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1 LESSON 2 TEACHER S GUIDE by Darleen Ramos Fountas-Pinnell Level S Biography Selection Summary This biography covers the life and career of, from his boyhood to retirement. He became the first African-American judge on the Supreme Court, realizing his dream of equal rights for all Americans. Number of Words: 1,264 Characteristics of the Text Genre Biography Text Structure Third-person narrative organized in six short chapters Content Life, education, and legal career of Brown vs. Board of Education Themes and Ideas Education can help people realize their dreams. All people have the right to be treated equally. Language and Conversational language Literary Features Writer addresses the reader Sentence Complexity A mix of short and complex sentences Vocabulary Law-related language, some of which might not be familiar to English language learners, such as judge, civil rights, supreme court, lawyer. Cultural references such as Supreme Court (p. 11). Words Many multisyllable words: segregation, nourishing Illustrations Historic black-and-white and color photographs Captions for photographs Book and Print Features Twelve pages of text; photographs on many pages; table of contents Easy-to-read chapter headings Timeline provides additional information Fountas, I.C. & Pinnell, G.S. Teaching for Comprehending and Fluency, Heinemann, Portsmouth, N.H. Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying or recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner unless such copying is expressly permitted by federal copyright law. Permission is hereby granted to individual teachers using the corresponding (discipline) Leveled Readers to photocopy student worksheets from this publication in classroom quantities for instructional use and not for resale. Requests for information on other matters regarding duplication of this work should be addressed to Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, Attn: Contracts, Copyrights, and Licensing, 9400 SouthPark Center Loop, Orlando, Florida Printed in the U.S.A If you have received these materials as examination copies free of charge, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company retains title to the materials and they may not be resold. Resale of examination copies is strictly prohibited. Possession of this publication in print format does not entitle users to convert this publication, or any portion of it, into electronic format. 4_305615_ELL_LRTG_L02_ThurgoodMarshal.indd 1 11/4/09 10:44:08 PM

2 by Darleen Ramos Build Background Help students use their knowledge of civil rights and government to visualize the selection. Build interest by asking a few questions such as the following: What do you dream about doing when you are older? Read the title and author and talk about the cover photograph. Note the six chapter heads. Tell students that this selection is a biography so it will tell about events in a person s life, written by another person. Frontload Vocabulary Some everyday words may be unfamiliar to English learners. Before reading, check understanding of the following words: segregation, injustice, separate. Introduce the Text Guide students through the text, reading the captions, noting important ideas, and helping with unfamiliar language and vocabulary so they can read the text successfully. Call their attention to any important labels. Here are some suggestions: Page 4: Explain that this is a biography about, who worked to make sure that the law was equal for all Americans. Page 7: Read the caption under the photograph and the label. Make sure students understand the term separate. Ask: What other types of segregation do you think that Marshall spoke out against? Page 8: Explain that Charles Houston was a teacher at Howard University who captured Marshall s attention and who offered a strong example for Marshall. Ask: How do you think this teacher caught Marshall s interest? Why might Houston have been a strong role model for his student? Pages 10 11: Cultural Support: Briefl y describe the Supreme Court. Draw students attention to the timeline and ask why the author included it. Suggested language: Why do you think that the author included this timeline with numerous items in the middle of the biography? Now go back to the beginning and read to fi nd out how realized his childhood dream of fi ghting for equality for all Americans. Target Vocabulary captured having been caught while trying to get away, p. 8 dream something you want to happen very much, p. 3 encounters meetings with people, p. 5 example something that shows how to do something, p. 8 injustice something that is unfair, p. 4 nourishing giving people what they need to live, p. 5 numerous many of something, p. 11 preferred liked something better than something else, p. 6 recall to remember something, p. 14 segregation a system that kept African Americans and white Americans apart, p. 7 2 Lesson 2: 4_305615_ELL_LRTG_L02_ThurgoodMarshal.indd 2 7/28/09 5:07:53 PM

3 Read Have students read silently while you listen to individual students read aloud. Support their understanding of the text as needed. Remind students to use the Monitor/Clarify Strategy questions as they read., and to think of Discuss and Revisit the Text Personal Response Invite students to share their personal responses to the book. Suggested language: What did want to change? What did he do to correct the situation? Ways of Thinking As you discuss the text, help students understand these points: Thinking Within the Text Thinking Beyond the Text Thinking About the Text Marshall had a strong conviction that equal rights should encompass all Americans. Marshall s law background helped him to fight segregation in the education system. It is possible to make a dream about your future come true, especially through hard work and determination. A strong role model can be invaluable in helping you attain your goals Fountas, I.C. & Pinnell, G.S. Teaching for Comprehending and Fluency, Heinemann, Portsmouth, N.H. The historic photographs offer additional insight into the text. The timeline of important dates summarizes key events. The narrative tells about Marshall s convictions and has a beginning, middle, and end. Choices for Further Support Fluency Invite students to choral read a passage from the text and demonstrate phrased fl uent reading. Remind them to pay attention to punctuation and to vary tone, pitch, and volume to attract and hold their audience s attention. Comprehension Based on your observations of the students reading and discussion, revisit parts of the text to clarify or extend comprehension. Remind students to go back to the text to support their ideas. Phonics/Word Work Provide practice as needed with words and word parts, using examples from the text. Remind students that learning common prefi xes found in words such as injustice and unfair can help them discern the meaning of the new word. Remind students that the root word just from injustice comes from the Latin word iūstus. 3 Lesson 2: 4_305615_ELL_LRTG_L02_ThurgoodMarshal.indd 3 11/4/09 10:44:14 PM

4 Writing about Reading Have students complete the questions on BLM Responding Have students complete the activities at the back of the book, using their Reader s Notebook. Use the instruction below as needed to reinforce or extend understanding of the comprehension skill. Target Comprehension Skill Author s Purpose Have students identify the author s general purpose for writing: to inform, entertain, persuade, express, or describe. Remind students that the author had a purpose in mind in choosing to write this biography. Model how to add details to the Graphic Organizer, using a Think Aloud like the one below: Think Aloud On page 3, the author explains that sixty years ago it was difficult for African Americans to live out their dreams. Later she explains that held onto his dreams to defend the rights of African Americans and became the first African American judge on the Supreme Court. These details support the author s purpose. Practice the Skill Encourage students to share their examples of another book in which the Author s Purpose is to bring an inspiring message to readers. Writing Prompt: Thinking Beyond the Text Have students write a response to the writing prompt on page 6. Remind them that when they think beyond the text, they use their personal knowledge to reach new understanding. Assessment Prompts Choose one word that best describes how felt about injustice. How does it say, on page 14, that tried to protect the rights of African Americans? Complete this sentence in your own words: This biography was most likely written to. 4 Lesson 2: 4_305615_ELL_LRTG_L02_ThurgoodMarshal.indd 4 11/4/09 10:44:29 PM

5 English Language Development Reading Support Check regularly on students oral reading to determine accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. Remind students that devoted his life to fighting for equal rights. Cognates The text includes many cognates. Point out the English words and their Spanish equivalents: segregation (segregación), equal (igual), court (corte). Oral Language Development Check student comprehension, using a dialogue that best matches your students English proficiency level. Speaker 1 is the teacher, Speaker 2 is the student. Beginning/Early Intermediate Intermediate Early Advanced/ Advanced Speaker 1: Where was Marshall born? Speaker 2: Baltimore, Maryland Speaker 1: What career did Marshall choose? Speaker 2: lawyer Speaker 1: Who was Marshall s role model at Howard University? Speaker 2: Charles Houston Speaker 1: What did Marshall and his college friends do to protest segregation? Speaker 2: They sat in the all-white section of a movie theater. Speaker 1: What was significant about Marshall s appointment to the Supreme Court? Speaker 2: He was the first African- American justice. Speaker 1: Why was separate but equal not equal at all? Speaker 2: It was not equal because blacks and whites attended separate schools and used different facilities such as drinking fountains. Name Date Lesson 2 BLACKLINE MASTER 2.10 Read and answer the questions. Possible responses shown. 1. Think within the text What did s parents teach him as a young boy that helped him achieve his dream? Marshall s parents taught him how to use facts to prove his ideas. 2. Think within the text How did first learn about equal rights? learned about equal rights by reading the Constitution. 3. Think beyond the text What is the author s attitude toward? How can you tell? The author admires him. You can tell because this biographical selection only includes positive information about him. The author clearly believes in equal rights, and states that Marshall played a major role in this fight. 4. Think about the text Why do you think the author used headers for the different sections in this selection? They help organize the events in the proper sequence. They also tell the main idea of each section. Making Connections dreamed that one day, people could have equal rights. What is your dream for the future? Write your answer in your Reader s Notebook. 5 Lesson 2: 4_305615_ELL_LRTG_L02_ThurgoodMarshal.indd 5 7/28/09 5:07:55 PM

6 Name Date Thinking Beyond the Text Think about the questions below. Then write your answer in one or two paragraphs. Remember that when you think beyond the text, you use your personal knowledge to reach new understandings. On page 8, the author describes how Charles Houston, a teacher at Howard University, became a strong example for law school student Thurgood Marshall. Why do you think it was important for Marshall to have a role model? How do you think a strong role model inspired him to attain his goals? Explain your answer, giving examples from the biography. 6 Lesson 2: 4_305615_ELL_LRTG_L02_ThurgoodMarshal.indd 6 7/28/09 5:07:57 PM

7 Name Date Lesson 2 BLACKLINE MASTER 2.10 Read and answer the questions. 1. Think within the text What did s parents teach him as a young boy that helped him achieve his dream? 2. Think within the text How did first learn about equal rights? 3. Think beyond the text What is the author s attitude toward? How can you tell? 4. Think about the text Why do you think the author used headers for the different sections in this selection? Making Connections dreamed that one day, people could have equal rights. What is your dream for the future? Write your answer in your Reader s Notebook. 7 Lesson 2: 4_305615_ELL_LRTG_L02_ThurgoodMarshal.indd 7 7/28/09 5:07:58 PM

8 Student Date Lesson 2 BLACKLINE MASTER 2.14 LEVEL S Running Record Form page Selection Text Errors Self-Corrections 14 The Brown case made famous. In 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson chose Marshall to represent the entire United States as a lawyer in Supreme Court cases. Then, on June 13, 1967, President Johnson chose Marshall as the first African American Supreme Court justice. Marshall spoke out for everyone. He helped workers, people of different races, and women. worked on the Supreme Court for 24 years. He stopped working in He died in Those who knew him recall, or remember, how he helped this country. He tried to protect the rights of African Americans. Comments: Accuracy Rate (# words read correctly/99 100) % Total Self- Corrections Behavior Code Error Read word correctly cat 0 Repeated word, sentence, or phrase Omission cat 0 cat 1 Behavior Code Error Substitution cut cat 1 Self-corrects cut sc cat 0 Insertion the 1 Word told T 1 cat Lesson 2: 4_305615_ELL_LRTG_L02_ThurgoodMarshal.indd 8 7/28/09 5:07:58 PM

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