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1 Tik-109/ Telecommunications architectures: Network management Hannu H. KARI/Helsinki University of Technology (HUT) TML-laboratory/CS/HUT Tik-109/ Fall 2000 Hannu H. Kari Page 1

2 Agenda Telecom management area Difference between fixed and mobile networks Network management principles Telecommunications management network (TMN) Telecom requirements Protocols Fault management Configuration management Accounting/charging Performance management Security management Tik-109/ Fall 2000 Hannu H. Kari Page 2

3 Telecom management area MS - Mobile Stations BTS - Base Transceiver Station BSC - Base Station Controller MSC - Mobile Switch Center HLR - Home Location Register VLR - Visiting Location Register OMC - Operation and Maintenance Center Tik-109/ Fall 2000 Hannu H. Kari Page 3

4 Difference between fixed and mobile networks Fixed telecom network Backward compatibility: tens of years Complex part: Copper wires Growth rate: Very moderate Load predictability: Quite stable, varies on time Mobile telecom network Backward compatibility: 10 years Complex part: Radio network Radio capacity Location of base stations Growth rate: Very fast Load predictability: Big variance due to mobility Tik-109/ Fall 2000 Hannu H. Kari Page 4

5 Network management principles Tik-109/ Fall 2000 Hannu H. Kari Page 5

6 Network management principles Network Management Station(s): The network management station runs the network management application that gathers information about managed devices from the management agent which resides within a managed device. The network management application typically must process large amounts of data, react to events, and prepare relevant information for display. It usually has a control console with a GUI interface which allows the operator to view a graphical representation of the network, control managed devices on the network and program the network management application. Tik-109/ Fall 2000 Hannu H. Kari Page 6

7 Network management principles Network management station (contd) Some network management applications can be programmed to react to information collected from management agents and/or set thresholds with the following actions: Perform tests and automatic corrective actions (reconfiguration, shutdown of a managed device) Logging network events Present status information and alerts to operator Managed Devices: A managed device can be any type of node residing on a network, such as a computer, printer or router. Managed devices contain a management agent. Tik-109/ Fall 2000 Hannu H. Kari Page 7

8 Network management principles Management agents: Provides information about the managed device to the network management application(s) and may also accept control information. Network management protocol: Protocol used by the network management application(s) and the management agent to exchange management information. Management Information: The information that is exchanged between the network management application(s) and the management agents that allows the monitoring and control of a managed device. Tik-109/ Fall 2000 Hannu H. Kari Page 8

9 Telecommunications management network (TMN) The telecommunications management network (TMN) provides a framework for achieving interconnectivity and communication across heterogeneous operating systems and telecommunications networks. TMN was developed by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) as an infrastructure to support management and deployment of dynamic telecommunications services. Tik-109/ Fall 2000 Hannu H. Kari Page 9

10 TMN architecture Network management is parallel to user data transfer Tik-109/ Fall 2000 Hannu H. Kari Page 10

11 TMN architecture TMN architecture and interfaces, defined by ITU, build on existing OSI standards common management information protocol (CMIP) defines management services exchanged between peer entities guideline for definition of managed objects (GDMO) provides templates for classifying and describing managed resources abstract syntax notation one (ASN.1) provides syntax rules for data types open systems interconnect reference model defines the seven-layer OSI reference model Questions/issues: multivendor, interoperable, extensible, scalable, and object-oriented Tik-109/ Fall 2000 Hannu H. Kari Page 11

12 TMN architecture OS: performs operations system functions MD: performs mediation between local TMN interfaces and the OS information model QA: translates between TMN and non TMN interfaces NE: network element containing manageable information WS: workstation DCN: data communication network Tik-109/ Fall 2000 Hannu H. Kari Page 12

13 TMN architecture Interfaces Q3 Interface Q3 is the only interface that QAs, MDs, or NEs may use to communicate directly with the OS. If a QA or NE does not use the Q3 interface, it cannot communicate directly with the OS; Instead, it must communicate via an MD. Qx Interface Qx interface always operates with a MD. The MD can interpret between local management information provided by a Qx interface and the OS information provided by a Q3 interface. Tik-109/ Fall 2000 Hannu H. Kari Page 13

14 Telecom requirements Network management needs Management protocols Network management should handle Fault management Configuration management Accounting/Charging Performance management Security management Remote access Tik-109/ Fall 2000 Hannu H. Kari Page 14

15 Management protocols SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) Not so much in use in telecom world CMIP (Common Management Information Protocol) Proprietary Manufacturer s own protocols or own enhancements on the standard protocols Protocol conversions needed E.g., CMIP <-> Proprietary protocol Tik-109/ Fall 2000 Hannu H. Kari Page 15

16 SNMP Tik-109/ Fall 2000 Hannu H. Kari Page 16

17 SNMP GET_NEXT_REQUEST Requests next object instance from a list from an agent GET_RESPONSE Returned answer to get_next_request, get_request, set_request GET_REQUEST Requests the value of an object instance from the agent SET_REQUEST TRAP Set the value of an object instance within an agent Send trap (event) asynchronously to network management application. Agents can send a trap when a condition has occurred, such as change in state of a device, device failure or agent initialization/restart. Tik-109/ Fall 2000 Hannu H. Kari Page 17

18 SNMP SNMPv1 incorporated into many products and management platforms deployed by virtually all internetworking vendors well-suited for managing TCP/IP networks. SNMPv2 has many unresolved issues (security, administrative needs) was supported by few vendors => will be skipped SNMPv3 latest version for the next generation of SNMP functionality based upon the protocol operations, data types, and proxy support from SNMPv2 security enhancements Tik-109/ Fall 2000 Hannu H. Kari Page 18

19 CMIP functions ACTION Request an action to occur as defined by managed object. CANCEL_GET Cancel an outstanding GET request. CREATE Create an instance of a managed object. DELETE GET SET Delete an instance of a managed object. Request the value of a managed object instance. Set the value of a managed object instance. Tik-109/ Fall 2000 Hannu H. Kari Page 19

20 CMIP benefits over SNMP The major advantages of CMIP over SNMP CMIP variables not only relay information, but also can be used to perform tasks. This is impossible under SNMP. CMIP is a safer system as it has built in security that supports authorization, access control, and security logs. CMIP provides powerful capabilities that allow management applications to accomplish more with a single request. CMIP provides better reporting of unusual network conditions Tik-109/ Fall 2000 Hannu H. Kari Page 20

21 Protocol conversion Various protocols can be combined and interoperate Tik-109/ Fall 2000 Hannu H. Kari Page 21

22 Fault management Provides facilities that allow network managers to discover faults in managed devices, the network, and network operation, to determine their cause and to take remedial action. To enable this, fault management provides mechanisms to: Report the occurrence of faults Log reports Perform diagnostic tests Correct/repair faults (possibly automatically) Tik-109/ Fall 2000 Hannu H. Kari Page 22

23 Configuration management Monitors network configuration information so that the effects of specific hardware and software can be managed and tracked. It may provide the ability to initialize, reconfigure, operate and shut down managed devices. Remote download of new software and configuration One button download of software to entire network Tik-109/ Fall 2000 Hannu H. Kari Page 23

24 Accounting/Charging Measures network utilization of individual users or groups to Provide information for billing purposes Regulate users or groups Help keep network performance at an acceptable level Tik-109/ Fall 2000 Hannu H. Kari Page 24

25 Performance Management Measures various aspects of network performance including the gathering and analysis of statistical data about the system so that it may be maintained at an acceptable level Performance management provides the ability to Obtain the utilization and error rates of network devices Provide a consistent level of performance by ensuring that devices have a sufficient capacity Tik-109/ Fall 2000 Hannu H. Kari Page 25

26 Security Management Controls access to network resources so that information can not be obtained without authorization by: Limiting access to network resources Providing notification of security breaches and attempts Tik-109/ Fall 2000 Hannu H. Kari Page 26

27 Remote access Network elements (nodes) are distributed all over the network Management can be centralized One network management station can control the entire network Tik-109/ Fall 2000 Hannu H. Kari Page 27

28 Multivendor network Can same network management system manage several vendors devices? Technically, yes E.g., SNMP has MIB (Management information base) definitions that can be used in controlling network elements independent of manufacturer Politically, NO! Manufacturers do not like other companies to get internal information of their implementation Multivendor networks typically require multiple management systems Tik-109/ Fall 2000 Hannu H. Kari Page 28

29 Links In English In Finnish Tik-109/ Fall 2000 Hannu H. Kari Page 29

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