Religious Studies (Short Course) Revision Religion and Animal Rights

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1 Religious Studies (Short Course) Revision Religion and Animal Rights

2 How to use this presentation The first part of this presentation (blue headings) will give you brief information, religious viewpoints and pictures for the Religion and Animal Rights topic. The second part of the presentation (green headings) will have exam questions and tasks for you to work through for this topic.

3 What topics could be on the paper? Religious beliefs about the status of animals The extent to which animals are different from humans and their relative value Religious views on animal rights and the means of protecting those rights Wildlife, the fur and ivory trade, religious responses to the preservation of species from extinction Companionship, e.g. pets, guide dogs, transport and work Animals in sport including hunting and bullfighting Animal experiments, Genetic modification and cloning of animals Issues concerning the slaughter of animals, meat, vegetarian and vegan diets Farming of animals (including free range and factory farming) Zoos

4 Religious beliefs about the status of animals The status of animals means whether they are equal to or lesser than humans. Christians believe Buddhists believe Humans have a higher status than animals because... In the creation story God put humans in charge of animals. All life is dependent on each other. Animals should be treated well because they are part of the cycle of rebirth. They believe in the idea of Stewardship, that humans should look after God s creation. Jesus spoke about the value of animals so they should care for them All living things have the same right to happiness. Some Buddhists think the status of animals and humans is the same, others think humans have more value.

5 The extent to which animals are different from humans and their relative value Consider different ways that animals and humans are similar and different. Similar Both feel pain. Both have a protective instinct for their young. Survival instinct. Physical features for mammals are similar to humans. Both feel fear Different Humans use intelligence rather than instinct. Humans have complex societies. Humans protect the weak and vulnerable. Humans can act morally. Humans create art, music and literature and develop and use science and technology. Can you think of other similarities and differences?

6 Religious views on animal rights and the means of protecting those rights Animal rights are not the same as human rights. By law animals are protected from cruelty and neglect and some cannot be kept as pets. When animals are used for experiments, this is inspected and foxhunting and dog fighting are illegal. Animal welfare groups such as the WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature) and RSPCA (Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals) are groups that protect the rights of animals and would be supported by Christians and Buddhists. Christians do not believe animals have the same rights as humans but believe that they should be protected as they are part of the world God created. They should act as stewards. Buddhists do not believe that God created the world but think the rights of animals should still be protected and that they should act as stewards.

7 Treatment of wildlife, the fur and ivory trade, religious responses to the preservation of species from extinction The Assisi Declaration leaders from all of the main religions met at Assisi in Italy in 1986 and made statements about how people should act responsibly towards the world and animals. Christians believe in the idea of stewardship, so killing wild animals for profit is not acceptable. The fur trade usually involves wild animals being kept in fur farms. They are housed in small individual cages so their fur is not damaged. There is also illegal trading where endangered animals such as tigers are killed for their fur. The RSPCA was started in 1824 by the Reverend Arthur Broome and other Christians in response to cruelty to animals. Buddhists believe that everything in nature is dependent on each other. They also believe that animals are part of the cycle of rebirth. The Ivory trade limited trading is legal in some countries but illegal trading is flourishing. Elephants are killed in order to get their tusks. This is particularly a problem for Indian elephants as only the males have tusks so an imbalance between male and female elephants has developed.

8 Companionship, e.g. pets, guide dogs, transport and work Both Christianity and Buddhism accepts the use of animals as pets. It is important however to treat the animal well. Using animals for work is acceptable as long as the animal is not being harmed, so using an animal for a guide dog is fine. Christian principles of stewardship are used when considering suitable work for animals. Can you think of any ways an animal could be used for work that would be unacceptable?

9 Animals in sport including hunting and bullfighting Animals have been used in sport throughout history. Sports such as show jumping, greyhound racing, pigeon racing and polo are generally regarded as acceptable. Hunting animals for fun e.g. fox hunting is seen as unacceptable by some as the animal is tormented and will usually be killed at the end of a hunt. Hunting with dogs in Britain was banned in The law however is hard to enforce and hunting is still happening in some places. Bullfighting is supported by some people as it is a traditional sport in some countries. It is seen to be more like theatre than sport. Opponents say that it is unacceptable for an animal to be teased and hurt and to collapse due to blood loss and exhaustion. Christians have mixed views on sport. In the creation story humans were told to bring animals under their control which some use to justify hunting. Others believe anything that harms an animal is bad stewardship. Buddhists believe in compassion and loving kindness to all living things so hunting and bullfighting would be unacceptable. Other sports which look after animals would be seen as acceptable however.

10 Animal experiments, Genetic modification and cloning of animals Animal experimentation When animals are used to test new drugs, cosmetics or household products. Genetic modification (GM) When animals have been genetically altered in a laboratory to study genetic diseases, test new drugs or, in the future, to supply organs for human transplantation. Cloning Creating an organism that is the exact genetic copy of another. Christians accept limited animal Buddhists do not agree with animal testing if it is for new drugs. They testing. They believe that life is as believe that by testing on animal all precious to animals as it is for humans. species will eventually benefit. They also think that all life is dependent on each other. Make sure you are able to give good and bad reasons for different types of animal testing.

11 Issues concerning the slaughter of animals, meat, vegetarian and vegan diets Animal welfare groups are concerned that some animals are slaughtered miles away from where they were reared. The RSPCA campaign for animals to be slaughtered close to where they were raised. A vegetarian does not eat meat or fish. A vegan does not eat any product from an animal (including milk, eggs etc.) or wear leather. Christians are not generally vegetarian because there is nothing in the Bible saying they should be. It was written that Jesus ate fish so he was not a vegetarian and after the flood, Noah was told by God that humans could eat animals. Buddhists are vegetarian as they regard animals as part of the rebirth cycle. They also believe in the principle of not harming any living thing (First Moral Precept). Buddhist monks will not refuse meat if it is offered to them but will not kill an animal themselves.

12 Farming of animals (including free range and factory farming) Factory farming is farming animals intensively for the greatest profit. It produces food efficiently so it can feed more people. Free range farming is raising animals so they can roam freely and live a life as natural as possible. Free range meat is usually more expensive. Christians will generally support free range farming as it is seen as good stewardship. Buddhists are usually vegetarians so will not generally eat meat. Those that do would choose free range meat as it allows the animals to live naturally.

13 Zoos For People enjoy going to see animals. It enables young children to visit and to develop a love of animals. There are many breeding programmes for endangered animals, e.g. Pandas. Zoos conduct research into animals which helps us to understand how they fit into the ecosystem. Against Some zoos don t provide a suitable environment for wild animals. Some animals become stressed because they are in small cages. Some animals are living in conditions much hotter or colder than their natural environment. Many animals in the wild live in large areas which they do not have in a zoo or even a safari park. Christians and Buddhists will support zoos as long as the animals are kept in conditions as close as possible to the wild. They recognise that zoos can help to preserve species which is seen as good stewardship.

14 Key Christian quotes and teachings about animals Animals do not have the same rights as humans but should be respected as they are part of God s creation. Humans have a higher status than animals. Christians believe that animals are here to support humans but this does not mean that animals should be mistreated. God created the world and put humans in charge Jesus spoke about the value of every living creature, even individual sparrows. Humans should act as stewards towards all creation. This means looking after what God has created.

15 Key Buddhist quotes and teachings about animals Buddhists do not believe in God but believe that they have a duty to protect animals as they are part of the natural world. Buddhists practice meditation to develop feelings of loving kindness towards all living things. All creatures have the same right to happiness. The first moral precept says I will not harm any living thing. Animals are part of the cycle of rebirth so killing an animal might mean killing a body that houses an ancestor. Buddhists believe that all life is connected and dependent on each other, so by destroying animals we impact on humans as well

16 Tasks The following slides contain tasks. Complete these in your book or on paper.

17 Alphabet challenge - Find a word or phrase linked to the animal topic for each letter. Try to include some religious teachings on your list.

18 Quick quiz Answer these one and two mark exam questions without using notes. 1. What is factory farming? (1 mark) 2. Give two ways animals are different to humans. (2 mark) 3. What is a vegan (1 mark) 4. Give one blood sport (1 mark) 5. Give two animals that could be used for work (2 mark) 6. Give one reason why a religious person may not eat meat (1 mark) 7. Give one reason why a religious person may support zoos (1 mark) 8. What is cloning (1 mark)

19 Quick quiz - answers 1. Intensive farming of animals for food in order to gain greater profit. 2. Use instinct rather than intelligence; no religious beliefs; don t look after weak in society etc. 3. Someone who does not eat or use any animal product. 6. Their religion teaches them not to do so; personal choice. 4. Hunting; bullfighting, shooting etc. 7. Protection of endangered species; conservation work. 5. Donkey; horse; dog; elephant etc. 8. Where animals or plants are an exact genetic copy of the original.

20 Find 18 words and short phrases linked to the Religion and Animal Rights topic See how many you can find before you click to reveal the words you are looking for. L C A E K R X Z O Y E Y F G Q F U E A M Z U F G B N P N I E D W K D N H E Z M M K T S N X C H R I S T I A N V I E W S O J C Q A Z B I V O R Y T R A D E T W I Q I N L R O N A M Q Q F J H T M I A N E X I I Y E O W T L N R C J N A M R J J U Z E T A E S X E O I U W A Y J O X R V T H X S O R S W E I V T S I H D D U B J N C D N P F E D A R T R U F E O I P M O L L R I E T V G Q X K E S T H G I R M E V O K S T N E M I R E P X E V V E G A N Z N E E S F A C T O R Y F A R M I N G Z S I A I Y X C J G D U G U I D E D O G S Y N B U L L F I G H T I N G U C Z M W X F G V Y E D I V E G E T A R I A N G Y U Q B

21 Find 18 words and short phrases linked to the Religion and Animal Rights topic See how many you can find before you click to reveal the words you are looking for. L C A E K R X Z O Y E Y F G Q F U E A M Z U F G B N P N I E D W K D N H E Z M M K T S N X C H R I S T I A N V I E W S O J C Q A Z B I V O R Y T R A D E T W I Q I N L R O N A M Q Q F J H T M I A N E X I I Y E O W T L N R C J N A M R J J U Z E T A E S X E O I U W A Y J O X R V T H X S O R S W E I V T S I H D D U B J N C D N P F E D A R T R U F E O I P M O L L R I E T V G Q X K E S T H G I R M E V O K S T N E M I R E P X E V V E G A N Z N E E S F A C T O R Y F A R M I N G Z S I A I Y X C J G D U G U I D E D O G S Y N B U L L F I G H T I N G U C Z M W X F G V Y E D I V E G E T A R I A N G Y U Q B INSTINCT RIGHTS BUDDHIST VIEWS CHRISTIAN VIEWS ZOOS PETS GUIDE DOGS FREERANGE FACTORY FARMING VEGETARIAN VEGAN HUNTING BULLFIGHTING FURTRADE IVORY TRADE EXPERIMENTS CLONING

22 Brief religious teachings Without checking previous slides, can you identify a Buddhist and a Christian teaching that could be used for each of the following topics. Animal experiments The fur and ivory trade Zoos Pets and working animals The value of animals Vegetarianism

23 Flash cards Choose key religious information and create flash cards to help you remember. Aim for the key teaching and some pictures to help you remember. For example: Buddhism - The first moral precept I will not harm any living thing.

24 How can you develop an explain type answer? Some questions will ask you to explain something. These questions will usually be worth 4, 5 or 6 marks. In order to get higher marks for these questions you will need to develop your answer. This means you will need to give reasons and examples to improve your answer. Look at the next slide to see how this can be done.

25 Question - Explain different viewpoints religious people may have on vegetarianism. (4 marks) Christians are generally not vegetarian while Buddhists usually are. Christians are not usually vegetarian because there is nothing in the Bible saying that they should be. Jesus ate fish indicating that he was not a vegetarian. As Christians like to follow the example of Jesus they may think this is a reason why eating meat is acceptable. Some Christians may be vegetarian for personal reasons such as being animal lovers. Buddhists on the other hand are usually vegetarian. They have the First Moral Precept which says I will not harm any living thing. They also think that every animal has the same rights to happiness as a human so killing for meat is wrong. For Buddhist monks however they may eat meat if it was given to them as a gift, but they would never kill animals themselves. This answer has backed up each point. It has explained why Christians are not usually vegetarian and why Buddhists usually are. There is clear reference made to religious teachings (Bible, Jesus, First Moral Precept) and how this teaching affects the behaviour of religious people (Christians, Buddhists, Buddhist monks). It would score 4 out of 4.

26 Try these explain questions Have a go at some of these explain questions. Try to develop your answers by thinking: What quote links with this? What would a Christian do? What would a Buddhist do? Why? Explain why some religious believers would support zoos. Explain religious viewpoints on using animals for sport. Explain the attitudes of religious people to the fur and ivory trade.

27 Giving opinions Look at the statements below. List reasons why you may agree and disagree with what they say and why a religious person may agree or disagree. I think it is always wrong to eat meat because it is cruel to breed animals just to kill them. Hunting is a traditional pastime. It is needed to control foxes who kill chickens. Animal experiments are vital for finding new medicines. Animals and humans should have equal rights. If we use animal skins for leather shoes, it must be acceptable to use their fur for clothes.

28 How to answer 6 mark evaluation questions Try to remember FARMER F For give arguments for the statement. A Against give arguments against the statement. R Religion say what religion thinks. M- Me say what I think. E ) Evaluate R - ) Religion Say what you think about the religious arguments.

29 I agree that free range meat is too expensive. Meat is part of a healthy diet and free range is not possible for poorer families. I also think that too much meat is eaten and more people should eat a vegetarian diet. I understand that some people would worry about how factory farmed animals are treated and do think that factory farmed animals should be closely monitored so they do not suffer. Although Buddhists generally do not eat meat they would support free range farming rather than factory farming. A Christian would prefer free range farming because it is better stewardship. I agree with these religious opinions to an extent because I don t believe in animal cruelty, but I still think that it would be hard for poorer people to eat meat if there was only free range available. Now use your mark scheme to work out how many marks this answer would achieve. Click to see how this answer uses the FARMER requirements Free range meat is too expensive, we should all eat factory farmed meat. Do you agree? Give reasons showing you have considered other viewpoints. Refer to religious arguments in your answer.

30 Try one of these exam questions using the FARMER requirements Zoos should be banned, all wild animals should live in the wild. Do you agree? Give reasons showing you have considered other viewpoints. Refer to religious arguments in your answer. It is fine to experiment on animals as they are a lower status than humans. Do you agree? Give reasons showing you have considered other viewpoints. Refer to religious arguments in your answer. Now use your mark scheme to check your answer.

31 Are you now confident with the animal topic? Go back over the information slides at the start of this presentation. On a list or on a mind map, include all of the elements you still feel you need to revise.

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