Mark Scheme (Results) November GCSE Biology 5BI1H/01

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1 Mark Scheme (Results) November 2011 GCSE Biology 5BI1H/01

2 Edexcel is one of the leading examining and awarding bodies in the UK and throughout the world. We provide a wide range of qualifications including academic, vocational, occupational and specific programmes for employers. Through a network of UK and overseas offices, Edexcel s centres receive the support they need to help them deliver their education and training programmes to learners. For further information, please call our GCE line on , our GCSE team on , or visit our website at If you have any subject specific questions about the content of this Mark Scheme that require the help of a subject specialist, you may find our Ask The Expert service helpful. Ask The Expert can be accessed online at the following link: Alternatively, you can contact our Science Advisor directly by sending an to Stephen Nugus on You can also telephone to speak to a member of our subject advisor team. November 2011 Publications Code UG All the material in this publication is copyright Pearson Education Ltd 2011

3 5BI1H/01 Mark Scheme November (a) C least amount of freshwater shrimps found at C Reference to freshwater shrimps as indicator species freshwater shrimps can only survive in clean water / cannot survive in polluted water more shrimps die in polluted water 1(b) D 1(c) C 1(d) A description of the process linking four of the following points: algae (on the surface) of the stream show rapid growth (they) block light to the photosynthesising plants below algal bloom occurs / large increase in growth of algae /other plants grow quickly (causing) plants on the stream bed to die decomposers use up oxygen to break down these dead plants other organisms die due to lack of oxygen Accept microorganisms / microbes / bacteria Accept reference to anaerobic bacteria can function in anoxic conditions - not against a current marking point (4)

4 2(a)(i) 2 / two (offspring) 2 and 3 2(a)(ii) D 2(a)(iii) An explanation linking two of the following points: two of the offspring from generation II had CF the children with cystic fibrosis must have inherited 1 recessive allele from each parent / children must have 2 recessive alleles both parents must have 1 recessive allele / be carriers of the CF allele ORA if homozygous dominant then no CF offspring Ignore: references to genes ORA if homozygous recessive offspring would have CF

5 2(b) correct gametes correct offspring B b Accept bb instead of Bb B BB Bb b Bb bb 2(c) An explanation linking two of the following: pedigree analysis will determine the likelihood that their offspring could inherit the CF allele if heterozygous there is a 50% chance (that the CF allele) will be passed on / if 2 heterozygous parents 25% chance the offspring will have CF Accept to see if they are a carrier of the CF allele Accept ratios rather than percentages 2 in 4 chance if either parent is homozygous dominant there is 0% chance that their offspring could have the disease

6 3(a)(i) = x 100 = 11.5(%) Accept 12% 3(a)(ii) Any two from the following points respiration excretion / egestion temperature regulation energy lost as heat movement / exercise not all eaten 3(b) Any two from the following points: keep them in a warm environment restrict their movement provide {high energy / low wastage / easily digestible} food Ignore feed more treat parasites 3(c)(i) C

7 3(c)(ii) An explanation linking the following points: bacteria provides nitrates for the plants (by) nitrogen-fixation / converting nitrogen into nitrates Accept nitrogen-fixing bacteria (nitrates) provide protein / for growth (3)

8 4(a)(i) % of 650 = 65 x 40 = x 4 = 260 4(a)(ii) discontinuous (variation) Ignore genetic variation (as not shown in the graph) Accept discrete 4(b)(i) C 4(b)(ii) A description including the following points: continuous variation / data normal distribution curve correct interpretation of data from the graph bell shaped curve e.g most common height range (3)

9 4(c) An explanation linking three of the following points: most individuals within a population vary slightly from one another most organisms produce more young than will survive to adulthood / overproduction there is much competition within and between species those organisms with advantageous characteristics will survive the advantageous characteristics will be inherited / better adapted organisms are more likely to survive to reproduce taller animals outcompete smaller animals for food survival of the fittest the genes for the characteristics will be passed on / offspring will have the desired characteristics (3)

10 5(a)(i) increase in CO 2 concentration (over time) positive correlation 5(a)(ii) 355 ppm (1990) 339 ppm (1980) 16 Accept: tolerance marks for overall correct answer 5(a)(iii) Any three from the following points: seasonal / weather changes due to less leaves on trees/less plants less photosynthesis and CO 2 removed from the atmosphere more fossil fuels / wood may be burned during colder weather Accept refs to summer / winter more photosynthesis in the summer more car usage in summer / winter (3)

11 Indicative Content QWC *5 (b) A description including some of the following points: Mark photosynthetic material/plants will remove CO 2 from the atmosphere these plants will use the CO 2 to make glucose plant respiration will release CO 2 into the atmosphere animals will eat the plants which contain carbon animals and plants will eventually die and decay due to microbial/bacterial action releasing CO 2 the combustion/burning of fossil fuels will release CO 2 into the atmosphere the burning of carbon based products made from trees will release CO 2 into the atmosphere Level 0 No rewardable content a limited description of one of the processes of the carbon cycle the answer communicates ideas using simple language and uses limited scientific terminology spelling, punctuation and grammar are used with limited accuracy a simple description of two of the processes of the carbon cycle including one method of adding carbon dioxide and one method of removing carbon dioxide the answer communicates ideas showing some evidence of clarity and organisation and uses scientific terminology appropriately spelling, punctuation and grammar are used with some accuracy a detailed description of most of the processes of the carbon cycle that releases and removes carbon dioxide the answer communicates ideas clearly and coherently uses a range of scientific terminology accurately to describe the carbon cycle spelling, punctuation and grammar are used with few errors (6)

12 6(a)(i) A 6(a)(ii) Hypothalamus Accept alternative spellings e.g. hypothalamus / hyperthalamus 6(b) A description linking two of the following points: erector muscles in the skin contract hairs on the surface of the skin stand on end cause the hair to rise to trap air close to the skin to reduce heat loss / insulates skin OR sweat glands release water / sweat evaporates and cools the skin OR (brief description of) vasodilation or vasoconstriction method of control

13 6(c) An explanation linking two of the following points in order for the enzymes to be most effective / best /optimum temperature for enzymes to work for chemical reactions to happen at too high temperatures enzymes are denatured Accept named enzyme Accept named chemical reaction ORA at colder temperatures enzymes are less active

14 Indicative Content QWC *6(d) An explanation linking some of the following points: Mark vasodilation and vasoconstriction help control body temperature in vasodilation more warm blood flows near the surface of the skin as the shunt valve stops blood flowing by another route more heat can be radiated or convected from the skin body temperature is reduced in vasoconstriction less blood flows near the surface of the skin as it flows through the shunt valve body temperature returns to normal (6) Level 0 No rewardable content a limited explanation of thermoregulation although the processes of vasodilation and vasoconstriction are not mentioned the answer communicates ideas using simple language and uses limited scientific terminology spelling, punctuation and grammar are used with limited accuracy a simple explanation of either vasodilation or vasoconstriction this may be a description but not include the words vasodilation and vasoconstriction the answer communicates ideas showing some evidence of clarity and organisation and uses scientific terminology appropriately spelling, punctuation and grammar are used with some accuracy a detailed explanation of both vasodilation and vasoconstriction including references to either the method of heat loss or the role there is coherent flow of content and accurate use of scientific terminology to explain thermoregulation spelling, punctuation and grammar are used with few errors

15

16 Further copies of this publication are available from Edexcel Publications, Adamsway, Mansfield, Notts, NG18 4FN Telephone Fax Order Code UG November 2011 For more information on Edexcel qualifications, please visit Pearson Education Limited. Registered company number with its registered office at Edinburgh Gate, Harlow, Essex CM20 2JE

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