Blood Type Testing Lab Report Section 1101 Nattanit Trakullapphan (Nam) Chawalnrath Wongdeshanan (Kat)

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1 Blood Type Testing Lab Report Section 1101 Nattanit Trakullapphan (Nam) Chawalnrath Wongdeshanan (Kat) Introduction: figure 1.1 (Blood type n.d.) figure 1.2 (Blood type, Antigens-Antibodies n.d.)

2 Multiple Alleic Traits are called when there is more than two possible alleles. One example of multi alleic traits is ABO blood type in human population. [6] There are three alleles for blood type, which are, I B and i. and I B are dominant to allele i. And these three possible alleles can produce four blood type in human population. and i make blood type A; I B I B and I B i make blood type B while only I B makes blood type AB and only ii makes blood type O. Both blood type A and B can be either heterozygous or homozygous, but blood type AB can be only heterozygous and blood type O can be only homozygous. Genotype I B of blood type AB is co-dominant because both dominant alleles, A and B, fully express their characteristic. The red blood cells of an individual contain antigens on their surfaces that matching to their blood group and antibodies in blood plasma that identify and combine with the antigen sites on the surfaces of red cells of another type. Antigens and antibodies are certain protein molecules presence in red blood cells. [4] Antibodies are located in the blood plasma while antigens are in the surface of red blood cells. Antibody also can be called immunoglobulin. [1] It is a protective protein in our immune system against the foreign antigens that come in our body. Each blood type is named by its antigen in red blood cells. For example, as in figure 1.1, blood type A contains A antigens, blood type B contains B antigens, blood type AB contains both, and blood type O contains neither. This means that blood type A contains B antibodies, blood type B contains A antibodies, blood type O contains neither, and blood type O contains both as in figure 1.2. It is because A antibodies reacts with its corresponding antigen, which is A, and B antibodies reacts with B antigens. The reaction between red cells and corresponding antibodies usually results in clumping or agglutinating of the red cells. [3] To do blood type testing, in this experiment, we can use agglutination tests, which is a method to check for certain antigens or antibodies. [5] This method can show whether an individual has which blood type. Agglutination of red cells results from antibody cross-linkages established when different specific combining sites of one antibody react with antigen on two different red cells. [2] This means that if anti-a antibodies react with A antigens, anti-b antibodies react with B antigens, and anti-ab antibodies react with both A and B antigens, blood clot will be formed. If testing with blood type O, nothing will change because blood type O does not contain any antigen.

3 Therefore, the purpose of this experiment is to check how antigens and antibodies interact and to know the individual blood type and know the possibilities of the blood type of the baby from blood type of parents. It is important to do this experiment and know our blood type because if we know our blood type, we will know which blood types do not match with us. If they do not match, they can cause us to death. Since the agglutinated red cells can block blood vessels and inhibit the circulation of the blood to various parts of the body. [4] Also, the agglutinated blood cells crack and its contents leak out in the body, which when hemoglobin gets outside the red blood cells, if becomes toxic, leading to death. Materials: 2 Microscope Slides Anti-A, Anti-B and Anti-AB Markers Lancets Lancet Device Ethanol Cotton Ball 3 Toothpick Method: Slides Control A B AB A circle with 1 cm diameter figure 2 1. Draw 2 one-diameter circles on each slide and mark them as shown in figure Mark each circle control, Anti-A, Anti-B and Anti-AB as in figure 2.

4 3. Puncture the tip of your finger. 4. Drop one drop of blood in each slide. 5. Drop one drop of anti-a antibody in circle A, of anti-b antibody in circle B and of anti- AB antibody in circle AB. (Do not drop any in the control) 6. Mix the blood and antigen with different toothpick thoroughly. 7. Wait 10 seconds and observe the blood in each slide. Results: Data Table 1: Blood Coagulation State: Coagulation or No-coagulation Control Anti-A Anti-B Anti-AB None Coagulation No-coagulation Coagulation Figure 3. The results from the data table and the picture shows there is a blood coagulation or blood clot when mixing with anti-a antibodies and anti- AB antibodies while there is no change in control and anti-b antibodies.

5 Discussion: From the results, when the blood mixed with anti-a antibodies and anti-ab antibodies, blood agglutination was formed, meaning that in the blood there was A antigen which belongs to blood type A. We could say that this blood was blood type A because although it reacted with anti-ab antibodies, it did not show any reaction in anti-b antibodies, which always reacts with B antigen. And if it were blood type B, the blood would not be agglutinated when mixing with anti- A antibodies. Thus, in the blood, there was only A antigen that could identify it was a blood type A. Also, it could not be blood type O because there would be no changes in all circles no blood coagulation if it were blood type O. In addition, there had to be blood coagulation in two circles, A and AB, if the blood was A blood type since in the anti-ab antibodies, anti-a antibodies were also present, so it formed an interaction which was blood agglutination. From knowing this, it would be dangerous if blood type A were injected to a person with blood type B or if injected blood type A or B to a person with blood type O. Nam s Scenarios (Nam s blood type is A, and Nam s parents have blood type of A and B) 1. If mother has genotype and father has genotype I B I B : I B I B I B I B I B I B A baby will 100% have blood type AB. 2. If mother has genotype i and father has genotype I B I B : i I B I B I B i I B I B I B i A baby will have chances to have blood type AB or B.

6 3. If mother has genotype and father has genotype I B i: I B I B I B i i i A baby will have chances to have blood type AB or A. 4. If mother has genotype i and father has genotype I B i: i I B I B I B i i i ii A baby will have 25% chance to have blood type AB, B, A or O. => If Nam has blood type A, the possible genotypes of mother are with I B i of father, or i with I B i of father. Kat s Scenarios (Kat s parents both have blood type of O) If mother has ii blood type and father has ii blood type, too: i i i ii ii i ii ii The baby will have 100% blood type O, meaning that Kat has blood type O.

7 Conclusion: In this experiment, we did blood type testing with considering how the blood would change when it was mixed with each antibodies: anti-a, anti-b, anti-ab. And we indicated from the changing what blood type it was. For the changing, it happened because of antibody crosslinkages established when one antibody reacts with antigen on two different red cells. Antibodies binded with its corresponding antigens to destroy them as when B-type blood is injected into the one with blood type of A. The anti-b antibodies present in blood type A will interact with antigen B from blood type B, forming blood clot. That blood clot can bring an individual to death because when the substances get out from the cracking of agglutinated red blood cells, they turn toxic. Hence, it is very necessary to know our blood type and which blood type can match with ours. A person with blood type AB can accept all blood types. A person with blood type A can receive blood from.

8 References [1] Britannica. (2014). Antibody [Online]. Available: [Saturday. 14-March :39] [2] Britannica. (2014). Agglutination Tests [Online]. Available: [Sunday. 15-March :12] [3] Britannica. (2014). Blood Group [Online]. Available: [Saturday. 14-March :46] [4] Nobelprize. (2015). Blood Groups, Blood Typing and Blood Transfusions [Online]. Available: [Saturday. 14- March :43] [5] Vorvick, L. (2013). Latex agglutination tests [Online]. Available: [Sunday. 15-March :28] [6] Wang, Y. (nd). Multiple Alleles, Epistasis, and Pleiotropy [Online]. Available: [Saturday. 14-March :22] Blood type, Antigens-Antibodies, n.d. photograph, viewed 14 March 2015, < Blood type, n.d. photograph, viewed 14 March 2015, <

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