1 Automobile Insurance: Evolution and Trends AAIARD Montreal, November 6th, 2009 Germain Denoncourt, FCAS, FCIA
2 Summary Prehistory: before : major innovation More recent past Auto insurance in Canada per region/province Two main pieces: Ontario and Quebec Discussion about actuarial techniques Expected future trends
3 Prehistory: before 1930 First motor vehicles Horses and cars living together First traffic lights : UK 1868? USA 1912? First turnpikes and multi-level highways Dangerous sites
4 Prehistory: before 1930 Accident example in Manhattan (1901)
5 Major innovation 1930 : mandatory auto insurance in UK!! Reasons Implications Reflections on the 1974 "Rapport Gauvin" in the province of Quebec US states vs mandatory and No-Fault Outside Canada and US
6 More recent past Automobiles insurance development in Canada First C.A.S. Fellow from Quebec province: around FCAS working in Canada, 2009: from C.A.S. listings 102 FCAS working in Quebec 335 AAIARD members, summer 2009 (not all in auto insurance ) Actuaries "needed" : estimated per capita, per vehicles,,p per $ millions of Direct Written Premiums? Regular evolution of provincial auto insurance regimes and regulation in Ontario, Alberta, Atlantic provinces since 1990 Government auto insurers : BC 1973, Quebec 1978
7 Canada per region/province British Columbia - Population (July 2008): Government Insurer : Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC) since 1973 Offer all coverages, the only one to sell "TPL base" Responsabilities spread to vehicle registration, driving licenses, safety and others Electoral promise early 2000 s: increase competition ICBC : Net premiums written 2008 : 3,6G$* Private insurers part in 2007**: 4,9% of DWP * source: ICBC annual report ** source: Brown Chart 2007
8 Canada per region/province Alberta Population (July 2008): Private insurers, regime with fault No Fault BI rather limited «Accident Benefits» coverage Collision, Comprehensive: as in Quebec, Ontario (optional) Rate regulation differs per coverage in PPA Direct written premiums 2008, PPA: $2,3G Avg written premium per vehicle PPA 2008 = $1051 Avg written premium per vehicle PPA - TPL 2008 = $543 Loss ratios 5 years: quite stable!
9 Alberta (continued) Population Written Written Loss July % vehicles % vehicles % ratios ('000) Var. PPA Var. per capita Var. GISA , % 2,190, % % 59% , % 2,112,463, 5.3% % 60% , % 2,006, % % 65% , % 1,886, % % 72% ,240 1,777, % 5 years 9,973,633 65%
10 Canada per region/province Saskatchewan popu. (July 2008): Saskatchewan Government Insurance (SGI) government insurer since 1945 Saskatchewan Auto Fund : Direct Written Premiums 2008 : $ Market share for private insurers in Saskatchewan auto: very low
11 Canada per region/province Manitoba - population July 2008 : Manitoba Public Insurance (MPI) government insurer since 1971 Direct Written Premiums 2008 : $ Market share for private insurers in Manitoba auto: very low
12 Canada per region/province Atlantic Provinces popu. (July 2008 : ) Nova Scotia: New Brunswick: Newfoundland d and Labrador: Prince Edward Island: rate regulation systems in auto insurance Direct Written Premiums 2008, PPA: $1,06G Avg written premium per vehicle PPA 2008 = $828 (In comparison, the Montreal metropolitan region : population near )
13 Atlantic provinces (continued) Population Written Written vehicles Loss July % vehicles % per % ratios ('000) Var. PPA Var. capita Var. GISA , % 1,280, % % 59% , % 1,246,924, 2.3% % 60% , % 1,219, % % 56% , % 1,184, % % 54% ,344 1,163, % 5 years 6,095,027 56%
14 The case of Ontario Population (July 2008): Private insurers Injuries occuring in Ontario : No-Fault but can sue at fault driver if over a given treshold Physical Damage Not-at-Fault: (DCPD) Direct Compensation Property Damage since 1994 Optional coverages : Collision, Comprehensive similar as in Quebec (UM and UDM exist too)
15 The case of Ontario Many law changes : OMPP June Bill 164 Jan. 1st, 1994 Bill 59 Nov. 1st, 1996 Bill 198 Oct. 1st, 2003 Harsh regulation of rates in PPA Direct Written Premiums 2008 PPA: $8,5G Avg. Written premium per vehicle PPA 2008: $1 313 Current discussions: rates are increasing, Avg. P high, loss ratios high, consumers and insurers all unhappy
16 Ontario (continued) Population Written Written Loss July % vehicles % vehicles % ratios ('000) Var. PPA Var. per capita Var. GISA , % 6,484, % % 80% ,794 10% 1.0% 6,389, % 1.9% % 0.9% 80% , % 6,271, % % 72% , % 6,131, % % 67% ,391 5,973, % 5 years 31,251,007 72%
17 Ontario (continued) Coverage of No-Fault Injuries "Accident Benefits" generous Coverage of No-Fault Injuries "Accident Benefits" costly (Avg Earned Premium AB per vehicle 2008 = 382$ in PPA, 460$ in AB motorcycles, AB clearly underrated) Over the threshold BI is risky ($ avg severity PPA, over $ in ATV, 2008 GISA) Injuries rates hard to determine for actuaries
18 Ontario (continued) An exemple of sharp regulation : FSCO rates per territory territories i max, 10 max within Toronto "Common definition per coverage" "Minimum exposure number" "Contiguous rule" "Min and max variations when change"
19 The case of Quebec Population (July 2008): "Gauvin Report" 1974: high premiums, accessibility problems, uninsured motorists, slow payments 1978 Creation of Société de l Assurance Automobile du Québec (SAAQ) : Injuries covered by No-Fault government scheme Private Insurers: No-Fault PD to vehicles if not-at-fault - Direct Compensation Property damage - DCPD (new) ; very few lawsuits remain Private Insurers : Optionnal coverages "own damage" Collision (B2) and Comprehensive (theft, ) (B3) Very "différent" regime, stable since 1978
20 Quebec (continued) SAAQ Death rates Ratio Registered Deaths Death rate 1973 vs Year vehicles per vehi. year ,665, ,539, ,402, ,306, ,203, ,063, ,881, Max 2,265,
21 Quebec (continued) SAAQ data 25 years death rate decrease main reasons : Stit Stricter laws against drinking di and driving di i 3 points seatbelts mandatory (and enforced) Improved vehicle design, better protection of occupants, air bags on the rise Table de la Sécurité Routière Other safety measures
22 Quebec (continued) Private insurers (since 1978) : physical damage to vehicles (+ BI/PD to TP if accident not in Quebec) $ paid for "not-in-quebec" : 5% Direct Compensation PD : good, stable system Free rate competition (Use and File, easy) DWP 2008 Private Passenger (PPA): $2,5G Avg. Written Premium per vehi. PPA 2008: $562 (not including $ SAAQ car register and driving license) Very stable loss ratios? (not always)
23 Quebec (continued) Population Written Written Loss July 2008 % Vehicles % Vehicles % ratios ('000) Var. PPA Var. per capita Var. GAA , % 4,433, % % 64.2% , % 4,352, % % 63.2% ,632 07% 0.7% 4,256,709 25% 2.5% % 1.8% 61.5% , % 4,153, % % 60.5% ,536 4,080, % 5 years 21,277, %
24 Quebec (continued) Population % Written % Written % Loss July var. Vehicles var. Vehicles var. ratios ('000) 5 years PPA 5 years per capita 5 years GAA , % 4,352, % % 63.2% , % 3,863, % % 61.6% , % 3,429, % % 81.0% , % 3,174, % % 69.0% , % 2,749, % % 83.5% ,581 2,152, %
25 Evolution: actuarial techniques Hugo Fortin (AAIARD 2004) writes: do reforms in auto insurance in Canada threaten the solvency of several insurers?
26 Evolution: actuarial techniques If high h direct loss ratios, who is "faulty" "? A) Regulators? B) Consumers shopping "too much"? C) Marketing guys, IT, claims department? D) Insurance companies top management? E) P&C actuaries? F) None of the above answers? G) A mix of A to E answers?
27 Evolution: actuarial techniques Refinement of "Vehicles classification and Rate Groups" Since around 1993, classification tables for vehicles PPA in Canada exists under "CLEAR rate groups" CLEAR (Canadian Loss Experience Automobile Rating) rates all vehicles "PPA" according to their expected insurance cost per coverage (normalized for other factors effects), based on detailed data from industry and Government insurers Combined and Un-Combined Tables per coverage exist MSRP table (based on Manufacturer Suggested Retail Price): remnant of the past or still useful for vehicles not PPA? "Can beat" CLEAR? First, know it well?
28 Future evolution Who in this room normally forecasts Expected market share of his employer (if private insurer) in the annual budget? Raise your hand! Number of written vehicles for your employer (raise your hand )? Number of written vehicles in the market? Number of written vehicles per capita? Quebec population (or other province population)? Global frequencies and severities, or even global per coverage and not by KOL? (Don t raise your hand )!
29 Future evolution Who was using, 15 or 20 years ago, for setting automobile insurance rates and rate differentials : Pure premium methods (one-way) Loss ratio methods (one-way) Decision trees (one-way) Minimum bias (2 or 3 ways maximum) GLM s, Neural Networks, Text Mining Usage Based Insurance / Pay As You Drive 15 or 20 years ago on line quotes on the Web? Same questions 10, 5, 2 years ago?
30 Future evolution Who, in 2, 5, 10 years will use for setting automobile insurance rates and rate differentials : Pure premium methods (one-way) Loss ratio methods (one-way) Decision trees (one-way) Minimum bias (2 or 3 ways maximum) GLM s, Neural Networks, Text Mining Usage Based Insurance / Pay As You Drive Other methods to come?
31 Future evolution A rise in number of risk factors/rating ating criteria ia Precision of "categories/levels" per risk factor Fraud detection with actuarial involvement Sensivity/elasticity studies Optimization techniques or of automobile rate regulation? Continuing trend vs of direct writer mkt share? Threatening "Usage Based Insurance"?
32 Future evolution Several companies with UBI experience Progressive - USA GMAC mileage discount - USA Holland Insurance in South Africa Norwich Union - UK Aviva Canada
33 Future evolution a simple example - we need or we fear UBI? Estimated t risk per month of year, numbers (SAAQ data)* Season Death Serious Minor All 3 injury injury categories Spring Summer Fall Winter * For one given past year, whole province, not controlled for factor effects other than season itself
34 Illustrating past and future evolution who said? A plan without action, it s a dream but action without a plan, it s a nightmare! Answer : it s a Japanese proverb!
35 Illustrating past and future evolution So, do you have a (good) plan for ratemaking in automobile insurance for the future and will you put it into action (soon)? If you have a plan, are you an actuary sentenced to excellence? * If yes, conscious of this fact, will you deliver? * * parody of a Quebec humorist show
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