# Erie County Property Taxes Greg Michalek University at Buffalo Law Student

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1 FACT SHEET May 2, 2009 Erie County Property Taxes Greg Michalek University at Buffalo Law Student What is a property tax? It is a tax on the assessed value of real property. Typically set by school boards, town boards, village boards, city and county governments. Applies to both homeowners and businesses, although rates and exemptions may differ. i Each board determines the total amount of taxes it needs to raise, and then divides that number by the total taxable assessed value of the jurisdiction to determine the tax rate. Your share of the tax is calculated by multiplying the tax rate by your property s assessed value, minus exemptions. ii Assessors determine a property s assessed value. The assessor will estimate your property s market value (the price it would sell for in the real estate market), and then applies the municipal level of assessment (LOA) to that market value. iii There are different levels of assessment. If the level of assessment is 100 percent, a \$90,000 home will have an assessed value of \$90,000. However, if the level of assessment is 50 percent, the same home will have an assessed value of \$45,000. iv Why is the property tax important? It pays for services like schools, roads and libraries as well as the local share of some State programs such as Medicaid. Property taxes are generally used to balance municipal budgets after accounting for all other sources of revenue this means they tend to increase more quickly if other revenues stagnate or decline. v It is the largest tax imposed by local governments and municipalities in the state. vi Represents 79 percent of all taxes outside New York City and generates more revenue than the state income tax. vii Accounts for 43 percent of municipal revenues. viii Of the property taxes collected, the overwhelming amount, 61 percent, goes to school property taxes

2 (outside of the Big Four: Buffalo, Rochester, Syracuse, Yonkers). ix What is the New York State STAR program? The New York State School Tax Relief provides a partial exemption from school property taxes. However, the STAR rebate program was not reauthorized in the FY Budget. x For every dollar of the reduction paid to a homeowner, the State pays a dollar to the school district to compensate for the lost revenue. xi The enhanced or basic STAR exemption is the amount that your assessment will be reduced prior to the levy of school taxes. xii For example, if you own and live in a house that is assessed at \$150,000 and the enhanced STAR exemption for your municipality is \$50,000, the school taxes on your property would be paid on a taxable assessment of \$100,000. xiii What are the taxes like here in Erie County? Erie County property taxes are \$5.03 for every \$1000 in assessed value. xiv That is a two percent increase over last year. xv Erie County Executive Chris Collins had vowed to set a tax rate that would add \$24 a year to the tax bill on a \$100,000 home. xvi Now, because of a judge s order after a dispute over the spending powers between the County Executive and the County Legislature, the tax bill will just be a \$9 increase for a \$100,000 home. xvii However, each town and village does its own assessment of the homes and businesses within its jurisdiction. To give a hypothetical example, the Town of Amherst s assessment may rise, where the Town of Orchard Park s assessment may stay stable, meaning that Amherst taxes may rise more than Orchard Park taxes. Additional tax facts: o 2005 Levy per Capita = \$1,339 o 2005 Levy Per Household = \$3,282 o 2005 Levy Per \$1000 of Personal Income = \$39.09 o 1999 Median Real Estate Taxes Paid \$2,573 o 1999 % Median Increase 6.7% o Total Change of Overall Combined Levy = 21.4% o Full Value by County = 17.2% What is the average Erie County tax burden and how does it compare to other areas in the state? For 2007, the average household in Erie County paids about \$2,627 in property taxes per year (\$562 county, \$647 city/town, and \$1,418 school). xviii Average property tax burdens from other counties in the state included the following: Allegheny County: \$1,935 Monroe County:\$3,705 Niagara County:\$2,692 Onondaga County :\$3,097

3 Westchester County: \$10,990. xix According to the Tax Foundation, the average property tax on owneroccupied housing paid in Erie County was \$2,760, ranking Erie at 152 on the list of counties nationwide. For tax as a percent of home value, Erie ranked 12, and for tax as a percent of income, Erie ranked 90. xx Why are school taxes so expensive? Personnel costs, i.e. salaries and benefits such as pensions and health care, account for 70 percent of total school expense. xxi Staffing levels have increased, although overall student population has decreased. xxii Benefits averaged 38 percent of salary expense in Thus, if a district hired an employee at a \$50,000 salary, an additional \$19,000 had to be budgeted for a total \$69,000 to cover the full expense associated with that employee. xxiii Interesting Facts New York State has the highest local taxes in the country 78 percent above the national average. xxiv New York State has another ignominious award the highest combined State and local tax burden in the nation, with a total tax bill of \$131 for every \$1000 of personal income in 2002, nearly 26 percent higher than the national average. xxv The taxes disproportionately affect low and moderate income working families, seniors on fixed incomes and small business owners. xxvi Downstate, the dollar amount of taxes paid is among the highest in the nation; upstate, where property values, and hence assessed values, are much lower, the tax rates are among the highest in the nation. New York State spends more per pupil on education than any other state, but state aid to schools is below the national average meaning that local property taxes make up the difference. xxvii There are 700 school districts in New York State, ranging from New York City to districts with fewer than eight teachers. In comparison, Florida s system of countywide school districts includes 67 districts. xxviii There are 1,133 distinct tax assessing units in New York State as compared to 59 in California. Erie County has 30 assessing units. xxix Property Taxes as a Percentage of Home Value by County, 2007 Note: this includes county, city/town/village, and school district property taxes. County and Rank State Tax Rate 1. Niagara New York 2.9% 2. Monroe New York 2.8% 3. Chautauqua New York 2.8%

4 4. Wayne New York 2.6% 5. Oswego New York 2.6% 6. Onondaga New York 2.5% 7. Erie New York 2.5% 8. Fort Bend Texas 2.5% 9. Steuben New York 2.5% 10. Camden New Jersey 2.4% Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, American Community Survey, 2007 Property Taxes by County as a Percentage of Household Income, 2007 Note: this includes county, city/town/village, and school district property taxes. County and Rank* State Taxes as Percentage of Income 1. Passaic New Jersey 8.5% 2. Union New Jersey 8.1% 3. Essex New Jersey 8.1% 4. Nassau New York 8.0% 5. Westchester New York 7.8% 6. Bergen New Jersey 7.8% 7. Rockland New York 7.7% 8. Putnam New York 7.7% 9. Hunterdon New Jersey 7.5% 10. Hudson New Jersey 7.5% *New York s Suffolk County is ranked 11th and Orange County 24th. Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, American Community Survey, 2007 Median Household Tax by County, 2007 Note: this includes county, city/town/village, and school district property taxes. County and Rank State Median Tax 1. Westchester New York \$8, Hunterdon New Jersey \$8, Nassau New York \$8, Bergen New Jersey \$7, Somerset New Jersey \$7,597

5 6. Essex New Jersey \$7, Rockland New York \$7, Morris New Jersey \$7, Union New Jersey \$7, Passaic New Jersey \$6,928 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, American Community Survey, 2007 What can be done to reduce future property tax increases? New York State Commission on Property Tax Relief and Erie County Comptroller Mark Poloncarz, among others have set forth a number of ideas, including: o Create countywide property tax assessment and uniform statewide assessing standards. xxx o Consolidate School Districts o Impose a tax levy cap which limits property taxes to an established percentage of the property s assessed value, in this case a proposed 4% tax levy cap.

6 i Unshackle Upstate. ii Office of Real Property Services. iii Id. iv Id. v Id. vi Id. vii Office of the New York State Comptroller. viii Id. ix Id. x Property-tax Relief in Albany: Too Little, Too Late. The Ithaca Journal. April 21, xi p.32 xii xiii Id. xiv County tax rate finally set: a 2% hike: Judge's ruling ends prolonged dispute. Spina, Matthew. January 13, xv Id. xvi Id. xvii Id. xviii New York State Office of Real Property Services NYS ORPS Municipal Profile available at xix New York State Office of Real Property Services NYS ORPS Municipal Profile available at xx xxi The New York State Commission on Property Tax Relief. xxii Id. xxiii Id. xxiv Id. xxv The New York State Comproller s Report of New York State Property Taxes. xxvi The New York State Commission on Property Tax Relief. xxvii Id. xxviii Id., p.46 xxix POLONCARZ RELEASES MAJOR REPORT ON PROPERTY ASSESSMENT xxx Id. p.7 Partnership for the Public Good 237 Main St., Suite 1200, Buffalo NY

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