or appointment me at and visit me at 203 Hudson Hall 3

4 Welcome to ECE 156 Prerequisite: ECE 52 Further courses: Else, come and talk to me ECE 256 (previously ): Wireless Networking and Mobile Computing Spring

5 Welcome to ECE 156 Class broadcast Course Website: Most course related information will be posted on the website Please check the course website frequently 5

6 Welcome to ECE 156 Make up classes Will be occasionaly necessary due to travel Would like to schedule on a case by case basis 6

7 Welcome to ECE 156 Grading: Participation/Presentation: 10% Homework: 20% Programming Assignments: 20% 1 mid-term exam: 20% Final exam: 30% Programming project may be in groups of 2 One of the exams is likely to be open book 7

8 Finally Academic honesty Please please please A few points is not worth a tarnished career In the long run, GPA does not matter as much as you think it does More importantly Let s not make the CNN headlines for the wrong reasons anymore 8

9 Course Summary (Very Briefly) 9

10 Course information Course materials: Text: Computer Networking: A Top Down Approach Featuring the Internet, J. Kurose & K. Ross, Addison Wesley, 3 rd ed., 2005 Class notes Some supplementary reading material 10

11 What is this course about? Introductory (first) course in computer networking Undergrads, early MS students learn principles of computer networking learn practice of computer networking Internet architecture/protocols as case study Real wireless networks as case studies Intro to next generation networking 11

12 Course information By the time you are finished You understand variety of concepts (not just factoids) Internet, HTTP, DNS, P2P, Sockets, Ports, Congestion Control, Flow Control, TCP, Routing, Basic Graphs, Djikstra s Algorithm, IP, DSL Vs Cable, Aloha, CSMA, TDMA, Token, , Security, RSA, Cellular Networks, Mobile Networks, Satellite Networks, Wireless Multihop Networks (ad hoc, mesh, WLANs) Sensor Networks If you understand 75% of these terms, you shouldn t be here 12

13 What this Course Does Not Cover Not a communications course Does not cover Modulation schemes Transmitter/Receiver design Signal processing and antenna design Etc. This is course on Understading, analysing, and (perhaps) designing of protocols and algorithms in wired/wireless networking systems 13

14 What s the difference between Communications And Networking Systems 14

15 Finally I cannot / will not / should not be speaking alone in class Questions Comments Disagreements Debates are highly encouraged This course can be real fun Whether it will be Is up to you and me 15

16 Hello! I am ECE

17 Acknowledgments: Many slides borrowed from Jim Kurose (UMass) 17

18 On the Shoulders of Giants 1961: Leonard Kleinrock published a work on packet switching 1962: J. Licklider described a worldwide network of computers called Galactic Network 1965: Larry Roberts designed the ARPANET that communicated over long distance links 1971: Ray Tomilson invents at BBN 1972: Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf invented TCP for reliable packet transport 18

19 On the Shoulders of Giants 1973: David Clark, Bob Metcalfe implemented TCP and designed ethernet at Xerox PARC 1975: Paul Mockapetris developed DNS system for host lookup 1980: Radia Perlman invented spanning tree algorithm for bridging separate networks Things snowballed from there on 19

20 What we have today is beyond any of the inventors imagination 20

21 And YOU are here 21

22 And by YOU I mean 22

23 Cool internet appliances Web-enabled toaster + weather forecaster IP picture frame World s smallest web server Internet phones 23

24 And Of Course YOU and ME 24

25 InterNetwork Millions of end points (you, me, and toasters) are connected over an network Many end points can be addressed by numbers Many others lie behind a virtual end point Many networks form a bigger network The overall strcture called the Internet With a capital I Defined as the network of networks 25

26 Internet structure: network of networks roughly hierarchical at center: tier-1 ISPs (e.g., MCI, Sprint, AT&T, Cable and Wireless), national/international coverage treat each other as equals Tier-1 providers interconnect (peer) privately Tier 1 ISP Tier 1 ISP Tier 1 ISP 26

27 Tier-1 ISP: e.g., Sprint Sprint US backbone network Seattle Tacoma POP: point-of-presence DS3 (45 Mbps) OC3 (155 Mbps) OC12 (622 Mbps) OC48 (2.4 Gbps) to/from backbone Stockton San Jose Cheyenne peering Kansas City Chicago Roachdale New York Pennsauken Relay Wash. DC Anaheim. to/from customers Fort Worth Atlanta Orlando 27

28 Internet structure: network of networks Tier-2 ISPs: smaller (often regional) ISPs Connect to one or more tier-1 ISPs, possibly other tier-2 ISPs France telecome, Tiscali, etc. buys from Sprint Tier-2 ISP pays tier-1 ISP for connectivity to rest of Internet Tier-2 ISP Tier 1 ISP Tier-2 ISP Tier-2 ISPs also peer privately with each other, interconnect at NAP Tier 1 ISP Tier-2 ISP Tier 1 ISP Tier-2 ISP Tier-2 ISP 28

29 Internet structure: network of networks Tier-3 ISPs and local ISPs (Time Warner, Earthlink, etc.) last hop ( access ) network (closest to end systems) Local and tier- 3 ISPs are customers of higher tier ISPs connecting them to rest of Internet local ISP local ISP Tier 3 ISP Tier-2 ISP Tier 1 ISP Tier-2 ISP local ISP local ISP Tier 1 ISP local ISP Tier-2 ISP Tier 1 ISP Tier-2 ISP local ISP local ISP Tier-2 ISP local ISP 29

30 Internet structure: network of networks a packet passes through many networks! Local ISP (taxi) -> T1 (bus) -> T2 (domestic) -> T3 (international) local ISP Tier 3 ISP Tier-2 ISP local ISP Tier 1 ISP local ISP Tier-2 ISP local ISP Tier 1 ISP Tier 1 ISP Tier-2 ISP local ISP Tier-2 ISP local ISP Tier-2 ISP local ISP local ISP 30

31 Organizing the giant structure Networks are complex! many pieces : hosts routers links of various media applications protocols hardware, software Question: Is there any hope of organizing structure of network? Or at least our discussion of networks? 31

32 Turn to analogies in air travel ticket (purchase) baggage (check) gates (load) runway takeoff ticket (complain) baggage (claim) gates (unload) runway landing airplane routing airplane routing airplane routing a series of steps 32

33 Layering of airline functionality ticket (purchase) ticket (complain) ticket baggage (check) baggage (claim baggage gates (load) gates (unload) gate runway (takeoff) runway (land) takeoff/landing airplane routing airplane routing airplane routing airplane routing airplane routing departure airport intermediate air-traffic control centers arrival airport Layers: each layer implements a service layers communicate with peer layers rely on services provided by layer below 33

34 Why layering? Explicit structure allows identification, relationship of complex system s pieces Modularization eases maintenance, updating of system change of implementation of layer s service transparent to rest of system e.g., change in gate procedure doesn t affect rest of system 34

35 Protocol Layers Service of each layer encapsulated Universally agreed services called PROTOCOLS A large part of this course will focus on designing protocols for networking systems 35

36 Internet protocol stack application: supporting network applications FTP, SMTP, HTTP transport: host-host data transfer TCP, UDP network: routing of datagrams from source to destination IP, routing protocols link: data transfer between neighboring network elements PPP, Ethernet, WiFi, Bluetooth application transport network link physical physical: bits on the wire 36

37 Success of Layering Protocol stack successful in Internet Internet uses wired physical layer links Very reliable BER = 10-8 What about wireless networks Very unreliable due to channel fluctuations Due to co-channel interference Due to external noise Does horizontal layering still hold? 37

38 Questions? 38

39 message segment datagram frame H l H n H n H t H t H t M M M M source application transport network link physical Encapsulation link physical H l H n H t M H l H n H t M switch H l H n H n H t H t H t M M M M destination application transport network link physical H l H n H n H t H t M M network link physical H l H n H n H t H t M M router 39

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