1 Higher-Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) Thinking Skill Students will be able to: Sample Tasks/Questions Predicting predict the content or the outcome of the text, either before or during reading based on available information. How do you think will react? How do you think the story will end? Applying apply previously learned concepts, terms, techniques and skills to new situations. How can you apply to your own life? How can you apply to something else you have learned? Inferring infer implicit meaning from the text by being able to read-between-thelines. What do you think the character meant when s/he said,? What does s behavior suggest? What is the purpose or function of this information? What different meanings can be inferred from this line in the poem? Sequencing explain how the sequence of events in a text, when not in a chronological order, affects understanding of the text. Sequence the events in chronological order. How do flashbacks affect your understanding of the text/plot? Why do you think the events are not in chronological order? Identifying parts and whole Classifying explain how the parts function together within the whole text. categorize the elements of the text according to criteria. How does one part of the story contribute your understanding to the whole text? How does the title/ending relate to different parts of the story/poem/play? What does the rhyme scheme of the poem contribute to the whole poem? Categorize the characters according to their relationships/values.
2 Comparing and contrasting find similarities (comparing) and differences (contrasting) and draw conclusions. Compare and contrast the conflicts/ problems/dilemmas in two stories or poems. Compare and contrast the text and the film. Compare and contrast characters in a text. Explaining patterns identify and explain different patterns in the text and explain their significance. Explain why certain lines/phrases/words are repeated. What behavior does the character repeat? Where is the rhyme scheme of the poem broken and why? Explaining cause and effect describe and explain the causal relationships between actions or events in a text. What were the results of s action? What caused to think that? Distinguishing different perspectives Problem solving identify the different perspectives within the text and/or among the readers of the text. identify a problem/dilemma and either identify its solution in the text or suggest a possible solution, taking into account the constraints and the options present in the text. Identify how different characters respond to a central event in the the characters actions/events in the story change as you read? Do you share the same perspective as the narrator? the story/the character/the scene differ from other students in your class? Define the problem facing the protagonist. How should decide what to do? What should take / have taken into account? What is the central conflict in this text and how is it resolved? What dilemma does face at this point in the story?
3 Uncovering motives identify motives that explain the character s behavior and support this with evidence from the text. Why do you think that did? Support your answer. What made change his/her mind? Give supporting details. Generating possibilities create something new on the basis of what is understood from the text. Create a new character for the Explain how s/he will affect the development (or outcome) of the Generate possible options for characters/plot outcomes/sequels or prequels. Add an element/an event to the existing text that influences the development and/or the outcome of the plot. Synthesizing integrate different aspects of/insights to the text. Write a summary of the How does information we learn later in the text change the way we understand a character/issue/conflict? Making connections make connections between specific aspects of the text. make connections between the text and other contexts in relation to theme, historical and cultural contexts or pertinent information from the author s biography. How does the description of the setting connect to the characterization of? To what extent do events in the text reflect events in the life of the author? the story/the character/the scene differ when you learn about a topic related to the literary text? Evaluating make judgments about different aspects of the text and justify opinions and/or evaluate someone else s opinion. What makes this a good story? Is a believable character? Is the resolution of the conflict satisfying?
4 Vocabulary for HOTS Thinking Skill Predicting Applying Inferring Sequencing Identifying parts and whole Classifying Comparing and contrasting Explaining patterns Explaining cause and effect Distinguishing different perspectives Vocabulary predict, suggest, hint, clue, expect, expectation, appears that, what if, speculate apply, relate infer, deduce, conclude, read between the lines, assume, what are the consequences of this statement? order, progression, series, sequence, first, second, next, then, last, at last, simultaneously, subsequently, finally, before, after, after a while, eventually, foreshadow, flashback element, part, whole, belongs, separate, item, unity, missing part, repetition, paragraphs, divide into parts, breakdown, puzzle, major part of the story, connection, split up story, divide into parts, trigger, breakdown, subdivisions, background information, story within story separate, branch, root, include, exclude, group, order, category, class, hierarchy, belong, part of, element, classify, categorize, sort, arrange, label, match like, similar, also, similarly, in the same way, likewise, again, unlike, compared to, in contrast with, different than, (comparative adjectives) on the contrary, however, although, yet, even though, still, nevertheless, regardless, despite, while, on the one hand on the other hand repeat, repetition, significance, similar, recur arrangement, rule cause, effect, result, consequence, end, outcome, if...then, and in order to, implication, due to, because, thanks to, as a result (of), provoke, spark, incite, induce, encourage, persuade, development, explanation perspective, point of view, attitude, differences, outside, inside, looking from above, looking from the side, however, on the one
5 hand, on the other hand, opinion, reader, narrator outlook, standpoint, perception, side, angle Problem solving Uncovering motives Generating possibilities Synthesizing Making connections Evaluating find out, solve, answer, explain, difficulty, resolve, decipher, predicament, trouble, crisis aim, intention, purpose, goal, cause, object, reason, psychological motivation, drive create, speculate, make up, propose an alternative, how else would you...conjecture, hypothesize, guess conclude, what if?, rewrite, generalize, summarize, blend, integrate, given (this) and (that) linked, associated, related, connected, reflected, influenced link, bond assess, judge, appraise, rate
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