1 Poster Presented at The Lessons from the Chinese Forest Policy Experience: An International Symposium June 20-23, 2001 Dujiangyan, Sichuan Province - China The Financial Collapse of Asia Pulp & Paper: Moral Hazard and Pressures on Forests in Indonesia and China Christopher Barr Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)
2 1. Overview of Asia Pulp & Paper Asia Pulp & Paper (APP) was established in 1994 to consolidate the pulp and paper operations of Indonesia s Sinar Mas conglomerate. Incorporated in Singapore, APP was listed on the New York Stock Exchange in Since then, APP has carried out an ambitious expansion strategy to become the largest producer of pulp, paper, and packaging products in non-japan Asia. APP s operations are concentrated in Indonesia and China. Key elements of the group s competitiveness include: Access to low-cost pulpwood fiber in Indonesia Favorable tariff structures in China Generous tax holidays in both countries APP has financed its rapid capacity expansion by borrowing over US$ 13 billion in international debt markets. This debt has largely been in the form of capital bonds and syndicated loans from offshore investment banks. Although APP and several of its subsidiaries are publicly listed, the group s principal owner is the family of Indonesian businessman Eka Tjipta Wijaya.
3 2. Indonesia Operations Asia Pulp & Paper is, by far, the dominant actor in Indonesian pulp processing, and paper and board production. The group owns two of the nation s largest pulp mills: Indah Kiat and Lontar Papyrus. Together, these mills are capable of generating 2.3 million tonnes of pulp per annum or roughly 40 % of the nation s overall pulp output. APP also has six paper and board facilities located in Java and Sumatra. These mills have an aggregate production capacity of 3.8 million tonnes per annum accounting for approximately 50 % of Indonesia s paper and board capacity.
4 3. Expansion in China During the late-1990s, APP moved aggressively to expand its operations in China. It was motivated to do so by China s rapidly growing demand for paper and board products, particularly printing and writing papers. China s annual consumption of paper and board products is projected to rise from 25 million tonnes in 1995 to 56 million tonnes in 2010 and to 105 million tons in The Chinese government has also maintained import tariffs that strongly favor the integration of APP s Indonesian pulp mills with paper and board facilities located within China. Through 2000, tariff levels stood at: % on printing and writing papers % on tissue paper products % on packaging products 1 % on pulp While these tariff structures are likely to be removed when China enters the World Trade Organization, they have until now created considerable artificial value for APP.
5 APP s production facilities in China are currently capable of producing 1.2 million tonnes of paper products; 469,000 tonnes of board and packaging; and 120,000 tonnes of tissue (see Table 1). Table 1: APP s Paper and Board Processing Facilities in China Facility Location Products Production Capacity (tonnes/year) Gold East Paper Zhenjiang, Printing & Jiangsu Province Writing Gold Huasheng Paper Suzhou, Printing & Jiangsu Province Writing Dadong Paper Zhenjiang, Printing & 30,000 Jiangsu Province Writing Gold River Paper Zhenjiang, Printing & 30,000 Jiangsu Province Writing Ningbo Boxboard Ningbo, Boxboard 469,000 Zhejiang Province Gold Hongye Suzhou, Jiangsu Province Sources: APP and PT Nomura Indonesia. Converting Capacity (tonnes/year) 900, , , ,000 Tissue 120, ,000 Before its financial collapse, APP announced that it was considering to build a pulp mill with a capacity of 600,000 tonnes per annum in Hainan province, in order to supply pulp to the group s paper and board mills in China. APP has also entered into cooperative joint ventures to develop forestry plantations in the provinces of Guangdong, Guangxi, and Hainan.
6 4. Demand for Wood Fiber Collectively, APP s paper and board production facilities in Indonesia and China consume approximately 2.8 million tonnes of hardwood pulp and over 550,000 tonnes of softwood pulp on an annual basis. Table 2: APP s Estimated Annual Total Virgin Fiber Requirement (tonnes per year) Product Indonesia Capacity China Capacity Total Capacity Virgin Fiber Composition Pulp Requirement HW SW HW SW Paper 2,123,000 1,200,000 3,323,000 65% 10% 2,159, ,000 Board 1,343, ,000 1,812,000 25% 10% 453, ,000 Tissue 123, , ,000 80% 20% 194,400 48,600 Total 2,807, ,600 HW = hardwood; SW = softwood APP sources approximately % of its hardwood pulp internally, from its Indonesian pulp facilities. It purchases the remainder of its hardwood pulp needs, together with the full volume of softwood pulp consumed, from international suppliers.
7 At the group s Indonesia pulp facilities, most of the fiber consumed has been in the form of mixed tropical hardwood (MTH) harvested from natural forests near the Sumatra mill sites. To date, both mills have obtained the bulk of their MTH supplies from affiliated forestry companies, which hold licenses from the government to clear large areas of natural forest for plantation development. These companies supply MTH to the mills at prices that effectively amount to the cost of harvesting and transport, together with the government s minimal royalty payments (< US$ 2.50 per m3). In this way, raw material costs for APP s pulp mills have been far lower than those faced by producers in most other countries. APP is also developing large-scale Acacia plantations associated with each of the group s pulp mills. Asia Pulp & Paper claims that these plantations will supply all of Indah Kiat and Lontar Papyrus s fiber needs by However, analysis of plantation development data reported by the group suggests that these projections are likely to be overly-optimistic. At Indah Kiat s affiliated plantation site, for instance, approximately 180,000 ha out of a net plantable area of 217,000 ha had been planted through The areas planted on an annual basis have ranged between 11,000 ha in 1999 and 27,000 ha in Assuming that the mean annual increment (MAI) on these sites is 25 m3/ha/year, and that the sites are managed on a 7 year rotation,
8 planting on this scale will yield between 1.9 million and 4.7 million m3 of fiber annually. As Figure 1 shows, these volumes are likely to fall well short of the 8.5 million m3 of wood that the Indah Kiat pulp mill will consume if it is running at full capacity. At the same time, legally available supplies of MTH at both Indah Kiat s affiliated concession area and nearby sites are projected to be exhausted by This suggests that Indah Kiat will soon be forced to obtain a substantial portion of its wood from outside of Riau province, where the mill is located. Alternately, the company may rely increasingly on low-cost illegally-harvested wood.
9 5. The Asian Financial Crisis and APP s Debt Management Asia Pulp & Paper was one of the world s largest emerging market corporate debtors when the Asian financial crisis began in mid After borrowing heavily in offshore debt markets, APP then carried over US$ 7.1 billion in outstanding obligations. During the financial crisis, APP and its parent conglomerate, the Sinar Mas Group, have pursued a two-pronged strategy designed to protect their core assets in Indonesia and China. On the one hand, they have borrowed heavily to stay current on interest payments and to repay maturing debt issues on time. During the 3-year period, , the group assumed over US$ 4 billion in new debt. Much of this was short-term debt with high interest rates. A substantial portion was also used to fund APP s expansions in China. On the other hand, Sinar Mas took steps to ensure that the group s Bank Internasional Indonesia (BII) qualified for recapitalization by the Indonesian Bank Restructuring Agency. Sinar Mas injected US$ 628 million into BII to restore the bank s capital holdings and, in doing so, leveraged US$ 942 million in government recapitalization funds.
10 6. APP s Financial Collapse In late-2000, APP s financial situation deteriorated rapidly, as several of the group s long-term obligations came due at a time that APP was also carrying substantial short-term debts. Investor confidence eroded when APP sought to extend the maturities on some outstanding bonds, and its share price plummeted. After missing coupon payments for two of its Indonesian paper companies in early-2001, APP announced a debt standstill, saying that it would stop paying principal and interest on outstanding obligations due to severe financial difficulties. Chronology of APP s Financial Decline September 2000 APP applies to the US SEC for approval to change the terms of approximately US$ 2 billion in bonds. December 2000 APP share price finishes the year at US$ 0.54, having lost 96 % of its value over 12 months. January 2001 New York Stock Exchange threatens APP with delisting.
11 February 2001 March 2001 March 2001 March 2001 APP subsidiary in Indonesia misses coupon payment. APP retains Credit Suisse First Boston and J.P. Morgan to reschedule debts and organize asset sales. APP suspends all debt payments. APP China misses US$ 28.6 million coupon payment.
12 7. Moral Hazard for Indonesian Government In spite of the fact that APP s debt largely came from offshore creditors, the group s financial collapse holds serious implications for Indonesia s macroeconomy. Most immediately, APP s default on payments has threatened to trigger the collapse of Bank Internasional Indonesia, the country s second largest private sector bank. Through early-2001, BII carried on its books over US$ 1.3 billion in related-party loans to Sinar Mas/APP affiliates. Indonesian finance officials recognized that Sinar Mas/APP s failure to repay these loans would result in enormous costs for the government. If BII collapsed, the government would not only lose its recapitalization investment (US$ 942 million), but it would also be required to pay out close to US$ 2.0 billion to the bank s depositors. More significantly, the failure of BII could easily catalyze a second financial crisis by undermining the nation s now-recapitalized banking sector. To preempt such a possibility, the Indonesian government announced in January 2001 that it would guarantee repayment of BII s related party loans in spite of the fact that APP had already begun to default on payments to some creditors. In turn, the Indonesian Bank Restructuring Agency (IBRA) took steps to secure
13 US$ 1.9 billion in asset pledges from Sinar Mas/APP, as well as personal guarantees from the family of owner Eka Tjipta Wijaya. The group is believed to have pledged to IBRA shares in all of its Indonesian operating units, including its pulp and paper mills as well as its plantation companies. Offshore creditors have expressed concerns that some of these assets may have already been pledged to bond-holders, implying that some parties may not get paid in the event of a default.
14 8. Risk Exposure for Chinese Banks The deterioration of APP s financial position has also carried significant risks for financial institutions in China. APP accumulated debts of US$ 3.6 billion through its expansion in China, and US$ 1.8 billion of this is owed to four state-owned banks. In early March 2001, the four Chinese banks, led by the Bank of China, entered into a collective debt restructuring agreement with APP aimed at ensuring that their loans will be repaid. Specifically, the banks agreed to suspend APP s debt payments for a period of 6 months, and to provide the group s operating units in China with letters of credit (L/C) to enable them to purchase raw materials and to engage in foreign trade. Under the agreement, APP is required to allocate 80 % of its China subsidiaries earnings to repay the Chinese banks, and to utilize the remaining 20 % for working capital. Significantly, the agreement prohibits APP s China operations from using their earnings to repay the group s offshore creditors. Industry sources indicate that the Chinese banks have maintained a physical presence at each of APP China s paper and packaging facilities since this agreement was signed, and that these units have been operating normally.
15 9. Limited Options for Offshore Creditors Most of APP s financial obligations are owed to international investment banks and bond-holders from North America and Europe. The options available to offshore creditors are severely limited, however, by the fact that APP s operating companies are largely located in Indonesia and China. Neither country has a strong bankruptcy law, which would allow creditors to seize or liquidate APP s assets as the group defaults on debt payments. Indeed, commercial regulations in those countries stand in marked contrast to those in Singapore where Asia Pulp & Paper is incorporated which strongly favor creditors and require owners of indebted companies to assume unlimited personal liability. The position of offshore creditors is further complicated by the fact that APP and the Sinar Mas Group have pledged a substantial portion of their assets to IBRA, and have entered into an initial debt restructuring agreement with the Chinese banks. In the event that APP s assets are to be liquidated, IBRA and the Chinese banks are in a much stronger position to benefit than international investment banks or bond-holders. For offshore creditors, negotiating a comprehensive debt restructuring agreement with APP is perhaps the only option that will allow for at least partial
16 debt recovery. Thus far, however, APP has shown little evidence that it is willing to work in good faith towards reaching such an agreement. Since January 2001, APP officials have acknowledged several off-book transactions that have raised the group s aggregate debt level significantly. APP has also selectively repaid bond-holders in Indonesia, in spite of the fact that payments to offshore creditors remain suspended. Moreover, creditors are unlikely to have access to APP s audited accounts until September 2001.
17 10. Implications of APP s Debt Crisis Any debt restructuring arrangement between APP and its creditors is likely to create added pressures for the group to run its mills at or near capacity, in spite of fluctuations in prices for raw materials or products generated. At the same time, restrictions on APP s cash flow will increase pressure to minimize operating costs at the group s pulp and paper mills. A substantial portion of profits earned by APP s operating units will be used to meet financial obligations incurred by the group s holding companies. For APP s forestry operations in Indonesia, this is likely to mean a sharp reduction in any further investments related to long-term sustainability. It is possible that APP s plantation companies will slow their planting schedules, scale-back on plantation maintenance, and cut expenses on R & D. However, reduction in area planted will mean that at least a portion of projected Acacia yields will not be available 7 years forward. This, in turn, will create added incentives for APP s pulp mills to ship in pulpwood harvested from natural forest outside Sumatra and/or to rely increasingly on illegally harvested wood. Substantially higher fiber costs will reduce the overall competitiveness of APP s paper and packaging operations both in Indonesia and in China.
18 APP s debt crisis is likely to delay or cancel the group s plans to develop pulp mills and affiliated forestry operations in China. This raises questions about the long-term competitiveness of APP s paper and packaging processing units in China, particularly if their access to low-cost pulp from Indonesia is restricted. Moreover, with China entering the WTO, it is likely that the Chinese government will remove import tariffs on paper and packaging products, which have given APP a considerable advantage in that market. The magnitude of APP s corporate debt US$ 13.4 billion and counting means that the group s default on payments is likely to have broader effects within the finance sector. At least temporarily, losses for international financial institutions and investor groups may sharply reduce capital allocations for new pulp and paper expansions for Indonesia, China, and other parts of the Asia/Pacific region. For Indonesia, in particular, the collapse of APP is likely to significantly undermine offshore financial flows into other sectors as well.
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