One Time Pad Encryption The unbreakable encryption method


 Paulina Johnston
 4 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 One Time Pad Encryption The unbreakable encryption method
2 One Time Pad The unbreakable encryption method One Time Pad encryption is a very simple, yet completely unbreakable cipher method. It has been used for decades in mils electronic cipher systems for encrypting our customers sensitive data. Over the years, we have perfected the implementation of One Time Pad encryption into our products. Today, high levels of automation, high capacity storage media, continuous key protection, and huge One Time Pads provide our customers with outstanding communication security without sacrificing convenience. This document will help you understand how One Time Pad can ensure complete privacy for your sensitive information. Characteristics of the One Time Pad encryption method The One Time Pad encryption method is a binary additive stream cipher, where a stream of truly random keys is generated and then combined with the plain text for encryption or with the cipher text for decryption by an exclusive OR (XOR) addition. It is possible to prove that a stream cipher encryption scheme is unbreakable if the following preconditions are met: A The key must be as long as the plain text. B The key must be truly random. C The key must only be used once. The One Time Pad implementation in mils electronic s products fulfills all these requirements and therefore provides absolute protection for our customers sensitive information.
3 Components of the OTP encryption Truly random key generation For One Time Pad encryption, a truly random key stream must be employed. The word random is used in its most literal sense here. In mils electronic products, all keys are exclusively generated by a True Random Noise Source. This Noise Source is incorporated into the hardware security token of each mils electronic application. As it is part of the security token, it is protected against all manipulation and tampering attempts and provides a very high key generation speed. Oscillator ring 1 Oscillator ring 2 Oscillator ring n Combination stage Random bits The random noise source derives its randomness by sampling a set of parallel ring oscillators, a reliable technology for obtaining genuine randomness. This technique uses timing jitter and oscillator drift found in freerunning CMOS ring oscillators as a source of randomness. Timing jitter is a random phenomenon caused by the thermal noise and local voltage variations present at each transistor of a ring oscillator. Local variations in voltage and temperature will cause each ring to oscillate faster (or slower) over time  resulting in a random drift relative to the other rings. As the frequency of each oscillator randomly drifts with each cycle, the output stream becomes random relative to the lower frequency sampling rate.
4 The One Time Pad encryption process One Time Pad keys are used in pairs. The keys are distributed securely prior to encryption. One copy of the key is kept by the sender and one by the recipient. The confidentiality and authenticity of the One Time Pad keys can be guaranteed thanks to the continuous protection during their distribution and storage. Therefore, outsiders will not be able to misuse the key (e.g. by copying or altering the key during distribution) Plain text 0 Cipher text Exclusive OR function One Time Pad Generated by the True Random Noise Source A To encrypt plain text data, the sender uses a key string equally long as the plain text. The key is used by mixing (XORing) bit by bit, always adding one bit of the key with one bit of the plain text to create one bit of cipher text. B This cipher text is then sent to the recipient. C At the recipient s end, the encoded message is mixed (XORed) with the duplicate copy of the One Time Key and the plain text is restored. D Both sender s and recipient s keys are automatically destroyed after use, so that erroneous reapplication of the same key is impossible.
5 Why is One Time Pad encryption unbreakable? The popular scientific explanation Cipher text KNQX L ZRV Key 1 ZCVPQ I T A YES COME, Plain text 1 (meaningful) Key 2 HSUXZRAV CPQXAT I F Plain text 2 (meaningless) Key 3 E T DYHCNX HZAUHPSE Plain text 3 (meaningless) Key 4 L F ZRX I BH S T AY OF F Plain text 4 (meaningful) Exclusive OR function The brute force attack With One Time Pad encryption, the key used for encoding the message is completely random and is as long as the message itself. That is why the only possible attack to such a cipher is a brute force attack. Brute force attacks use exhaustive trial and error methods in order to find the key that has been used for encrypting the plain text. This means that every possible combination of key bits must be used to decrypt the cipher text. The correct key would be the one that produces a meaningful plain text. Unlimited computing power is useless Let s assume an eavesdropper has intercepted a One Time Pad encrypted message and that he has unlimited computing power and time. For example, typical messages are at least 200 bytes long, requiring the testing of bits. Even if the eavesdropper is both willing and able to do this, the following paragraph will describe why unlimited computational power will not compromise the system. Attackers must try every possible key Since all One Time Keys are equally likely and come from a completely unpredictable noise source that is proven to be random, the attacker has to test all possible key strings. Impossible to guess the right plain text If he used every possible key string to decrypt the cipher text, all potential plain text strings with the same length as the original plain text would appear. As illustrated above, most of these potential plain text strings would make no sense; however, every meaningful string the same length as the original plain text would also appear as a potential plain text string. Without knowing the applied OTP, the eavesdropper has no way of finding out which meaningful string is the original plain text. Thus, trying all possible keys doesn t help the attacker at all, because all possible plain texts are equally likely decryptions of the cipher text.
6 Why is One Time Pad encryption unbreakable? The mathematical proof DEFINITION A noise source is called a True Random Noise Source or fulfills the true random property if for all any generated key sequence for all satisfies (1) THEOREM: Unconditional security of One Time Pad For a cipher system with a true random noise source, the One Time Pad cipher is perfectly secret. PROOF First, we determine the length of the plain text by. Let denote the plain text and the One Time Pad generated by the true random noise source. The resulting cipher text is calculated by, i.e. for all. A system is called perfectly secret or unconditionally secure if for all for all (2) is satisfied. For we conclude from equation (2) and. (3)
7 We get for all and by using the law of total probability and the true random property of the noise source (4) By again applying the true random property of the noise source and equation (2) for we obtain and (5) From the definition of conditional probability follows for all and all (6) and (7) and thus we get (8) From equation (5) and equation (4) we deduce equation (8) simplifies to and thus for all. Hence, the mathematical proof is complete.
8 Further reading Schneier, Bruce: Applied Cryptography: Protocols, Algorithms, and Source Code in C. 1996, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto, Singapore
9 Menezes, Alfred J., Paul C. van Oorschot, and Scott A. Vanstone: Handbook of Applied Cryptography 1997, CRC Press Boca Raton, New York, London, Tokyo
10 The history of One Time Pad encryption The One Time Pad encryption method is nothing new. In 1882, Frank Miller was the first to describe the One Time Pad system for securing telegraphy. In 1917, Gilbert Vernam invented a cipher solution for a teletype machine. U.S. Army Captain Joseph Mauborgne realized that the character on the key tape could be completely random. Together, they introduced the first One Time Pad encryption system. Since then, One Time Pad systems have been widely used by governments around the world. Outstanding examples of a One Time Pad system include the hot line between the White House and the Kremlin and the famous Sigsaly speech encryption system. Another development was the paper pad system. Diplomats had long used codes and ciphers for confidentiality. For encryption, words and phrases were converted to groups of numbers and then encrypted using a One Time Pad. The famous patent for the Secret Signaling System from Each character of a message was combined with a character on a paper tape key. Frank Miller Gilbert Vernam Joseph Mauborgne
11 mils electronic s OTP history OTP encryption has always played an essential role in mils electronic s product philosophy. When the company was founded in the late 1940s, OTP was the only applied encryption method. The TT360 Tape Mixer was one of the first electromechanical cipher machines which the company developed and sold. TT360 Tape Mixer OTP Cipher Disk Although unbreakable, OTP encryption is so simple that you can even employ it manually. We therefore often give a OTP Cipher Disk to our customers as a gift. When used correctly, it s a powerful tool to create short unbreakable messages. M640 Tape Mixer M730 Cipher Machine with MilsCard M830 Cipher Machine MilsOne Client with OneQube With the invention of microprocessor technology, OTP encryption was complemented by algorithm based encryption in the M640 Tape Mixer or the M830 Cipher Machine. The usability of OTP was drastically increased by software based development. With the invention of the personal computer it was necessary to remove the sensitive parts of OTP encryption from the PC into dedicated security hardware, like the MilsCard of the M730 Cipher Machine. Today, the entire OTP storage and encryption process is handled by the OneQube, the hardware token of MilsOne. With its fully automated OTP usage and 29 GB of OTP storage it represents the stateoftheart OTP implementation.
12 mils electronic gesmbh & cokg leopoldwedlstrasse mils austria t f TECOTP04e
Effective Secure Encryption Scheme [One Time Pad] Using Complement Approach Sharad Patil 1 Ajay Kumar 2
Effective Secure Encryption Scheme [One Time Pad] Using Complement Approach Sharad Patil 1 Ajay Kumar 2 Research Student, Bharti Vidyapeeth, Pune, India sd_patil057@rediffmail.com Modern College of Engineering,
More informationChapter 11 Security+ Guide to Network Security Fundamentals, Third Edition Basic Cryptography
Chapter 11 Security+ Guide to Network Security Fundamentals, Third Edition Basic Cryptography What Is Steganography? Steganography Process of hiding the existence of the data within another file Example:
More informationLecture 9  Message Authentication Codes
Lecture 9  Message Authentication Codes Boaz Barak March 1, 2010 Reading: BonehShoup chapter 6, Sections 9.1 9.3. Data integrity Until now we ve only been interested in protecting secrecy of data. However,
More informationHow encryption works to provide confidentiality. How hashing works to provide integrity. How digital signatures work to provide authenticity and
How encryption works to provide confidentiality. How hashing works to provide integrity. How digital signatures work to provide authenticity and nonrepudiation. How to obtain a digital certificate. Installing
More information1 Step 1: Select... Files to Encrypt 2 Step 2: Confirm... Name of Archive 3 Step 3: Define... Pass Phrase
Contents I Table of Contents Foreword 0 Part I Introduction 2 1 What is?... 2 Part II Encrypting Files 1,2,3 2 1 Step 1: Select... Files to Encrypt 2 2 Step 2: Confirm... Name of Archive 3 3 Step 3: Define...
More informationA SOFTWARE COMPARISON OF RSA AND ECC
International Journal Of Computer Science And Applications Vol. 2, No. 1, April / May 29 ISSN: 97413 A SOFTWARE COMPARISON OF RSA AND ECC Vivek B. Kute Lecturer. CSE Department, SVPCET, Nagpur 9975549138
More informationNetwork Security Technology Network Management
COMPUTER NETWORKS Network Security Technology Network Management Source Encryption E(K,P) Decryption D(K,C) Destination The author of these slides is Dr. Mark Pullen of George Mason University. Permission
More informationHASH CODE BASED SECURITY IN CLOUD COMPUTING
ABSTRACT HASH CODE BASED SECURITY IN CLOUD COMPUTING Kaleem Ur Rehman M.Tech student (CSE), College of Engineering, TMU Moradabad (India) The Hash functions describe as a phenomenon of information security
More information159.334 Computer Networks. Network Security 1. Professor Richard Harris School of Engineering and Advanced Technology
Network Security 1 Professor Richard Harris School of Engineering and Advanced Technology Presentation Outline Overview of Identification and Authentication The importance of identification and Authentication
More informationModified One Time Pad Data Security Scheme: Random Key Generation Approach
Modified One Time Pad Data Security Scheme: Random Key Generation Approach Sharad Patil Research Student, Bharti Vidyapeeth, Pune, India Manoj Devare Vidya Pratishthan s Institute of Information Technology,
More informationBitLevel Encryption and Decryption of Images Using Genetic Algorithm: A New Approach
BitLevel Encryption and Decryption of Images Using Genetic Algorithm: A New Approach Gamil R. S. Qaid 1, Sanjay N. Talbar 2 1 Research Student, Electronics & Telecommunications Dept.,S.G.G.S. institute
More informationKy Vu DeVry University, Atlanta Georgia College of Arts & Science
Ky Vu DeVry University, Atlanta Georgia College of Arts & Science Table of Contents  Objective  Cryptography: An Overview  Symmetric Key  Asymmetric Key  Transparent Key: A Paradigm Shift  Security
More informationSoftware Tool for Implementing RSA Algorithm
Software Tool for Implementing RSA Algorithm Adriana Borodzhieva, Plamen Manoilov Rousse University Angel Kanchev, Rousse, Bulgaria Abstract: RSA is one of the mostcommon used algorithms for publickey
More informationUsing an approximated OneTime Pad to Secure Short Messaging Service (SMS)
Using an approximated OneTime Pad to Secure Short Messaging Service (SMS) N.J Croft and M.S Olivier Information and Computer Security Architectures (ICSA) Research Group Department of Computer Science
More informationA Probabilistic Quantum Key Transfer Protocol
A Probabilistic Quantum Key Transfer Protocol Abhishek Parakh Nebraska University Center for Information Assurance University of Nebraska at Omaha Omaha, NE 6818 Email: aparakh@unomaha.edu August 9, 01
More informationSAS Data Set Encryption Options
Technical Paper SAS Data Set Encryption Options SAS product interaction with encrypted data storage Table of Contents Introduction: What Is Encryption?... 1 Test Configuration... 1 Data... 1 Code... 2
More informationThe Feasibility and Application of using a Zeroknowledge Protocol Authentication Systems
The Feasibility and Application of using a Zeroknowledge Protocol Authentication Systems Becky Cutler Rebecca.cutler@tufts.edu Mentor: Professor Chris Gregg Abstract Modern day authentication systems
More informationCIS433/533  Computer and Network Security Cryptography
CIS433/533  Computer and Network Security Cryptography Professor Kevin Butler Winter 2011 Computer and Information Science A historical moment Mary Queen of Scots is being held by Queen Elizabeth and
More information802.11 Security (WEP, WPA\WPA2) 19/05/2009. Giulio Rossetti Unipi Giulio.Rossetti@gmail.com
802.11 Security (WEP, WPA\WPA2) 19/05/2009 Giulio Rossetti Unipi Giulio.Rossetti@gmail.com 802.11 Security Standard: WEP Wired Equivalent Privacy The packets are encrypted, before sent, with a Secret Key
More informationCryptography and Network Security Prof. D. Mukhopadhyay Department of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Cryptography and Network Security Prof. D. Mukhopadhyay Department of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Module No. # 01 Lecture No. # 02 Overview on Modern Cryptography
More informationDr. Jinyuan (Stella) Sun Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science University of Tennessee Fall 2010
CS 494/594 Computer and Network Security Dr. Jinyuan (Stella) Sun Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science University of Tennessee Fall 2010 1 Introduction to Cryptography What is cryptography?
More informationELECTRONIC COMMERCE WORKED EXAMPLES
MODULE 13 ELECTRONIC COMMERCE WORKED EXAMPLES 13.1 Explain B2B ecommerce using an example of a book distributor who stocks a large number of books, which he distributes via a large network of book sellers.
More informationCryptography & Network Security. Introduction. Chester Rebeiro IIT Madras
Cryptography & Network Security Introduction Chester Rebeiro IIT Madras The Connected World 2 Information Storage 3 Increased Security Breaches 81% more in 2015 http://www.pwc.co.uk/assets/pdf/2015isbsexecutivesummary02.pdf
More informationdect provides high protection against unauthorized access
dect provides high protection against unauthorized access BACKGROUND 2 Wireless communication for voice and data is growing worldwide. The amount of DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications)
More informationDeveloping and Investigation of a New Technique Combining Message Authentication and Encryption
Developing and Investigation of a New Technique Combining Message Authentication and Encryption Eyas ElQawasmeh and Saleem Masadeh Computer Science Dept. Jordan University for Science and Technology P.O.
More informationCyber Security Workshop Encryption Reference Manual
Cyber Security Workshop Encryption Reference Manual May 2015 Basic Concepts in Encoding and Encryption Binary Encoding Examples Encryption Cipher Examples 1 P a g e Encoding Concepts Binary Encoding Basics
More informationHolistic Data Security. How to defend your sensitive data against all threats
How to defend your sensitive data against all threats Holistic Data Security How to defend your sensitive data against all threats When dealing with national security information, it is of paramount importance
More informationCRYPTOGRAPHY IN NETWORK SECURITY
ELE548 Research Essays CRYPTOGRAPHY IN NETWORK SECURITY AUTHOR: SHENGLI LI INSTRUCTOR: DR. JIENCHUNG LO Date: March 5, 1999 Computer network brings lots of great benefits and convenience to us. We can
More informationPretty Good Privacy (PGP)
Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) Contents...1 Abstract...2 Introduction...3 The importance of the cryptography...4 The idea about how (PGP) works...5 Legal issues surrounding (PGP)...6 The implementation and
More informationNetwork Security CS 5490/6490 Fall 2015 Lecture Notes 8/26/2015
Network Security CS 5490/6490 Fall 2015 Lecture Notes 8/26/2015 Chapter 2: Introduction to Cryptography What is cryptography? It is a process/art of mangling information in such a way so as to make it
More informationNetwork Security: Cryptography CS/SS G513 S.K. Sahay
Network Security: Cryptography CS/SS G513 S.K. Sahay BITSPilani, K.K. Birla Goa Campus, Goa S.K. Sahay Network Security: Cryptography 1 Introduction Network security: measure to protect data/information
More informationApplicationSpecific Biometric Templates
ApplicationSpecific Biometric s Michael Braithwaite, Ulf Cahn von Seelen, James Cambier, John Daugman, Randy Glass, Russ Moore, Ian Scott, Iridian Technologies Inc. Introduction Biometric technologies
More informationCryptographic hash functions and MACs Solved Exercises for Cryptographic Hash Functions and MACs
Cryptographic hash functions and MACs Solved Exercises for Cryptographic Hash Functions and MACs Enes Pasalic University of Primorska Koper, 2014 Contents 1 Preface 3 2 Problems 4 2 1 Preface This is a
More informationThe application of prime numbers to RSA encryption
The application of prime numbers to RSA encryption Prime number definition: Let us begin with the definition of a prime number p The number p, which is a member of the set of natural numbers N, is considered
More informationEfficient Framework for Deploying Information in Cloud Virtual Datacenters with Cryptography Algorithms
Efficient Framework for Deploying Information in Cloud Virtual Datacenters with Cryptography Algorithms Radhika G #1, K.V.V. Satyanarayana *2, Tejaswi A #3 1,2,3 Dept of CSE, K L University, Vaddeswaram522502,
More informationGT 6.0 GSI C Security: Key Concepts
GT 6.0 GSI C Security: Key Concepts GT 6.0 GSI C Security: Key Concepts Overview GSI uses public key cryptography (also known as asymmetric cryptography) as the basis for its functionality. Many of the
More informationINTRODUCTION TO CRYPTOGRAPHY
INTRODUCTION TO CRYPTOGRAPHY AUTHOR: ANAS TAWILEH anas@tawileh.net Available online at: http://www.tawileh.net/courses/ia This work is released under a Creative Commons AttributionShareAlike 2.5 License
More informationLecture 5  Cryptography
CSE497b Introduction to Computer and Network Security  Spring 2007  Professors Jaeger Lecture 5  Cryptography CSE497b  Spring 2007 Introduction Computer and Network Security Professor Jaeger www.cse.psu.edu/~tjaeger/cse497bs07/
More informationCryptography: Motivation. Data Structures and Algorithms Cryptography. Secret Writing Methods. Many areas have sensitive information, e.g.
Cryptography: Motivation Many areas have sensitive information, e.g. Data Structures and Algorithms Cryptography Goodrich & Tamassia Sections 3.1.3 & 3.1.4 Introduction Simple Methods Asymmetric methods:
More informationA PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF COMMON ENCRYPTION TECHNIQUES WITH SECURE WATERMARK SYSTEM (SWS)
A PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF COMMON ENCRYPTION TECHNIQUES WITH SECURE WATERMARK SYSTEM (SWS) Ashraf Odeh 1, Shadi R.Masadeh 2, Ahmad Azzazi 3 1 Computer Information Systems Department, Isra University,
More informationSandeep Mahapatra Department of Computer Science and Engineering PEC, University of Technology s.mahapatra15101987@gmail.com
Computing For Nation Development, March 10 11, 2011 Bharati Vidyapeeth s Institute of Computer Applications and Management, New Delhi A Comparative Evaluation of Various Encryptions Techniques Committing
More informationQuantum Key Distribution as a NextGeneration Cryptographic Protocol. Andrew Campbell
Quantum Key Distribution as a NextGeneration Cryptographic Protocol Andrew Campbell Abstract Promising advances in the field of quantum computing indicate a growing threat to cryptographic protocols based
More informationCommon Pitfalls in Cryptography for Software Developers. OWASP AppSec Israel July 2006. The OWASP Foundation http://www.owasp.org/
Common Pitfalls in Cryptography for Software Developers OWASP AppSec Israel July 2006 Shay Zalalichin, CISSP AppSec Division Manager, Comsec Consulting shayz@comsecglobal.com Copyright 2006  The OWASP
More informationCryptography and Network Security
Cryptography and Network Security XiangYang Li Introduction The art of war teaches us not on the likelihood of the enemy s not coming, but on our own readiness to receive him; not on the chance of his
More informationCounter Expertise Review on the TNO Security Analysis of the Dutch OVChipkaart. OVChipkaart Security Issues Tutorial for NonExpert Readers
Counter Expertise Review on the TNO Security Analysis of the Dutch OVChipkaart OVChipkaart Security Issues Tutorial for NonExpert Readers The current debate concerning the OVChipkaart security was
More informationCLOUD COMPUTING SECURITY ARCHITECTURE  IMPLEMENTING DES ALGORITHM IN CLOUD FOR DATA SECURITY
CLOUD COMPUTING SECURITY ARCHITECTURE  IMPLEMENTING DES ALGORITHM IN CLOUD FOR DATA SECURITY Varun Gandhi 1 Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Dronacharya College of Engineering, Khentawas,
More informationSecurity for Computer Networks
Security for Computer Networks An Introduction to Data Security in Teleprocessing and Electronic Funds Transfer D. W. Davies Consultant for Data Security and W. L. Price National Physical Laboratory, Teddington,
More informationOverview/Questions. What is Cryptography? The Caesar Shift Cipher. CS101 Lecture 21: Overview of Cryptography
CS101 Lecture 21: Overview of Cryptography Codes and Ciphers Overview/Questions What is cryptography? What are the challenges of data encryption? What factors make an encryption strategy successful? What
More informationProperties of Secure Network Communication
Properties of Secure Network Communication Secrecy: Only the sender and intended receiver should be able to understand the contents of the transmitted message. Because eavesdroppers may intercept the message,
More informationCIS 6930 Emerging Topics in Network Security. Topic 2. Network Security Primitives
CIS 6930 Emerging Topics in Network Security Topic 2. Network Security Primitives 1 Outline Absolute basics Encryption/Decryption; Digital signatures; DH key exchange; Hash functions; Application of hash
More informationHIGH DENSITY DATA STORAGE IN DNA USING AN EFFICIENT MESSAGE ENCODING SCHEME Rahul Vishwakarma 1 and Newsha Amiri 2
HIGH DENSITY DATA STORAGE IN DNA USING AN EFFICIENT MESSAGE ENCODING SCHEME Rahul Vishwakarma 1 and Newsha Amiri 2 1 Tata Consultancy Services, India derahul@ieee.org 2 Bangalore University, India ABSTRACT
More informationClient Server Registration Protocol
Client Server Registration Protocol The ClientServer protocol involves these following steps: 1. Login 2. Discovery phase User (Alice or Bob) has K s Server (S) has hash[pw A ].The passwords hashes are
More informationSubmitedBy: Name Reg No Email Address. Mirza Kashif Abrar 790604T079 kasmir07 (at) student.hh.se
SubmitedBy: Name Reg No Email Address Mirza Kashif Abrar 790604T079 kasmir07 (at) student.hh.se Abid Hussain 780927T039 abihus07 (at) student.hh.se Imran Ahmad Khan 770630T053 imrakh07 (at) student.hh.se
More informationReview Paper on Two Factor Authentication Using Mobile Phone (Android) ISSN 23199725
Review Paper on Two Factor Authentication Using Mobile Phone (Android) ISSN 23199725 Rahul Kale Neha Gore Kavita Nilesh Jadhav Mr. Swapnil Shinde Bachelor s Degree program in Information Technology Engineering
More informationEnova XWall LX Frequently Asked Questions
Enova XWall LX Frequently Asked Questions Q: What is XWall LX? A: XWall LX is the third generation of Enova realtime hard drive cryptographic gateway ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit)
More informationConnected from everywhere. Cryptelo completely protects your data. Data transmitted to the server. Data sharing (both files and directory structure)
Cryptelo Drive Cryptelo Drive is a virtual drive, where your most sensitive data can be stored. Protect documents, contracts, business knowhow, or photographs  in short, anything that must be kept safe.
More informationEncryption, Data Integrity, Digital Certificates, and SSL. Developed by. Jerry Scott. SSL Primer11
Encryption, Data Integrity, Digital Certificates, and SSL Developed by Jerry Scott 2002 SSL Primer11 Ideas Behind Encryption When information is transmitted across intranets or the Internet, others can
More informationThe Data Encryption Standard (DES)
The Data Encryption Standard (DES) As mentioned earlier there are two main types of cryptography in use today  symmetric or secret key cryptography and asymmetric or public key cryptography. Symmetric
More informationSoftware License Management using the Polymorphic Encryption Algorithm White Paper
pmcciphers.com Software License Management using the Polymorphic Encryption Algorithm White Paper Published: May 2007, first published in January 2003 PMC Software License Management 1 Software License
More informationInternational Journal of Information Technology, Modeling and Computing (IJITMC) Vol.1, No.3,August 2013
FACTORING CRYPTOSYSTEM MODULI WHEN THE COFACTORS DIFFERENCE IS BOUNDED Omar Akchiche 1 and Omar Khadir 2 1,2 Laboratory of Mathematics, Cryptography and Mechanics, Fstm, University of Hassan II MohammediaCasablanca,
More informationComputer Networks. Network Security and Ethics. Week 14. College of Information Science and Engineering Ritsumeikan University
Computer Networks Network Security and Ethics Week 14 College of Information Science and Engineering Ritsumeikan University Security Intro for Admins l Network administrators can break security into two
More informationFighting product clones through digital signatures
Paul Curtis, Katrin Berkenkopf Embedded Experts Team, SEGGER Microcontroller Fighting product clones through digital signatures Product piracy and forgery are growing problems that not only decrease turnover
More informationLecture 9: Application of Cryptography
Lecture topics Cryptography basics Using SSL to secure communication links in J2EE programs Programmatic use of cryptography in Java Cryptography basics Encryption Transformation of data into a form that
More informationLecture 10: CPA Encryption, MACs, Hash Functions. 2 Recap of last lecture  PRGs for one time pads
CS 7880 Graduate Cryptography October 15, 2015 Lecture 10: CPA Encryption, MACs, Hash Functions Lecturer: Daniel Wichs Scribe: Matthew Dippel 1 Topic Covered Chosen plaintext attack model of security MACs
More informationPart I. Universität Klagenfurt  IWAS Multimedia Kommunikation (VK) M. Euchner; Mai 2001. Siemens AG 2001, ICN M NT
Part I Contents Part I Introduction to Information Security Definition of Crypto Cryptographic Objectives Security Threats and Attacks The process Security Security Services Cryptography Cryptography (code
More informationNetwork Security. Chapter 6 Random Number Generation. Prof. Dr.Ing. Georg Carle
Network Security Chapter 6 Random Number Generation Prof. Dr.Ing. Georg Carle Chair for Computer Networks & Internet WilhelmSchickardInstitute for Computer Science University of Tübingen http://net.informatik.unituebingen.de/
More informationWhy you need secure email
Why you need secure email WHITE PAPER CONTENTS 1. Executive summary 2. How email works 3. Security threats to your email communications 4. Symmetric and asymmetric encryption 5. Securing your email with
More informationAdvanced Authentication
White Paper Advanced Authentication Introduction In this paper: Introduction 1 User Authentication 2 Device Authentication 3 Message Authentication 4 Advanced Authentication 5 Advanced Authentication is
More informationNetwork Security. HIT Shimrit TzurDavid
Network Security HIT Shimrit TzurDavid 1 Goals: 2 Network Security Understand principles of network security: cryptography and its many uses beyond confidentiality authentication message integrity key
More informationCryptography and Network Security
Cryptography and Network Security Spring 2012 http://users.abo.fi/ipetre/crypto/ Lecture 3: Block ciphers and DES Ion Petre Department of IT, Åbo Akademi University January 17, 2012 1 Data Encryption Standard
More informationSECURITY IMPROVMENTS TO THE DIFFIEHELLMAN SCHEMES
www.arpapress.com/volumes/vol8issue1/ijrras_8_1_10.pdf SECURITY IMPROVMENTS TO THE DIFFIEHELLMAN SCHEMES Malek Jakob Kakish Amman Arab University, Department of Computer Information Systems, P.O.Box 2234,
More informationHooks could have been left around for the imposter to regain control. A.ArpaciDusseau. Remove all files from disk and reinstall all software
UNIVERSITY of WISCONSINMADISON Computer Sciences Department CS 537 A. ArpaciDusseau Intro to Operating Systems Spring 2000 Security Solutions and Encryption Questions answered in these notes: How does
More informationMessage Authentication Code
Message Authentication Code Ali El Kaafarani Mathematical Institute Oxford University 1 of 44 Outline 1 CBCMAC 2 Authenticated Encryption 3 Padding Oracle Attacks 4 Information Theoretic MACs 2 of 44
More informationDesigning a Secure ClientServer System Master of Science Thesis in the Programme Software Engineering & Technology
Designing a Secure ClientServer System Master of Science Thesis in the Programme Software Engineering & Technology FREDRIK ANDERSSON Department of Computer Science and Engineering CHALMERS UNIVERSITY
More informationPGP (Pretty Good Privacy) INTRODUCTION ZHONG ZHAO
PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) INTRODUCTION ZHONG ZHAO In The Next 15 Minutes, You May Know What is PGP? Why using PGP? What can it do? How did it evolve? How does it work? How to work it? What s its limitation?
More informationSAMPLE EXAM QUESTIONS MODULE EE5552 NETWORK SECURITY AND ENCRYPTION ECE, SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND DESIGN BRUNEL UNIVERSITY UXBRIDGE MIDDLESEX, UK
SAMPLE EXAM QUESTIONS MODULE EE5552 NETWORK SECURITY AND ENCRYPTION September 2010 (reviewed September 2014) ECE, SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND DESIGN BRUNEL UNIVERSITY UXBRIDGE MIDDLESEX, UK NETWORK SECURITY
More informationContent Teaching Academy at James Madison University
Content Teaching Academy at James Madison University 1 2 The Battle Field: Computers, LANs & Internetworks 3 Definitions Computer Security  generic name for the collection of tools designed to protect
More informationTechniques of Asymmetric File Encryption. Alvin Li Thomas Jefferson High School For Science and Technology Computer Systems Lab
Techniques of Asymmetric File Encryption Alvin Li Thomas Jefferson High School For Science and Technology Computer Systems Lab Abstract As more and more people are linking to the Internet, threats to the
More informationMACs Message authentication and integrity. Table of contents
MACs Message authentication and integrity Foundations of Cryptography Computer Science Department Wellesley College Table of contents Introduction MACs Constructing Secure MACs Secure communication and
More informationCS 758: Cryptography / Network Security
CS 758: Cryptography / Network Security offered in the Fall Semester, 2003, by Doug Stinson my office: DC 3122 my email address: dstinson@uwaterloo.ca my web page: http://cacr.math.uwaterloo.ca/~dstinson/index.html
More informationCryptography and Network Security Chapter 9
Cryptography and Network Security Chapter 9 Fifth Edition by William Stallings Lecture slides by Lawrie Brown (with edits by RHB) Chapter 9 Public Key Cryptography and RSA Every Egyptian received two names,
More informationIT Networks & Security CERT Luncheon Series: Cryptography
IT Networks & Security CERT Luncheon Series: Cryptography Presented by Addam Schroll, IT Security & Privacy Analyst 1 Outline History Terms & Definitions Symmetric and Asymmetric Algorithms Hashing PKI
More informationCryptographic process for Cyber Safeguard by using PGP
Cryptographic process for Cyber Safeguard by using PGP Bharatratna P. Gaikwad 1 Department of Computer Science and IT, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University Aurangabad, India 1 ABSTRACT: Data security
More informationCryptography and Key Management Basics
Cryptography and Key Management Basics Erik Zenner Technical University Denmark (DTU) Institute for Mathematics e.zenner@mat.dtu.dk DTU, Oct. 23, 2007 Erik Zenner (DTUMAT) Cryptography and Key Management
More informationCSE/EE 461 Lecture 23
CSE/EE 461 Lecture 23 Network Security David Wetherall djw@cs.washington.edu Last Time Naming Application Presentation How do we name hosts etc.? Session Transport Network Domain Name System (DNS) Data
More informationNetwork Security. Computer Networking Lecture 08. March 19, 2012. HKU SPACE Community College. HKU SPACE CC CN Lecture 08 1/23
Network Security Computer Networking Lecture 08 HKU SPACE Community College March 19, 2012 HKU SPACE CC CN Lecture 08 1/23 Outline Introduction Cryptography Algorithms Secret Key Algorithm Message Digest
More informationSecure ECommerce: Understanding the Public Key Cryptography Jigsaw Puzzle
CRYPTOGRAPHY Secure ECommerce: Understanding the Public Key Cryptography Jigsaw Puzzle Viswanathan Kodaganallur, Ph.D. Today almost all organizations use the Internet extensively for both intra and interorganizational
More informationTechnical Safeguards is the third area of safeguard defined by the HIPAA Security Rule. The technical safeguards are intended to create policies and
Technical Safeguards is the third area of safeguard defined by the HIPAA Security Rule. The technical safeguards are intended to create policies and procedures to govern who has access to electronic protected
More informationHill s Cipher: Linear Algebra in Cryptography
Ryan Doyle Hill s Cipher: Linear Algebra in Cryptography Introduction: Since the beginning of written language, humans have wanted to share information secretly. The information could be orders from a
More informationNetwork Security  ISA 656 Introduction to Cryptography
Network Security  ISA 656 Angelos Stavrou September 18, 2007 Codes vs. K = {0, 1} l P = {0, 1} m C = {0, 1} n, C C E : P K C D : C K P p P, k K : D(E(p, k), k) = p It is infeasible to find F : P C K Let
More informationAn Introduction to Cryptography and Digital Signatures
An Introduction to Cryptography and Digital Signatures Author: Ian Curry March 2001 Version 2.0 Copyright 20012003 Entrust. All rights reserved. Cryptography The concept of securing messages through
More informationKeywords Cloud Computing, CRC, RC4, RSA, Windows Microsoft Azure
Volume 3, Issue 11, November 2013 ISSN: 2277 128X International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering Research Paper Available online at: www.ijarcsse.com Cloud Computing
More informationanonymous secure decentralized SMS stealthtext transactions
anonymous secure decentralized SMS stealthtext transactions WHITEPAPER STATE OF THE ART 2/8 WHAT IS STEALTHTEXT? stealthtext is a way to send stealthcoin privately and securely using SMS texting. stealthtext
More informationCUNSHENG DING HKUST, Hong Kong. Computer Security. Computer Security. Cunsheng DING, HKUST COMP4631
Cunsheng DING, HKUST Lecture 08: Key Management for Onekey Ciphers Topics of this Lecture 1. The generation and distribution of secret keys. 2. A key distribution protocol with a key distribution center.
More informationcipher: the algorithm or function used for encryption and decryption
! "# $ %& %'()! *,+ & .! % % / 01 2+ 34 576!! 8 9! ": ;
More informationNetwork Security. Chapter 6 Random Number Generation
Network Security Chapter 6 Random Number Generation 1 Tasks of Key Management (1)! Generation:! It is crucial to security, that keys are generated with a truly random or at least a pseudorandom generation
More informationShor s algorithm and secret sharing
Shor s algorithm and secret sharing Libor Nentvich: QC 23 April 2007: Shor s algorithm and secret sharing 1/41 Goals: 1 To explain why the factoring is important. 2 To describe the oldest and most successful
More informationComputer and Network Security. Alberto Marchetti Spaccamela
Computer and Network Security Alberto Marchetti Spaccamela Slides are strongly based on material by Amos Fiat Good crypto courses on the Web with interesting material on web site of: Ron Rivest, MIT Dan
More informationThe Mathematics of the RSA PublicKey Cryptosystem
The Mathematics of the RSA PublicKey Cryptosystem Burt Kaliski RSA Laboratories ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Dr Burt Kaliski is a computer scientist whose involvement with the security industry has been through
More informationOverview Keys. Overview
Overview Keys Overview The PGPmail program performs fast, highsecurity, publickey encrypting (with optional compression), decrypting, and authenticating of electronic messages and files. The program
More information