Cisco Configuring Secure Shell (SSH) on Cisco IOS Router

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1 Cisco Configuring Secure Shell (SSH) on Cisco IOS Router

2 Table of Contents Configuring Secure Shell (SSH) on Cisco IOS Routers...1 Contents...1 Introduction...1 Hardware and Software Versions...1 SSHv1 vs. SSHv2...2 Network Diagram...2 Testing Authentication...3 Testing Authentication Without SSH...3 Testing Authentication With SSH...3 Optional Configuration Settings...4 Preventing Non SSH Connections...4 Setting Up an IOS Router as SSH Client...4 Adding SSH Terminal Line Access...4 debug and show Commands...5 Sample Debug Output...5 Router Debug...5 Server Debug...6 What Can Go Wrong...6 SSH from an SSH client not compiled with Data Encryption Standard (DES)...6 Bad Password...7 SSH client sends unsupported (blowfish) cipher...7 Tools Information...8 Related Information...8 i

3 Configuring Secure Shell (SSH) on Cisco IOS Routers Contents Introduction Hardware and Software Versions SSHv1 vs. SSHv2 Network Diagram Testing Authentication Testing Authentication Without SSH Testing Authentication With SSH Optional Configuration Settings Preventing Non SSH Connections Setting Up an IOS Router as an SSH Client Adding SSH Terminal Line Access debug and show Commands Sample Debug Output What Can Go Wrong Tools Information Related Information Introduction This document discusses configuring and debugging Secure Shell (SSH) on a Cisco router running a version of Cisco IOS Software that supports SSH. See below for more information on specific versions and software images. Hardware and Software Versions The information in this document is based on the software version below. Cisco IOS 3600 Software (C3640 IK9S M), Version 12.2(2)T1 SSH was introduced into IOS platforms/images as shown below. SSH Version 1.0 (SSHv1) server was introduced in some IOS platforms/images starting in S. SSH client was introduced in some IOS platforms/images starting in T. SSH terminal line access (also known as reverse telnet) was introduced in some IOS platforms/images starting in T. For a complete list of feature sets supported in different Cisco IOS versions and on different platforms, refer

4 to the Feature Navigator tool described in the Tools Information section. SSHv1 vs. SSHv2 At this time, IOS only supports SSHv1; Cisco has no plans to implement SSHv2. There are several reasons for this, as explained below. Primarily, Cisco wishes to keep its engineering talent working on core features within devices rather than developing and maintaining other features that provide infrastructure security through encryption. Cisco implemented SSH in Cisco IOS when IP Security (IPSec) was being developed through the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). IPSec is a core feature, while the implementation of SSH in IOS was more of a tactical move to provide a secure method of accessing routers during the IPSec development process. Cisco dedicates staff to maintaining the SSH feature for fixes, but requests for enhancements will be given low priority. Cisco is committed to deploying IPSec for securing all traffic, including management traffic to and from Cisco network devices. If vulnerabilities are found in the protocol or implementation of SSHv1, their review will be given top priority, as will all potential security vulnerabilities. Note that Cisco IOS code is not the same as the code found in UNIX, Windows, or any other devices. As such, a coding problem in one of those implementations most likely will not be found in Cisco IOS. Additionally, not all SSHv1 features can be found in the Cisco implementations. Notably, SSH in Cisco IOS does not provide "session forwarding", nor does it provide tunnelling of X11. Defects in these parts of the common code will not be a problem in Cisco IOS. If a review of any claimed protocol defects shows that SSHv1 protocol in Cisco IOS is fundamentally broken, then Cisco will determine if it is appropriate to migrate to SSHv2 at that time. Network Diagram

5 Testing Authentication Testing Authentication Without SSH We will test authentication without SSH first to make sure that authentication works with the router Carter prior to adding SSH. Authentication can be with a local username/password or with an authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) server running TACACS+ or RADIUS. (Authentication via the line password is not possible with SSH.) The example below shows local authentication, which lets us Telnet into the router with username "cisco" and password "cisco".! aaa new model causes the local username/password on the router! to be used in the absence of other aaa statements. aaa new model username cisco password 0 cisco line vty 0 4! Instead of aaa new model, the login local command may be used. Testing Authentication With SSH To test authentication with SSH, we add to the previous statements, enabling SSH on Carter and testing SSH from the PC and UNIX stations. ip domain name rtp.cisco.com cry key generate rsa ip ssh time out 60

6 ip ssh authentication retries 2 At this point, the show cry key mypubkey rsa command should show the generated key. After adding the SSH configuration, we test accessing the router from the PC and Unix station; if this does not work, refer to the debug section. Optional Configuration Settings Preventing Non SSH Connections If we want to prevent non SSH connections, we add transport input ssh under the lines to limit the router to SSH connections only. Straight (non SSH) Telnets will be refused. line vty 0 4! Prevent non SSH telnets. transport input ssh We test to be sure non SSH users cannot Telnet to the router Carter. Setting Up an IOS Router as SSH Client If we want to have one router act as an SSH client to the other, we can add SSH to a second router, Reed. The routers will then be in a client server arrangement, with Carter acting as the server and Reed acting as the client. The IOS SSH client configuration on Reed is the same as required for the SSH server configuration on Carter.! aaa new model causes the local username/password on the router! to be used in the absence of other aaa statements. aaa new model username cisco password 0 cisco ip domain name rtp.cisco.com cry key generate rsa ip ssh time out 60 ip ssh authentication retries 2 line vty 0 4! Instead of aaa new model, the login local command may be used. To test this, issue the following command to SSH from the IOS SSH client (Reed) to the IOS SSH server (Carter): ssh l cisco c 3des Adding SSH Terminal Line Access If we need outbound SSH terminal line authentication, we can configure and test SSH for outbound reverse Telnets through Carter, which is acting as a comm server to Philly. ip ssh port 2001 rotary 1 line 1 16

7 no exec rotary 1 transport input ssh exec timeout 0 0 modem In Out Stopbits 1 If Philly is attached to Carter's port 2, we would SSH to Philly through Carter from Reed with the following command: ssh c 3des p From Solaris, we would use the following command: ssh c 3des p 2002 x v debug and show Commands Before issuing the debug commands described and illustrated below, please see Important Information on Debug Commands. debug ip ssh Displays debug messages for SSH. show ssh Displays the status of SSH server connections. carter#show ssh Connection Version Encryption State Username DES Session started cisco show ip ssh Displays the version and configuration data for SSH. carter#sho ip ssh SSH Enabled version 1.5 Authentication timeout: 60 secs; Authentication retries: 2 Sample Debug Output Note that some of this "good" debug output has been wrapped to multiple lines because of spacing considerations. Router Debug 00:23:20: SSH0: starting SSH control process 00:23:20: SSH0: sent protocol version id SSH 1.5 Cisco :23:20: SSH0: protocol version id is SSH :23:20: SSH0: SSH_SMSG_PUBLIC_KEY msg 00:23:21: SSH0: SSH_CMSG_SESSION_KEY msg length 112, type 0x03 00:23:21: SSH: RSA decrypt started 00:23:21: SSH: RSA decrypt finished 00:23:21: SSH: RSA decrypt started 00:23:21: SSH: RSA decrypt finished

8 00:23:21: SSH0: sending encryption confirmation 00:23:21: SSH0: keys exchanged and encryption on 00:23:21: SSH0: SSH_CMSG_USER message received 00:23:21: SSH0: authentication request for userid cisco 00:23:21: SSH0: SSH_SMSG_FAILURE message sent 00:23:23: SSH0: SSH_CMSG_AUTH_PASSWORD message received 00:23:23: SSH0: authentication successful for cisco 00:23:23: SSH0: requesting TTY 00:23:23: SSH0: setting TTY requested: length 24, width 80; set: length 24, width 80 00:23:23: SSH0: invalid request 0x22 00:23:23: SSH0: SSH_CMSG_EXEC_SHELL message received 00:23:23: SSH0: starting shell for vty Server Debug Note: This output was captured on a Solaris machine. rtp evergreen.rtp.cisco.com# ssh c 3des l cisco v rtp evergreen# /opt/cisssh/bin/ssh c 3des l cisco v SSH Version [sparc sun solaris2.5.1], protocol version 1.5. Compiled with RSAREF. rtp evergreen: Reading configuration data /opt/cisssh/etc/ssh_config rtp evergreen: ssh_connect: getuid 0 geteuid 0 anon 0 rtp evergreen: Allocated local port rtp evergreen: Connecting to port 22. rtp evergreen: Connection established. rtp evergreen: Remote protocol version 1.5, remote software version Cisco 1.25 rtp evergreen: Waiting for server public key. rtp evergreen: Received server public key (768 bits) and host key (512 bits). rtp evergreen: Host ' ' is known and matches the host key. rtp evergreen: Initializing random; seed file //.ssh/random_seed rtp evergreen: Encryption type: 3des rtp evergreen: Sent encrypted session key. rtp evergreen: Installing crc compensation attack detector. rtp evergreen: Received encrypted confirmation. rtp evergreen: Doing password authentication. password: rtp evergreen: Requesting pty. rtp evergreen: Failed to get local xauth data. rtp evergreen: Requesting X11 forwarding with authentication spoofing. Warning: Remote host denied X11 forwarding, perhaps xauth program could not be run on the server side. rtp evergreen: Requesting shell. rtp evergreen: Entering interactive session. What Can Go Wrong Below is sample debug output from several incorrect configurations. SSH from an SSH client not compiled with Data Encryption Standard (DES) Solaris Debug rtp evergreen# /opt/cisssh/bin/ssh c des l cisco v

9 SSH Version [sparc sun solaris2.5.1], protocol version 1.5. Compiled with RSAREF. rtp evergreen: Reading configuration data /opt/cisssh/etc/ssh_config rtp evergreen: ssh_connect: getuid 0 geteuid 0 anon 0 rtp evergreen: Allocated local port rtp evergreen: Connecting to port 22. rtp evergreen: Connection established. rtp evergreen: Remote protocol version 1.5, remote software version Cisco 1.25 rtp evergreen: Waiting for server public key. rtp evergreen: Received server public key (768 bits) and host key (512 bits). rtp evergreen: Host ' ' is known and matches the host key. rtp evergreen: Initializing random; seed file //.ssh/random_seed rtp evergreen: Encryption type: des rtp evergreen: Sent encrypted session key. cipher_set_key: unknown cipher: 2 Router Debug 00:24:41: SSH0: Session terminated normally 00:24:55: SSH0: starting SSH control process 00:24:55: SSH0: sent protocol version id SSH 1.5 Cisco :24:55: SSH0: protocol version id is SSH :24:55: SSH0: SSH_SMSG_PUBLIC_KEY msg 00:24:55: SSH0: SSH_CMSG_SESSION_KEY msg length 112, type 0x03 00:24:55: SSH: RSA decrypt started 00:24:56: SSH: RSA decrypt finished 00:24:56: SSH: RSA decrypt started 00:24:56: SSH: RSA decrypt finished 00:24:56: SSH0: sending encryption confirmation 00:24:56: SSH0: Session disconnected error 0x07 Bad Password Router Debug 00:26:51: SSH0: starting SSH control process 00:26:51: SSH0: sent protocol version id SSH 1.5 Cisco :26:52: SSH0: protocol version id is SSH :26:52: SSH0: SSH_SMSG_PUBLIC_KEY msg 00:26:52: SSH0: SSH_CMSG_SESSION_KEY msg length 112, type 0x03 00:26:52: SSH: RSA decrypt started 00:26:52: SSH: RSA decrypt finished 00:26:52: SSH: RSA decrypt started 00:26:52: SSH: RSA decrypt finished 00:26:52: SSH0: sending encryption confirmation 00:26:52: SSH0: keys exchanged and encryption on 00:26:52: SSH0: SSH_CMSG_USER message received 00:26:52: SSH0: authentication request for userid cisco 00:26:52: SSH0: SSH_SMSG_FAILURE message sent 00:26:54: SSH0: SSH_CMSG_AUTH_PASSWORD message received 00:26:54: SSH0: password authentication failed for cisco 00:26:54: SSH0: SSH_SMSG_FAILURE message sent 00:26:54: SSH0: authentication failed for cisco (code=7) 00:26:54: SSH0: Session disconnected error 0x07 SSH client sends unsupported (blowfish) cipher Router Debug

10 00:39:26: SSH0: starting SSH control process 00:39:26: SSH0: sent protocol version id SSH 1.5 Cisco :39:26: SSH0: protocol version id is SSH 1.5 W1.0 00:39:26: SSH0: SSH_SMSG_PUBLIC_KEY msg 00:39:26: SSH0: SSH_CMSG_SESSION_KEY msg length 112, type 0x03 00:39:26: SSH0: Session disconnected error 0x20 Tools Information To use the tool provided below, you must be a registered user and you must be logged in. Related Information More SSH Technical Tips SSH Product Support Page More Security Technical Tips All contents are Copyright Cisco Systems Inc. All rights reserved. Important Notices and Privacy Statement.

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