Introduction to RACE FUELS Hans-Christian von der Wense Munich, Germany

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1 Introduction to Hans-Christian von der Wense Munich, Germany

2 Overview Progress in Automotive Electronics and it s Impacts on Networking LIN Consortium LIN Concept Physical Layer Data Link Layer LIN Network LIN Tools

3 Aim of LIN Open Standard Easy To Use Components available today Cheaper than CAN or J1850

4 Benefits of LIN More Reliable Cars (Diagnostics) More Functionality at Lower Price Standardization of Interfaces and Components Faster Introduction of new Technologies Functional Extendibility

5 Todays Situation Distributed Electronics is finding its way into cars as comfort and number of features increase. Body Electronics Powertrain Chassis & Safety This calls for different flavors of communication solutions.

6 Automotive Body Network Electronics are distributed all over the car Actuators and Sensors become smart Lock Mirror Lock Window Lift Universal Light CAN Light Power Train ITS x6 1 backbone, 13 nodes 8 subnets, 1-8 local nodes 52 nodes total Instruments Central Body Ctrl St-Wheel Panel Climate Light CAN Lock LIN Seat Roof Seat Mirror Htng Interior Light Htng Lock Htng Htng Wiper WHtg Trunk Seat Universal Motor Universal Panel

7 Typical LIN Applications (Low Cost Nodes) Roof: (high amount of wiring) Rain Sensor, Light Sensor, Light Control, Sun Roof (Rain Sensor needs to be interrogated every 10-20ms) Door: Mirror,Central ECU, Mirror Switch, Window Lift, Seat Control Switch, Door Lock, etc. Climate: many Small Motors Control Panel Steering Wheel: (very many controls are going to be positioned on the steering wheel) Cruise Control, Wiper, Turning Light, Optional: Climate Control, Radio, Telephone, etc. Seat: many Seat Position Motors, Occupancy Sensor, Control Panel Engine: Sensors Small Motors

8 Distributed Electronics / Mechatronics Electronic Control Units are shrinking and are directly applied to actuators or sensors

9 Automotive Bus Systems Speed [bit/s] 25.6M 2M 1M 125K 20K CAN-C dual wire CAN-B fault tolerant dual wire J1850 byteflight TTP (in definition) time triggered fault tol, dependable 2x2 wire incremental cost per node [$] D2B, MOST token ring optical bus

10 Automotive Bus Systems Speed [bit/s] 25.6M 2M 1M 125K 20K LIN master-slave single wire bus no crystal CAN-C dual wire CAN-B fault tolerant dual wire J1850 byteflight TTP (in definition) time triggered fault tol, dependable 2x2 wire incremental cost per node [$] D2B, MOST token ring optical bus

11 The LIN Consortium Audi BMW Daimler- Chrysler Motorola VCT Volvo Car Corp Steering Circle VW OEMs OEMs OEMs Protocol Specification LIN Specifications Configuration Language Description API Specification Suppliers

12 Communication System Requirements Satisfy Need for a Standard for Sub Busses Cost driven: The solution must be significantly cheaper than CAN or J1850 Reliability: High, But does not have to meet same level as CAN or J1850 Long Term Solution Logical Extension to CAN and J1850 Scalable: Capability to extend Systems with additional nodes Lowering Cost of Satellite nodes: No Crystal or Resonator Easy implementation Simple State Machines Low Reaction Time (100 ms max) Predictable Worst Case Timing Tools Availability: Configuration Tool for complete Network and the single nodes Network Diagnostics Tool Complete Tool Chain addressing Car Manufacturer s Processing Needs

13 Technical Solution LIN Concept Low cost single-wire implementation (enhanced ISO 9141) Speed up to 20Kbit/s (limited for EMI-reasons) Single Master / Multiple Slave Concept No arbitration necessary Low cost silicon implementation based on common UART/SCI interface hardware Almost any Microcontroller has necessary hardware on chip! Self synchronization without crystal or ceramics resonator in the slave nodes Significant cost reduction of hardware platform Guaranteed latency times for signal transmission (Predictability)

14 LIN Concept (2) Network Network Configuration Time Triggered Scheduling Data Link Layer Master Slave Protocol Based on UART Transmission Support of RC-Oscillator based Slaves Physical Layer Enhanced ISO 9141

15 LIN Physical Layer Single Wire ISO 9141 Compliant max 20% / min 80% V BAT Low/High Transmit Level min 40% / max 60 % V BAT Low/High Receive Threshold controlled slew rate (1-2 V/µs) SCI V BAT K GND V Bat 80% 20% 0V Slope time Line driver Recessive Dominant Slope time t V Bat 60% 40% 0V Receiver Recessive Dominant t

16 Data Transmission master control unit master task slave task slave control unit slave task slave control unit slave task bus inter-frame space/break Master Task Slave Task synch break 13 bit (min) synch field 1 byte identifier field 1 byte response space data fields 2, 4, or 8 bytes next synch break... t check field 1 byte t

17 Master Task Master / Slave Protocol Master Task has control over the whole Bus and Protocol The master controls which message at what time is to be transferred over the bus. It can also do the error handling. To accomplish this the master sends Sync Break sends Sync Byte sends ID-Field monitors Data Bytes and Check Byte, and evaluates them on consistance receives WakeUp Break from slave nodes when the bus is inactive and they request some action. serves as a reference with it s clock base (stable clock necessary)

18 Synch Break: Message Frame Header Marks the Beginning of a Message Frame Synch Byte: Specific Pattern for Determination of Time Base (Determination of the time between two rising edges) ID-Field: Message Identifier: Incorporates Information about the sender, the receiver(s), the purpose, and the Data field length. Length 6 Bit. 3 classes of 2/4/8 Data Bytes. The length coding is in the 2 MSB of the ID-Field. A total of 64 Message Identifiers is possible. 2 linked Parity Bits protect this highly sensitive ID-Field.

19 Slave Task Master/Slave Protocol Slave Task Is one of 2-16 members on the bus and receives or transmits data when an appropriate ID is sent by the master. Slave waits for Sync Break Slave synchronizes on Sync Byte Slave snoops for ID. According to ID, slave determines what to do. either receive data or transmit data or do nothing. When transmitting the slave sends 2, 4, or 8 Data Bytes sends Check-Byte The node serving as a master can be slave, too!

20 Time Triggered Approach Message Length is known Predictability (1) Number of transmitted data bytes is known minimum length can be calculated Each Message has length budget of 140% of it s minimum length maximum allowed length is known distance between beginning of two messages

21 Predictability (2) Message sequence is known Master uses scheduling table Msg A Msg B Msg C Msg A Msg D Msg B Msg A Msg E Msg F Use of different scheduling tables is possible Provides Flexibility Msg A Msg G Decision Msg B Msg C Msg A Msg D Msg B Msg A Msg E Msg F Msg A Msg E Msg F

22 Network Configuration LIN Concept includes configuration interface: LIN description file describes complete LIN network and also contains all information necessary to monitor the network. LIN Configuration Language Description is part of the LIN Specification and gives tools the possibility to configure the network and the nodes, diagnose the traffic, and/or simulate missing nodes. Network Emulator Configuration Description LIN node Diagnostic Tool

23 The Work-flow Data Input Definition of objects Definition of relations between the objects Data Processing Logical Signal Mapping Signal Packing (Frame Editor/Frame Compiler) Timing Analysis Data Output Configuration file generation Various optional customer-defined post-operations

24 Application Programmers Interface Standard API simplifies design of Application Code opens up the market for competition. Network Configuration Description LIN node Application Code Node Configuration Tool User Information (Node Information) LIN API Compiler Linker Application Code

25 LIN Tools by VCT OLQspector LIN Database Manager LIN Configuration Description File ECU LIN-Bus Database LIN Configuration Tool LIN Application & Configuration Code Target Image User provided Information LIN API Compiler / Linker ECU Application Code LIN Database Manager (LDM) The LDM is a standalone offline tool, providing a user-friendly Windows interface for logically describing and configuring LIN systems at a high abstraction level. LIN Configuration Tool (lcfg) and LIN Application Programmer s Interface (API) The LIN API provides the embedded SW developer an abstraction from details of information transfer. Together with the LIN Configuration Tool and an optimized embedded SW package the user gets correctness and quality together with efficiency and reconfiguration flexibility. LINspector a highly flexible tool for testing and verifying communication for compliance with the LIN standard.

26 Summary LIN is a complete Solution: Hardware Signaling Layer (Software) Tools Configuration Development Analysis

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