1 BRIEFING PAPER Number 00651, 31 December 2014 Employees Rights on Insolvency of Company By Doug Pyper and Lorraine Conway Inside: 1. Employment Rights 2. Payments covered by the State 3. Tax on redundancy pay 4. Insolvency proceedings
2 Number 00651, 18 June Contents Summary 3 1. Employment Rights Overview Administrators and contracts of employment 4 2. Payments covered by the State Redundancy Payments Scheme Pensions Contributions Payments covered by HM Revenue and Customs Tax on redundancy pay Insolvency proceedings Provable debts Payment of creditors claims 12 Fixed charge holder 12 Preferential creditors 12 Floating charge holder 13 Unsecured creditors 13 Cover page image copyright: no attribution required
3 3 Employees Rights on Insolvency of Company Summary Employees who are owed money when their employer becomes insolvent are entitled to reclaim certain debts from the Redundancy Payments Office of the Department for Business innovation and Skills (BIS). They may also be able to recover some money as creditors of the company. This note gives further details as well as examining employment rights in these circumstances
4 Number 00651, 18 June Employment Rights 1.1 Overview The following employment rights can be relied on by employees in cases where their employer becomes insolvent: Employees dismissed by administrators or administrative receivers may look to them for payment of certain claims which arise during the period of administration or receivership. Under the Employment Rights Act 1996 (ERA) employees may be entitled to have some of the debts owed to them by their insolvent employer covered by the state. This is done via the Redundancy Payments Scheme operated by the Insolvency Service. In some cases, under ERA, an employee who belongs to an occupational pension scheme may have unpaid employer s contributions paid by the state. Furthermore, under the Pensions Act 2004, pension schemes may be covered by the Pension Protection Fund. An employee s entitlement to certain statutory payments such as statutory sick pay and maternity, paternity and adoption pay may be covered by HM Revenue and Customs. Employees are treated as preferential creditors under the Insolvency Act 1986 in respect of unpaid wages owed in the four months before the date of the insolvency order. There is no requirement for a qualifying period of continuous employment for any of these rights. However, merchant seamen and share fishermen, as well as crown and parliamentary staff are excluded from the rights in Part XII of the ERA to have certain debts and pension contributions guaranteed by the state. 1.2 Administrators and contracts of employment An administration order is an order directing that the affairs, business and property of a company shall be managed by a person appointed by the court. 1 On a petition by the company, its directors or creditors, an administrator will be appointed. The primary objective of administration is to rescue the company as a going concern (i.e. with as much of its business as possible). If the business cannot be saved, the administrator can perform his functions with the aim of achieving a better return for creditors than would be achieved in liquidation. Once in administration, the company is placed under the day-to-day control and management of the administrator. If an insolvent company is forced into compulsory liquidation it will immediately stop trading and all employees will be laid off. 2 However, administration is different, it provides for the potential rescue of the company (or at least the most profitable part its business) and the 1 Insolvency Act 1986, section 8(2) 2 Reid v Explosives Company Limited  QBD 264
5 5 Employees Rights on Insolvency of Company potential to save some jobs. The appointment of an administrator by the court does not involve automatic dismissal of employees. 3 It is important to note that in both cases employees will still have the right to claim in an employment tribunal for statutory redundancy pay and other statutory or contractual employment rights against the company. 3 Re Mack Trucks (Britain) Limited  1WLR 780; also under IA 1986 section 44(1)(a) administrator is an agent for the company.
6 Number 00651, 18 June Payments covered by the State 2.1 Redundancy Payments Scheme Under the Employment Rights Act 1996 (ERA), as amended by the annual uprating Employment Rights (Increase of Limits) Orders, the Redundancy Payments Office (RPO) operated by the Insolvency Service must pay certain debts owed by an insolvent employer to his employees. 4 The debts covered are: 5 1 Arrears of pay up to 464 a week (rate effective since 6 April ) for a maximum of eight weeks. This payment includes: commission, overtime and guarantee payments. 2 Statutory payments for time off work; or suspension on medical or maternity grounds. 3 Any protective award made by an employment tribunal if an employer has failed to inform or consult worker s representative about a collective redundancy. 4 Holiday pay, for unused holidays and for holidays actually taken but not paid, up to a weekly limit of 464 for a maximum of six weeks. Holiday pay may include holiday carried over from the previous year if the contract of employment allows this. 5 A compensatory payment for failure to give proper statutory notice, up to a weekly limit of An unpaid basic award made by an employment tribunal of compensation for unfair dismissal. (Unfair dismissal awards are usually made up of two components: a basic award calculated according to age, length of service and pay, and a compensatory award determined by the tribunal to take account of the actual loss sustained. These provisions cover only the basic award.) 7 Reasonable reimbursement of apprentices or articled clerks fees or premiums. Unlike holiday pay and compensation, the full amounts can be recovered. 7 8 Statutory redundancy payments. The amount of a statutory redundancy payment is the employee s weekly pay (up to a limit currently set at 464 a week) multiplied by a number of qualifying weeks depending on how long the employee has been in the job. The BIS information leaflet PL718 explains this as follows: week s pay for each full year of service where age during year less than 22 week s pay for each full year of service where age during year is 22 or above, but less than 41 4 BIS, Redundancy Payments Offices 5 Section 184 of the Employment Rights Act The Employment Rights (Increase of Limits) Order An articled clerk was someone in work-based training in a firm of solicitors or accountants. For solicitors these professional arrangements have changed and are now referred to as training contracts and such individuals are now called trainee solicitors. The Act does not define this term. 8 BIS, Redundancy entitlement - statutory rights. A guide for employees, 2009, URN 09/515
7 7 Employees Rights on Insolvency of Company 1.5 weeks pay for each full year of service where age during year is 41+ Complaints about the Department's failure to make such payments are dealt with by employment tribunals. 9 In the case of redundancy payments, (but not arrears of wages etc) the RPO may also assume responsibility where the employee has taken all reasonable steps (other than legal proceedings) to recover the payment from the employer and the employer has refused or failed to pay it. 10 In other words, the company does not need to be insolvent for a redundancy payment to be recovered from the Department. Again, disputes about redundancy payments are settled by employment tribunals. The BIS guidance summarises the position as follows: 11 The insolvency provisions of the 1996 Act apply only when an employer has become legally insolvent as defined in section 183 of the 1996 Act. The RPO has no discretion to make insolvency payments in any other circumstances. The table in appendix 1 shows the categories of insolvency included in the statutory definition and the dates when each becomes effective under the 1996 Act. The table given in Appendix 1 to the guidance is as follows: Appendix 1 - Insolvency categories and relevant dates England and Wales Bankruptcy Making of compositions and schemes of arrangement Making of administration orders (deceased Scotland Awards of sequestration or warrant to cite Executions of trust deed and making of composition contracts Appointment of judicial factors (deceased insolvent) Effective date of insolvency England and Wales. Date of bankruptcy order Scotland Date of award of sequestration (where debtor petitioned the court) or the date the Warrant to Cite was given (where a creditor petitions for sequestration) Date of executing deed or signing contract, or operative date specified in the document Date of administration order (England and Wales). Date of 9 Section 188 of the Employment Rights Act Section 166(1)(a) of the Employment Rights Act Insolvency Service, Redundancy and Insolvency A guide for insolvency practitioners to employees' rights on the insolvency of their employer, 2008, URN 08/550
8 Number 00651, 18 June insolvent) Company and limited liability partnership administration orders Company administration orders appointment of judicial factor (Scotland) Date of administration order Company and limited liability partnership voluntary arrangements Company voluntary arrangements Date arrangement is approved Compulsory liquidations of companies and limited liability partnerships Compulsory liquidations of companies Date of winding-up order Voluntary liquidations of companies and limited liability partnerships Voluntary liquidations of companies Date of passing of resolution for voluntary winding up Receiverships or managerships of companies and limited liability partnership undertakings Date of appointment of receiver or manager Possession taken by debenture holders of companies and limited liability partnerships property secured by a floating charge only Date of taking possession of property comprised in or subject to the charge Ex employees wishing to make a claim under these provisions should apply to their employer s representative (for example, the receiver, liquidator or trustee) for an application form (RP1). The completed form should be sent to the RPO. Form RP1 together with full details of how to apply are also contained in a leaflet, available on the BIS website. 12 Employees who have outstanding claims which are not covered by this scheme must submit a claim to the employer s representative who will consider it separately as part of the insolvency proceedings. 12 Insolvency Service, Redundancy and Insolvency A guide for insolvency practitioners to employees' rights on the insolvency of their employer, 2008, URN 08/550
9 9 Employees Rights on Insolvency of Company Further basic guidance on making claims through the Redundancy Payments Service, and contact details for general advice on making claims, is set out in this Redundancy Payments Service fact sheet Pensions Contributions Under section 124 of the Pension Schemes Act 1993, the trustees of an occupational pension scheme may apply in writing to the Secretary of State claiming that an insolvent employer has failed to pay pension contributions (either on their own account or on behalf of the employee) into the scheme during the 12 months preceding the date on which the employer became insolvent. 14 The Insolvency Service guidance gives practical information about how such claims are handled: Unpaid pension scheme contribution Section 124 of the Pension Schemes Act 1993 (as amended) provides for the payment of certain contributions that are owed to an occupational or personal pension scheme when an employer becomes insolvent. Persons competent to act under the trust deed or rules of a scheme (for example, the trustees) may apply for payment to a scheme. The following contributions are payable: unpaid contributions on behalf of an employee, i.e. contributions which have been deducted from the pay of the employee, but which have not been paid into the resources of the scheme, up to a maximum of the amount deducted from the employee s pay in respect of his/her contributions to the scheme during the 12 months ending on the day before the employer became insolvent; unpaid contributions payable by the employer on its own account, to a limit of whichever is the least of: the balance of the employer s contributions relating to the 12 months ending on the day before the employer became insolvent; the amount certified by an actuary as necessary for the scheme to meet its liability on dissolution for payment of benefits to the employees (this condition does not apply to money purchase schemes); an amount equal to 10% of the total pay of the employees concerned for the 12 months ending on the day before the employer became insolvent. The trustees or administrators of the scheme should apply for payment from the NI Fund on form RP15 enclosing form RP16 (actuarial certificate) if appropriate. Since the amount payable in respect of the employer s contributions does not depend on the result of a preferential claim, the completion of form RP16 need 13 Insolvency Service Redundancy Payments Service Fact Sheet, URN 13/657, February Insolvency Service, leaflet IL2 (Rev 2): Insolvency of Employers: safeguard of occupational pension scheme contributions (URN 02/594). A hard copy of the leaflet is available from BIS publications orderline: /02594.aspx
10 Number 00651, 18 June not await the declaration of a preferential dividend. You should agree the claim with the scheme s trustees or administrators, complete Part 2 of form RP15 and send it to the RPO with form RP16 if appropriate. The RPO will make the payment directly to the pension scheme s bank account or that of the trustee or administrator. Please ensure that the correct pension scheme reference number is put on the RP15. Booklet IL2 Insolvency of employers: safeguard of pension scheme contributions gives further information Payments covered by HM Revenue and Customs If an employee is unable to obtain her statutory maternity pay because her employer is insolvent, she will be entitled to be paid by HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC). 16 Similarly, liability to pay statutory sick pay transfers to the Commissioners where an employer is insolvent. 17 In the same way, liability to pay statutory paternity pay or statutory adoption pay under the Social Security Contributions and Benefits Act 1982 falls upon the Commissioners of Revenue and Customs in circumstances where the employer in insolvent Redundancy and Insolvency - A Guide for Insolvency Practitioners to employees' rights on the insolvency of their employer (URN 08/550); deforips.htm 16 Regulations 7(3), 7(4), 30 of the Statutory Maternity Pay (General) Regulations 1986 SI No Regulation 9B of the Statutory Sick Pay (General) Regulations 1982 SI No. 894 (as amended) 18 Statutory Paternity Pay and Statutory Adoption Pay (General) Regulations 2002 SI No. 2822
11 11 Employees Rights on Insolvency of Company 3. Tax on redundancy pay There are two types of redundancy pay - statutory and non-statutory. Statutory redundancy pay is the legal minimum which an employer is obliged to pay an employee. 19 This type of payment is distinct from exgratia or non-statutory redundancy payments; that is, those which an employer chooses to make, which are not made under a contractual obligation. Statutory redundancy pay is exempt from income tax, 20 whereas ex-gratia payments are not. 21 However, individuals are eligible to receive the first 30,000 of their total redundancy pay tax-free. 22 Although statutory redundancy pay is not assessable for income tax purposes, when applying the 30,000 threshold it is included in the calculation of someone s total redundancy pay. 23 Ex-gratia payments in excess of the 30,000 limit are treated as taxable income. Only the excess over 30,000 is taxed. HM Revenue & Customs publish a factsheet setting out the tax rules for redundancy payments, which is available from their site. 24 Detailed guidance on the tax treatment of all types of termination payments and benefits is provided in the department s online Employment Income Manual. 25 A recent piece in the technical journal, Taxation, on this issue is attached below. 26 The limit was increased by 5,000 to 30,000 in the 1988 Budget, with effect from 6 April Although there have been calls for this limit to be increased in recent years, 28 the Government has not given any indication that it has plans to do so Guidance on the law is given on the DirectGov web pages Redundancy and Entitlement to Redundancy Pay Further information can be found on the, Department for Trade and Industry, Redundancy entitlement: statutory rights: a guide for employees - URN No: 08/640, This is available at the archived website: 20 Under section 309 of the Income Tax (Earnings and Pensions) Act (ITEPA) Under ss of ITEPA Under section 403 of ITEPA It is worth noting that under current rules the maximum amount of statutory redundancy pay someone can receive is far lower than 30, Inland Revenue, Redundancy factsheet, March 2005 At: 25 specifically paras EIM The Manual is available at: 26 Terminate, terminate, Taxation, 4 September Inland Revenue press release, Tax relief for redundancy etc payments, 15 March This change was made under section 74 of the Finance Act In May 2002 Helen Jones put down an EDM supporting an increase in the threshold which attracted 54 signatures (EDM 1313 of , Tax threshold for redundancy pay, 15 May 2002). 29 The issue has come up in a number of PQs; for example, HC Deb 17 July 2003 c 462W; HC Deb 10 March 2004 c 1550W; HC Deb 16 March 2005 c 295W.
12 Number 00651, 18 June Insolvency proceedings 30 In legal terms, insolvency of a company may be defined either as: having insufficient assets to meet all debts, or being unable to pay debts as and when they fall due. 4.1 Provable debts When a compulsory liquidation order is made against a company, all creditors (including employees) have to formally register their claim in the insolvency, which is done by notifying the liquidator (an insolvency practitioner) of their claim in writing, backed by evidence if required. In liquidations, generally all debts are provable. This means that the liquidator will 'admit' the claim in the liquidation as long as he is satisfied that the debt is owed. 4.2 Payment of creditors claims Generally, assets of an insolvent company are sold and the proceeds used to pay company debts. The order in which debts are paid is prescribed by the Insolvency Act 1986 (IA 1986) (as amended) and the Enterprise Act 2002 and is as follows: 1 Any creditor holding a fixed charge over the asset (e.g. a mortgage) 2 The expenses of the liquidation 3 Preferential debts 4 Any creditor holding a floating charge over an asset (e.g. a debenture) 5 All unsecured creditors (also known as ordinary creditors) 6 In company cases, the shareholders Employees of an insolvent company have a degree of preference under the IA Each category of debtor is described in more detail below. Fixed charge holder Under a fixed charge a specific building or asset (such as a piece of machinery) is used as security for a business loan or mortgage. If the borrower fails to repay the loan, the asset in question is forfeit. In effect, the holder of a fixed charge (often referred to as a secured creditor ) will sell the asset that has been secured rather than rely on the insolvency process to recover payment of his debt. Preferential creditors Preferential debts are unsecured debts which, by statute, are to be paid in priority to all other unsecured debts. In addition, where debts are paid out of assets subject to a floating charge, preferential debts are paid in priority to claims secured by any floating charge. 30 This section was written by Lorraine Conway, Home Affairs Section
13 13 Employees Rights on Insolvency of Company The categories of preferential debts for all forms of insolvency are listed in Schedule 6 to the IA In respect of employees, preferential debts include money owing for: PAYE; social security contributions; occupational pension scheme contributions; and remuneration (including holiday pay, guarantee payment and pay for time off work if for trade union duties, ante-natal care or medical suspension required by statute). When a liquidator comes to make a distribution from the insolvent company s estate, amounts due in respect of preferential debts are paid after amounts secured by a fixed charge, and the expenses of the liquidation, but before all other liabilities. With effect from 15 September 2003, the Enterprise Act 2002 (EA 2002) has abolished the Crown s preferential rights to recover unpaid taxes ahead of other creditors. In practice this means that amounts due to the Inland Revenue in respect of income tax and National Insurance Contributions in the 12 months prior to the insolvency, and amounts due to HM Customs and Excise including VAT in the six months prior to the insolvency will no longer be treated as preferential debts. In corporate insolvencies, assets released as a consequence of the abolition of Crown preference are ring-fenced for unsecured creditors. However, in any insolvency proceedings where the petition was presented before 15 September 2003, the Crown s preferential rights still stand. Other categories of preferential debt remain unchanged by the EA This means that the preferential status of certain claims by employees in insolvency proceedings in respect of wages and holiday pay within certain limits will remain preferential. Floating charge holder A floating charge holder is usually a bank which takes the floating charge as security for its financial exposure to the company. Unlike a fixed charge, a floating charge does not attach to a specific item of company property. Instead it is a charge on those company assets which are constantly changing (e.g. stock, book debts and work in progress). If the company defaults on the terms of the loan, then the floating charge is said to crystallize. At that stage the floating charge is converted to a fixed charge over the assets which it covers at that time. Floating charge holders will be paid after preferential creditors but before unsecured creditors. Unsecured creditors Unsecured creditors, often referred to as ordinary creditors, are creditors who do not hold any security for the money owed to them. Unsecured creditors have no legal title to specified assets of the company and in insolvency proceedings are subordinate to secured creditors, preferential creditors and those with a floating charge.
14 About the Library The House of Commons Library research service provides MPs and their staff with the impartial briefing and evidence base they need to do their work in scrutinising Government, proposing legislation, and supporting constituents. As well as providing MPs with a confidential service we publish open briefing papers, which are available on the Parliament website. Every effort is made to ensure that the information contained in these publically available research briefings is correct at the time of publication. Readers should be aware however that briefings are not necessarily updated or otherwise amended to reflect subsequent changes. If you have any comments on our briefings please Authors are available to discuss the content of this briefing only with Members and their staff. If you have any general questions about the work of the House of Commons you can Disclaimer This information is provided to Members of Parliament in support of their parliamentary duties. It is a general briefing only and should not be relied on as a substitute for specific advice. The House of Commons or the author(s) shall not be liable for any errors or omissions, or for any loss or damage of any kind arising from its use, and may remove, vary or amend any information at any time without prior notice. BRIEFING PAPER Number 00651, 18 June 2015 The House of Commons accepts no responsibility for any references or links to, or the content of, information maintained by third parties. This information is provided subject to the conditions of the Open Parliament Licence.
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