Secure Shell SSH provides support for secure remote login, secure file transfer, and secure TCP/IP and X11 forwarding. It can automatically encrypt,

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1 Secure Shell SSH provides support for secure remote login, secure file transfer, and secure TCP/IP and X11 forwarding. It can automatically encrypt, authenticate, and compress transmitted data. The main idea of SSH is to establish a common key between a client and a server using secure key exchange technique. The followed communications are then encrypted and authenticated. So the main idea is not very complicated. However, as a real application, we will see that many things need to be considered more careful in details. 1

2 SSH consists of three major components: The Transport Layer Protocol provides server authentication, confidentiality and integrity with perfect forward secrecy. The User Authentication Protocol authenticates the client to the server. The Connection Protocol multiplexes the encrypted tunnel into several logical channels. 2

3 SSH was described in Internet-Draft written by secsh group. Recently, SSH has been published as RFC (January 2006). The Transport Layer Protocol can be described as follows. In SSH, the server listens for connections (on port 22). The client initiates a connection. When the connection has been established, both sides do the following. In what follows, C denote the client and S denote the server. Send an identification string to each other. The main contents of the string is the version of SSH and the version of software they used. An example is as follows. SSH-2.0-billsSSH 3.6.3q3<CR><LF> 3

4 In this example, the user uses protocol version 2.0 and a software billsssh 3.6.3q3. The identification string must be terminated by a single Carriage Return (CR) and a single Line Feed (LF) character (ASCII 13 and 10, respectively). Both side send out a KEXINIT packet. This packet includes: cookie (random bytes), list of algorithms supported by the machine such as key exchange algorithms, encryption algorithms, MAC algorithms, compression algorithms, languages. All the algorithms are listed in order of preference. This packet is used for each side to choose the same algorithm they will use later. The purpose of the cookie is to make it impossible for either side to fully determine the keys and the session identifier. 4

5 Run key exchange program. For example the following Diffie-Hellman key exchange can be used. 1. C generates a random number x, (1 < x < q) and sends the value e = α x mod p to S. 2. S generates a random value y, (0 < y < q) and computes f = α y mod p, K = e y = α xy mod p and H = hash(v C V S I C I S K S e f K), where V C, V S are the version strings for C and S respectively, I C (I S ) is the payload of C s (respectively S s) KEXINIT, K S is S s public key used to verify the signature. A payload means the useful contents of the packet. Then S computes the signature s on the message H and sends K S f s to C. 5

6 3. C checks K S from a local database or some trusted certification authority. C computes K = f x mod p and H = hash(v C V S I C I S K S e f K). Then C verifies the signature s. K is the session key. A session key should be re-changed after some time. It is recommended that the keys are changed after each gigbyte of transmitted data or after each hour of connection time, whichever comes sooner. 6

7 User Authentication protocol and connection protocol may start after the key exchange. C requests a service from S and S provides the service. In this stage, all the communications should be encrypted and authenticated. Either party sends out a disconnection message. In each step of the communication, if any party finds something wrong, then the connection will be broken. 7

8 All packets following the identification string use the following binary packet protocol. PKL PDL Payload Padding MAC The fields of the packet is as follows. The total size of the packet is 35, 000 bytes or less. PKL (32 bits): The length of the packet (in bytes), not including MAC and PKL field itself. PDL (8 bits): The Length of padding (in bytes). 8

9 Payload (n 1 bytes): The useful contents of the packet. If compression has been negotiated, this field is compressed. n 1 = PKL-PDL - 1. Padding (PDL bytes): Added random padding bytes, such that the total length of the packet is a multiple of the cipher block size or 8, whichever is larger. The length of the padding (PDL) is between 4 bytes to 255 bytes. MAC: If message authentication has been negotiated, this field contains the MAC bytes. Initially, the MAC algorithm is none. 9

10 The encryption method required in SSH is 3-DES (3 keys) of CBC mode. Other method recommended for SSH are AES-128, AES-192, AES-256. Optional encryption algorithms can be used in SSH such as: Blowfish, Twofish, Serpend, IDEA, CAST. The compression method currently defined is zlib. The message authentication used in SSH is HMAC. The hash function used is SHA-1, but the MD5 is still an option. So we first use HMAC to get the authenticated digest of a message m. Then the message m is encrypted by the decided encryption method. The actually transmitted data is the encrypted message together with the authenticated digest. The signature scheme used in SSH is DSS. 10

11 SSH authentication protocol runs on top of the SSH transport layer protocol and provides a single authenticated tunnel for the SSH connection protocol. The service name for this protocol is ssh-userauth. Basically, the server sends authentication requests using the following format: SSH-MSG-USERAUTH-RQUEST (code 50) user name service name method name method specific fields. 11

12 The server should have a timeout for authentication, and disconnect if the authentication has not been accepted within the timeout period. If the authentication is successful, then the server sends out a response: SSH-MSG-USERAUTH-SUCCESS (code 52) Otherwise the server responds: SSH-MSG-USERAUTH-FAILURE (code 51) 12

13 There are three authentication methods used in SSH. One is the public key authentication method. In this method, the user uses a public key signature scheme to sign on a message that contains session identifier, user name, public key algorithm name, public key to be used for authentication etc. When the server receives this message, it checks whether the supplied key is acceptable for authentication, and if so, it then check whether the signature is correct. The second method is password authentication method. In this method, the user needs to transmit the password to server. Since this transmitted packet is on the transport layer, it is encrypted. In this case, both the server and the client should check whether the underlying transport layer provides confidentiality (i.e., if encryption is being used). 13

14 The third method is host-based authentication. This form of authentication is optional, since it is not suitable for high-security sites. It is similar to the UNIX rhosts and hosts.equiv styles of authentication, except that the identity of the client host is checked more rigorously. In this method, the client sends a public key signature with the key of the client host. The message signed contains session identifier, user name, public key algorithm for host key, public host key and certificates for client host, client host name, etc. The server verifies that the host key actually belongs to the client host name in the message, that the given user on that host is allowed to log in, and that the signature is a valid signature on the appropriate value by the given host key. If it is possible, the server performs additional checks to verify that the network address obtained from the network matches the given client name. 14

15 The SSH connection protocol has been designed to run on top of the SSH transport layer and user authentication protocols. It provides interactive login session, remote execution of commands, forward TCP/IP connections, and forwarded X11 connections. All of these channels are multiplexed into a single encryption tunnel. We will omit the details of this protocol, since the most security considerations are addressed in transport layer protocol and user authentication protocol. The design of protocols of SSH considered security, efficiency and flexibility. It is intended to be implemented at the application level. 15

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