3 Going to Court as a Witness 1 Introduction Going to court can be stressful for many victims and witnesses. If you need to give evidence in a criminal trial, we hope that this booklet will help you to understand what happens in court. The booklet tries to answer the questions that people ask us most often. It does not deal with every possible situation and it does not give you legal advice. If you need legal advice, you should talk to a solicitor. We also have a booklet 'The Role of the DPP' that explains in plain language what the Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions (DPP) does. For a more detailed description of the work of our Office, please see our 'Guidelines for Prosecutors'. You may ask for copies of these publications from our Office (see contact details on page 24) or you can read them on our website, The website also has a Victims and Witnesses section, which you may find helpful.
4 2 Going to Court as a Witness Please note Printed copies of this booklet are available from our Office in both Irish and English. See contact details on page 24. You can visit our website, to download the booklet in any of the following languages: Irish English Arabic Chinese (Mandarin) French Latvian Lithuanian Polish Portuguese (Brazil) Romanian Russian Spanish You may also ask for Braille or audio versions of this booklet from our Office.
5 Going to Court as a Witness 3 Contents Key facts 1. What does the Director of Public Prosecutions (DPP) do? 7 2. What does the Chief Prosecution Solicitor do? 7 3. What happens after somebody reports a crime? 7 4. Are there different types of criminal offence? 8 5. Which courts deal with crime? 9 6. Can I complain to the Office of the DPP? 10 Being a witness 7. Who can be a witness in a criminal case? If I am a witness, how will I be called to give evidence? What happens after the Gardaí charge the accused? If I am a witness or a victim, can I see the book of evidence? Is the verdict decided on the book of evidence? What is a deposition? 11
6 4 Going to Court as a Witness The court case 13. What happens when the case begins in court? Are there any reasons why a trial might not go ahead? What is a judicial review? 15 Help for witnesses and victims 16. What kind of help can I get if I need to give evidence as a victim of crime? What help can I get with the cost of coming to court to give evidence? If I am giving evidence as a victim, will I meet the prosecution team before the trial? What happens at the pre-trial meeting? If I am a victim of a crime, can I see a written record of the trial? What happens if I do not want to be in the courtroom with the accused when I give my evidence? Which witnesses can use videolink? If I am a victim of a crime, can I get a lawyer to represent me in court? Will my name be made public when I give my evidence? Will the name of the accused person be made public? 19
7 Going to Court as a Witness If I am a victim of a crime, how do the judge and jury learn about the effect the crime has had on me? If I am a victim of a crime, do I have the right to get compensation? 20 Appealing a case 28. Can the accused appeal the conviction or sentence? Can the DPP appeal the sentence? Who can ask the DPP to appeal an unduly lenient sentence? How do appeal court judges review a sentence? 22 How to contact the Office of the DPP 24 Other useful contacts 25 How the Office of the DPP is organised 27 Index 28
8 6 Going to Court as a Witness
9 Going to Court as a Witness 7 Key facts 1. What does the Director of Public Prosecutions (DPP) do? The DPP decides whether or not to charge people for committing crimes that is, to prosecute them. The DPP also decides what the charges should be. Once the prosecution begins, the Office of the DPP is responsible for the prosecution case. 2. What does the Chief Prosecution Solicitor do? The Chief Prosecution Solicitor acts as solicitor to the DPP and is head of the Solicitors Division of the DPP s Office. The staff of the Solicitors Division represent the DPP in all courts in Dublin. Local state solicitors represent the DPP in courts outside Dublin. 3. What happens after somebody reports a crime? When a person reports a crime to An Garda Síochána (the Gardaí), a number of stages follow: The Gardaí take a witness statement from the victim or the person who has reported the crime. A witness statement is a written record of the complaint. The Gardaí investigate the crime. Depending on what they find, the Gardaí may arrest a person they suspect of committing the crime (the suspect). The Gardaí or the DPP will decide whether or not to prosecute. In serious crimes, the Gardaí send a
10 8 Going to Court as a Witness file to the DPP and the DPP makes the decision. In less serious crimes, the Gardaí make the decision, although they still prosecute in the name of the DPP, who has the right to tell the Gardaí how to deal with the case. Then the Gardaí charge the person who they suspect committed the crime. The Gardaí bring the suspect to a District Court judge. From this point on, the suspect is known as the accused. The judge decides whether the accused person should be kept in prison (custody) until the trial or should be released on bail. A court date is set. The case begins in court. 4. Are there different types of criminal offence? There are two types of criminal offence summary offences and indictable offences. Summary offences: are less serious crimes; are heard by a judge without a jury in the District Court; cannot carry a prison sentence of more than 12 months for one offence (but for more than one offence a judge can impose a maximum prison sentence of 2 years in some cases).
11 Going to Court as a Witness 9 Indictable offences: are more serious crimes; are heard by a judge and jury in the Circuit Court or the Central Criminal Court; are sometimes dealt with in the Special Criminal Court by three judges without a jury; carry more serious penalties, including life imprisonment for some crimes. 5. Which courts deal with crime? There are four types of court the District Court, the Circuit Court, the Central Criminal Court and the Special Criminal Court. District Court This is the first court to which Gardaí take the accused. In the District Court, a judge: hears details of the charges brought against the accused; says whether a case is ready to go to trial; and hears trials for less serious cases (summary offences) without a jury. The accused may plead guilty or not guilty. If the accused pleads not guilty in the District Court, the prosecution will call witnesses to give evidence to try to prove that the accused is guilty. Circuit Court and Central Criminal Court These courts hold trials for offences that are more serious than those heard in the District Court. In these courts, a
12 10 Going to Court as a Witness jury sits alongside the judge. The jury must decide if the accused is guilty or innocent. Special Criminal Court This court is similar to the Circuit and Central Criminal Courts, except that: there is no jury; and three judges hear each case. 6. Can I complain to the Office of the DPP? Yes. If you have a complaint about how we work, you can contact us at our Office see contact details on page 24. Being a witness 7. Who can be a witness in a criminal case? The prosecution or defence that is, those defending the accused can call anyone who has information about a crime to be a witness at a trial, including the victim. 8. If I am a witness, how will I be called to give evidence? You will get an order from the court for you to give evidence at a particular time and place this is called a witness summons. The Gardaí will give you this summons. 9. What happens after the Gardaí charge the accused? In the more serious cases, once the Gardaí have charged the accused, the prosecution team will put together the
13 Going to Court as a Witness 11 evidence against the accused. The document that contains this evidence is called the book of evidence and is an important part of the case. The book of evidence: contains statements from witnesses, including the victim; includes other documents and a list of any physical evidence that will appear in court, such as photographs or weapons. When the prosecution has gathered all the evidence they need for the trial, the Gardaí will give a copy of the book of evidence to the accused. Once this happens, a date is set for the trial. 10. If I am a witness or a victim, can I see the book of evidence? No. You can see a copy of your own statement, but you cannot see the whole book of evidence. 11. Is the verdict decided on the book of evidence? No. The court and the jury decide the case based on the evidence they hear at the trial and not on what is in the book of evidence. 12. What is a deposition? A deposition is a statement by a witness made under oath (a legally binding promise by the witness to tell the truth). Either the prosecution or the defence team can ask the judge to allow them to take evidence under oath before the
14 12 Going to Court as a Witness trial. If the judge agrees, a solicitor or barrister will ask you questions under oath in a courtroom. The other side may also ask you questions. They will write your answers down. When you have finished giving evidence, the court clerk will read the deposition to you. If you agree that it is correct, you sign it. The court case 13. What happens when the case begins in court? If the case is being heard by a jury, a barrister working for the DPP will present the prosecution case. A prosecution solicitor working for the DPP will also be there. The prosecution team represents the people of Ireland, not any one individual. So, even though you may be the victim of a crime, the DPP will not be representing you as an individual. The barrister will begin by explaining to the jury what the case is about. He or she will then call the witnesses one at a time. When the barrister calls you as a witness, the law says that you must tell the truth. The following sections describe the main aspects of a court case: Members of the jury You should not know anyone on the jury. If you do, you should tell the prosecution solicitor or barrister. The judge will not allow anyone who knows the victim or the accused, or who has any other connections with the case, to sit on the jury.
15 Going to Court as a Witness 13 Giving evidence The prosecution barrister will ask you questions to get your evidence. When the prosecution has finished asking you questions, the defence may question you. This is called cross-examination. Beginning the defence When the prosecution has finished questioning all of their witnesses, the defence team will start to make their case. They have a choice of what to do. They can call witnesses to support the defence. If they do this, the prosecution can cross-examine the defence witnesses. They can call the accused to give evidence. If they do this, the prosecution can cross-examine the accused. They can simply argue that the prosecution has not proved its case. This is because by law the prosecution has to prove that the accused is guilty, but the accused does not need to prove innocence. The jury is not allowed to assume that an accused who does not give evidence is guilty. Considering the verdict When the prosecution and the defence have finished with their witnesses: they take turns to argue their case to the jury; the judge sums up the evidence, explains the law to the jury and tells them what to consider to reach their final decision or verdict ; and
16 14 Going to Court as a Witness the jury then go to the jury room to consider a verdict. If the accused is found not guilty, he or she is free to go. If the jury cannot agree a verdict, the DPP has to decide whether a new trial should take place. If the jury finds the accused guilty, the judge has to decide what the sentence should be. Sentencing the accused The judge might not decide on the sentence straight away. Usually, the judge will set a later date for sentencing. This is to allow probation officers, social workers, doctors, psychiatrists or the Gardaí depending on the particular case time to prepare a report. These reports help the judge to decide on the sentence. In sexual or violent crime cases, the reports might include a Victim Impact Statement. The statement describes the effect that the crime has had on the victim. 14. Are there any reasons why a trial might not go ahead? Sometimes, a trial cannot go ahead on the date fixed for various reasons, for example if: an important witness is not available because of illness; the defence legal team is not ready to go ahead; the court list is full and there is no judge or court ready to deal with the case; or the defence team has started a judicial review to stop the trial going ahead.
17 Going to Court as a Witness What is a judicial review? There are different types of judicial reviews. A common type is where the accused asks the High Court to prevent the trial court or the DPP from going ahead with the trial. For example, an accused might ask the High Court to stop a trial because: the investigation or prosecution of the crime has taken too long; or there has been such a delay in the case that the accused cannot get a fair trial. If the courts agree to stop the trial, the accused goes free. Even if the judicial review does not succeed, it may hold up the trial for a long time. Help for witnesses and victims 16. What help can I get if I need to give evidence as a victim of a crime? The prosecution solicitor will work with Gardaí to make sure that you always know what is happening in the case. There are also a number of organisations that can offer you help through a court support service. This means that, if you wish, a volunteer will come with you to the trial and stay with you throughout. The Crime Victims Helpline, which provides a telephone support service for victims of crime, can give you contact details for court support and other victim support services. You can contact the Crime Victims Helpline at or text
18 16 Going to Court as a Witness 17. What help can I get with the cost of coming to court to give evidence? The Gardaí are responsible for paying witnesses expenses. This is the cost to you of coming to court to give evidence. These expenses may include the cost of travelling, meals and, in some cases, accommodation. The Garda Superintendent (District Officer) in the area where the case is being taken will pay your expenses. The Garda dealing with your case can handle this for you. He or she may ask you for receipts for your expenses. In some cases, you may be able to get an advance on expenses before the case so that you can travel to court. 18. If I am giving evidence as a victim, will I meet the prosecution team before the trial? Generally, you will be able to meet the prosecution team at a pre-trial meeting. The pre-trial meeting takes place with the investigating Garda, the prosecution solicitor and the barrister dealing with the case. In serious cases, such as sexual offences, the prosecution solicitor will offer to set this up for you in advance of the trial. If you would like a meeting and it has not yet been offered to you, you should tell the Garda looking after your case. The Garda will contact the DPP s Office or local state solicitor to set up the meeting. 19. What happens at the pre-trial meeting? Pre-trial meetings allow the barrister and solicitor to explain to you what happens in court. However, strict rules prevent them from talking to you about what evidence you
19 Going to Court as a Witness 17 will give. This is so that nobody can claim that someone told you what to say in court. 20. If I am a victim of a crime, can I see a written record of the trial? The written record of the trial is called a transcript. The prosecution and defence teams may get the transcript after the trial is over and if there is an appeal. Only a judge can say whether you can see the transcript. 21. What happens if I do not want to be in the courtroom with the accused when I give my evidence? In most cases, you will have to give your evidence in the courtroom. In some cases, however, you may be able to give evidence by videolink, which is a live television link system. This has some benefits: You give your evidence in front of a camera in another part of the court building away from the courtroom. The legal team can ask you questions as if you were actually sitting in front of them. The court will see you giving your evidence on a television screen. However, you will only see the person who is asking you questions, not the accused person. 22. Which witnesses can use videolink? In sexual or violent crime cases, witnesses under 18 years of age and those with a learning disability may use videolink to give their evidence unless the judge decides that they must be in the courtroom.
20 18 Going to Court as a Witness If you use videolink, a person from the Courts Service will help you while you are in the videolink room. If you want to, you can ask to see this room before the trial so that you will be used to it when you need to give evidence. In any other case, you can use videolink only if the court allows you to. 23. If I am a victim of a crime, can I get a lawyer to represent me in court? No, a lawyer cannot represent you unless you are the victim of a serious sexual offence and the defence team wants to cross-examine you about your sexual history. They can do this only if the judge allows them to. A lawyer can represent you in court when the defence team is asking the judge for permission. The Legal Aid Board will provide a lawyer for you free of charge. The prosecution solicitor dealing with your case will set this up for you. Your lawyer will meet you before the defence team applies to cross-examine you. Your lawyer will also be in court when the judge tells the defence whether they can cross-examine you or not. If the judge gives permission to cross-examine you, your lawyer cannot represent you during the cross-examination itself. However, the judge should make sure that the defence team stays within the limits set by the court when they cross-examine you. 24. Will my name be made public when I give my evidence? Generally, you cannot keep your identity hidden when giving evidence. This is because the Constitution of Ireland says that all cases should take place in public unless the
21 Going to Court as a Witness 19 law makes an exception. It can do this for certain types of cases, for example: rape and some sexual offence cases; cases where the accused is under 18 years of age. In these cases, trials take place without the public being present. This means that generally only the people directly involved will be in the courtroom when you give your evidence. Journalists may also be in the courtroom. However, in cases where the public are not present, journalists cannot report the names of the accused person or the victim or write anything that could help people find out their names. A journalist who breaks these rules is guilty of a criminal offence. 25. Will the name of the accused person be made public? This is a complex issue and it is not possible to give a full account of the law here. In some cases, it is not possible to make names public at all. For example, in rape cases, accused people have the right to keep their name private unless they are found guilty. This means that nothing can be said to identify the accused before the verdict. It is not possible to reveal the identity of an accused person who is found not guilty. If the accused is found guilty, some victims may want the name of the accused to be made public. Often, however, if the guilty person is named, the identity of the victim will become known. Despite this, some victims decide that they want the guilty person to be named. If you want this to happen, you should tell the prosecution solicitor and the court.
22 20 Going to Court as a Witness If you are a victim, you should think carefully about what the naming of the guilty party will mean for you, your family and your future before you decide what to do. It may be a good idea to get your own legal advice about this. 26. If I am a victim of a crime, how do the judge and jury learn about the effect the crime has had on me? It is important for a judge to know what effect a crime has had on a victim when deciding on a sentence. In cases involving sexual offences or violent crime, the judge can ask for a Victim Impact Statement once the jury finds the accused guilty. This statement describes how the crime has affected you and is still affecting you. 27. If I am a victim of a crime, do I have the right to get compensation? By law, you may have a right to money for any personal injury or lost earnings that you suffered because of the offence. However, there are some limits: It is up to the judge whether to order the person who is found guilty to pay you. The judge must first check if the person can afford to pay you. For example, the judge may see no point in ordering an unemployed person to pay. The amount of money you get cannot be more than the amount you could have got from a civil claim in the same court. The Criminal Injuries Compensation Tribunal may pay compensation for personal injury that is a direct result of a violent crime (see contact details on page 26).
23 Going to Court as a Witness 21 Appealing a case 28. Can the accused appeal the conviction or sentence? Yes, the accused person can appeal the conviction or sentence. If the trial took place in a District Court, the accused can: appeal the conviction or the sentence to the Circuit Court; and have a full re-hearing of the case, which means that you would have to go to court again as a witness. If the trial took place in the Circuit Court, the Central Criminal Court or the Special Criminal Court, the accused can appeal the sentence or the conviction to the Court of Criminal Appeal. In this court: a Supreme Court judge and two High Court judges sit together to hear the appeal; and the judges read the transcript of the original trial instead of hearing the evidence all over again. If the accused has gone to prison, he or she must usually stay in prison while waiting for the case to go to the Court of Criminal Appeal. 29. Can the DPP appeal the sentence? Yes, the DPP can appeal the sentence but only if the trial took place in the Circuit, Central Criminal or Special Criminal Court. The DPP cannot appeal a sentence of the District Court.
24 22 Going to Court as a Witness The DPP can ask the Court of Criminal Appeal to review a sentence that he thinks is unduly lenient. The DPP must ask for a sentence review within 28 days of the judge giving the sentence. In some cases, the DPP can apply for more time to ask for a review but not more than 56 days from the sentence date. 30. Who can ask the DPP to appeal an unduly lenient sentence? You can ask the DPP to appeal a sentence if you are: a victim of a crime; a family member of a victim of a crime; a doctor, lawyer or social worker acting for a client. 31. How do appeal court judges review a sentence? Appeal court judges will read the written record of a trial to understand the trial judge s reasons for giving a particular sentence. They will consider a sentence to be unduly lenient only if they believe that the trial judge was wrong in law to give such a light sentence. An appeal will only be possible in a small number of cases.
25 Going to Court as a Witness 23
26 24 Going to Court as a Witness How to contact the DPP s Office Merrion Street Dublin 2 Tel: (01) Fax: (01) Website: Chief Prosecution Solicitor Solicitors Division 90 North King Street Smithfield Dublin 7 Tel: (01) Fax: (01) Website: Local state solicitors You can get contact details for each of the local state solicitors around the country from our Office on (01) or on our website,
27 Going to Court as a Witness 25 Other useful contacts Crime Victims Helpline Tel: Text: Website: Victim support services You can contact the Crime Victims Helpline (see above) for details of court support and other victim support services. Courts Service Information Office Phoenix House 15/24 Phoenix Street North Smithfield Dublin 7 Tel: (01) Fax: (01) Website: Department of Justice and Law Reform 94 St. Stephen s Green Dublin 2 Tel: (01) Fax: (01) Website:
28 26 Going to Court as a Witness Victims of Crime Office Commission for the Support of Victims of Crime Departmemt of Justice and Law Reform 51 St. Stephen's Green Dublin 2 Tel: (01) Fax: (01) Websites: Criminal Injuries Compensation Tribunal 13 Lower Hatch Street Dublin 2 Tel: (01) Fax: (01) Legal Aid Board Quay Street Cahirciveen Co. Kerry Tel: (066) Fax: (066) Website:
29 Going to Court as a Witness 27 How the Office of the DPP is organised Directing Division Head of Directing Division Professional Officers Director of Public Prosecutions Private Secretary Administration Division Head of Administration Communications & Development Unit Finance Unit Human Resources & Training Unit Information Technology Unit Library & Research Unit Organisation & General Services Unit Deputy Director of Public Prosecutions Secretary Solicitors Division Chief Prosecution Solicitor Deputy Chief Prosecution Solicitor Secretary District Court Section Circuit Court Trials Section Superior Courts Section Judicial Review Section Assets Seizing Section Prosecution Policy Unit Head of Prosecution Policy Unit
30 28 Going to Court as a Witness Index Appeal 21 Book of evidence 11 Crime Victims Helpline 15, 25 Criminal Injuries Compensation Tribunal 20, 26 Cross-examination 13 Deposition 11 Indictable offences 9 Judicial review 15 Jury 12 Legal Aid Board 18, 26 Local state solicitors 7, 24 Pre-trial meeting 16 Sentence 14 Summary offences 8 Transcript 17 Verdict 13 Victim Impact Statement 20 Videolink 17 Witness expenses 16 Witness statement 7 Witness summons 10
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