3 Contents Preface 5 Introduction 7 Module 1: initiation report 11 Action 1A: specifying PPC process, stakeholder analysis and communication 12 Action 1B: listing preconditions from the preliminary stage 15 Action 1C: delineating scope, duration and implementation scenarios 15 Action 1D: listing non-financial considerations 19 Module 2: qualitative analysis 23 Action 2A: describing receipts and expenses and risk items 24 Action 2B: making a qualitative assessment of both implementation scenarios 28 Module 3: quantitative analysis 31 Action 3A: preparing for the drafting of cash flow statements 33 Action 3B: quantifying the public implementation scenario 34 Action 3C: quantifying the private implementation scenario and any other implementation scenario 35 Action 3D: calculating the net cash value and conducting a sensitivity analysis 37 Module 4: final report 41 Action 4A: describing the results 43 Action 4B: drawing conclusions and making recommendations 44 Appendices 45 Appendix 1: Glossary 46 Appendix 2: Scope of PPC 49 Appendix 3: Model overviews of receipts and expenses 53 Appendix 4: Risk analysis 58 Appendix 5: Model overviews of pure risks 63 Appendix 6: Discount rate 65 Appendix 7: Determining differences between the public and the private implementation scenarios 68 Colophon 74
5 Preface 5 Preface It is with great pleasure that I present to you the updated Public-Private Comparator Manual (PPC). We updated the manual so that the advantages and disadvantages of the various implementation scenarios may be analysed even better for even more large government projects. The central government continuously strives for service provision which is as cheap, as flexible and as efficient as possible. Especially in these times of budget cuts, we have to grasp every opportunity to offer the same level of service provision with less budget. And the PPC may prove to be a helpful aid in achieving this, because you can use the manual to assess and calculate, step by step, which implementation scenario offers the best opportunities. This may help you with making a choice between contracting out an activity, cooperating with other government parties, or performing an activity on your own. The PPC Manual has been in use for more than ten years in the areas of housing and physical infrastructure and has proved to be more than useful in these sectors. Much more added value may also be achieved outside these sectors by carefully considering the various implementation scenarios. Therefore, the PPC Manual can now be more widely used. Based on this consideration, we decided to extend the manual. The updated PPC Manual is widely applicable, for instance also when choosing an implementation method for operational management activities, wind farms or the purchase and maintenance of new ICT systems. I am pleased to see the manual already being more widely used. For instance, the Ministry of Defence has been using the PPC Manual for projects in which a sourcing decision has to be made, such as for security systems. Furthermore, the PPC Manual is also useful for authorities other than the central government. Hopefully, the updated manual will be widely used by these government bodies. Many people, both at and outside the Ministry of Finance, have contributed to the making of this document, to whom I am very grateful. This PPC Manual may help you make good and well-founded choices which serve the public interest, and I hope it lives up to your expectations. Richard van Zwol Secretary-General The Hague, March 2013
7 Introduction 7 Introduction This is the Public-Private Comparator Manual (PPC). The PPC is intended to provide you with insight into the advantages and disadvantages of the various implementation scenarios in which large government projects can be executed, namely in a public or a private scenario, or another (mixed) scenario. In this manual, you will find information on how to compare the various implementation scenarios, so that the authorities can select the best scenario. The PPC has been in use since 2002 and has resulted in a more conscious consideration of the implementation scenarios, resulting in significant added value for the central government. Target group: parties involved in drawing up a PPC. The manual explains which steps have to be taken so that an extensive user group can independently conduct the PPC. The main target group of this manual comprises the people who will be applying the PPC, which usually takes place in a team. In addition, the manual may also give other users such as decision-makers and auditors insight into the methodology and process regarding the PPC, even though they are more indirectly involved in drawing up a PPC. The manual has been mainly drawn up for central government bodies, but it can also be applied to projects of local authorities and semi-public institutions. Objective: selecting the best implementation method for large government projects This manual can also be used in any large government project in which various forms of contract are considered. The central government is obliged to conduct a PPC in central government projects in the areas of housing and infrastructure which exceed a threshold of twenty-five million euros and sixty million euros, respectively. However, the PPC can be applied in many more sectors, such as: housing, including facilities services; infrastructure, such as roads, railways, sluices and tunnels; sustainable material, such as means of transport; other large investment projects, such as new ICT systems and wind farms; make-or-buy decisions in operational management activities, such as security, catering and ICT support. Over the years, much experience has been gained with PPCs, particularly in housing and infrastructure projects. This has led to a standardisation of the manner in which the steps of the PPC Manual have to be followed. The Government Buildings Agency has detailed its PPC experience in the reader 'PPC in housing projects', and has been using this reader to conduct PPCs. The Directorate-General for Public Works and Water Management and the Ministry of Defence have also translated their experience in a standardisation of the manner in which PPCs are followed, or have plans to do this.
8 8 Public-Private Comparator Manual Place of PPC in the project phases With respect to project phases, you generally conduct a PPC in the assessment phase, between the initial phase and the preparation phase. The initial phase aims to clarify the scope of a Project 1 in broad outlines. In the assessment phase, a rough variance analysis is conducted with the help of the PPC, which ultimately results in the selection of the Project's implementation scenario. You generally detail the implementation scenario in the preparation phase 2. Place of the PPC on the timeline as part of the total project lifecycle 3 PPC Initial phase > Assessment Preparation Transaction Realisation Operational Finalphase > phase > phase > phase > phase > phase > Manual and Reader's Guide This PPC Manual consists of four modules which describe the steps you have to take to draw up a PPC. The PPC results in two end products: an initiation report and a final report. 1. Initiation report Initiation report Final report 2. Qualitative Analysis 3. Quantitative Analysis 4. Final report Starting points of the PPC Overview of expenses, receipts and risks. Assessment of differences between implementation scenarios Quantified differences implementation scenarios 1 In this manual, all activities which are necessary to supply a particular product of service up to and including the final phase are referred to as 'Project". 2 The PPC should not be confused with the Public Sector Comparator (PSC). If a private implementation scenario has been selected after the PPC, a PSC should be drawn up in the preparation phase. The PSC contains a more detailed assessment of expenses, receipts and risks. Please consult the PSC Manual for more information about the PSC (see 3 See module 2, action 2a for a description of the various phases.
9 Introduction 9 Module 1: Initiation report In this module, you get an overview of all elements which are necessary in order to make a financial comparison of the various implementation scenarios. Components of the initiation report are a description of the PPC process and a description of the Project in broad outlines, such as the scope and the duration. The initiation report also comprises all implementation scenarios which you will compare as well as the non-financial considerations which may be relevant to the selection of the implementation scenario. Module 2: Qualitative analysis In this module, you are going to draw up a list of all expected expenses, receipts and risks for the entire duration of the comparison. You then document any differences between the implementation scenarios for each expense, receipt and risk item. Module 3: Quantitative analysis In this module, you quantify the differences between the implementation scenarios and you calculate the Project's cash value (current value) per implementation scenario. Module 4: Final report The results are summarised in the final report. Based on these results, you formulate conclusions and recommendations for the further approach. Optionally, you may add a policy advice for the decision-makers to the final report. Appendices There are a number of appendices at the back of this manual. Among other things, they comprise a definition of the most important concepts, the theory of risk analysis, an explanation of discount rate, and model overviews of the scope, expenses, receipts and risks.
10 10 Public-Private Comparator Manual The four modules of the PPC with the associated actions Module 1 Initiation report Actions: Specifying the PPC process, stakeholder analysis and communication Listing the preconditions from the preliminary stage Delineating scope, duration and implementation scenarios Listing non-financial considerations Module 2 Qualitative analysis Actions: Describing the expenses, receipts and risks Making a qualitative assessment of the differences between the implementation scenarios Module 3 Quantitative analysis Actions: Preparing for the drafting of cash flow statements Quantifying the public implementation scenario Quantifying the private implementation scenario and any other implementation scenario Calculating the net cash value and conducting a sensitivity analysis Module 4 Final report Actions: Describing the results Drawing conclusions and making recommendations Contact possibilities If you have any questions about this PPC Manual, or if you have a question about public-private partnership (PPP) at the central government level in general, please contact the Public-Private Investments Department (PPI) of the Ministry of Finance. You can contact a separate service desk with questions about public-private partnership at the level of local authorities and semi-public institutions, called PPSsupport. The contact details of the PPI and PPSsupport can be found on The Hague, March 2013
11 Module 1 Initiation report
12 12 Public-Private Comparator Manual Module 1 Initiation report Module 1 Initiation report > Module 2 Module 3 > Qualitative analysis > Quantitative analysis > Module 4 Final report Action 1A Action 1B Action 1C Action 1D Specifying the PPC process, stakeholder analysis and communication Listing preconditions from the preliminary stage Delineating scope, duration and implementation scenarios Listing non-financial considerations Your client has asked you to conduct a PPC. You now face the task of drawing up an initiation report to this effect. An initiation report can be seen as a plan of action for drawing up a PPC. The plan of action must clearly state what is assessed in the PPC and how, with which parties and under which preconditions. A sound plan of action prevents delays and/or misunderstandings in conducting the PPC (see modules 2 to 4). Objective Agreement between all parties involved about the manner in which the PPC is conducted. Output: initiation report The initiation report must always comprise the following: 1 which parties have an interest in the PPC; 2 which communication strategy is adopted; 3 under which preconditions from the preliminary stage the PPC is conducted; 4 which scope, duration and implementation scenarios apply to the Project 4 which are assessed in the PPC; 5 which non-financial considerations are relevant to the decision about the implementation scenario. Module structure Module 1 consists of four actions: 1A up to and including 1D. Action 1A is about the organisation of the PPC process. It is recommended you start this action before you deal with the more substantive, professional aspects of the comparator (see actions 1B up to and including 1D). Action 1A Specifying the PPC process, stakeholder analysis and communication The organisation of the PPC process concerns the detailing of the PPC process, identifying that which is necessary to properly conduct the PPC and who should be involved in this in what way and when. 4 In this manual, all activities which are necessary to supply a particular product of service up to and including the final phase are referred to as 'Project".
13 Module 1 Initiation report 13 Getting an overview of the PPC process First, you must outline the decision-making process and the implementation process. 5 The steps and the products to be achieved, the initiation report and the final report in this manual may serve as starting points for these processes. You must detail how you are going to follow the steps in this process, how much time, money and capacity this will take, and which data, knowledge and expertise are needed to properly execute these steps. It depends on the Project how much time is needed to draw up the PPC. This partially depends on the type of project, the complexity of the project and the organisation's experience in drawing up PPCs. If an organisation draws up a PPC for the first time, the processing time is usually two to four months. Organisation which have experience in PPCs mostly conduct a PPC much more rapidly. The indicative division of the time required per module is as follows: Initiation report 1-2 weeks Qualitative analysis 3-5 weeks Quantitative analysis 5-8 weeks Final report 1-2 weeks In order to be able to properly conduct a PPC, you need experience in contracting out as well as knowledge of your organisation and of the market for the product or service concerned. If you do not have this knowledge and experience, you may hire external specialists, or parties from the central government which have experience in conducting PPCs. The PPI Department of the Ministry of Finance can provide you with advice in these matters. Integrity and confidentiality risks may play a role in the PPC process, for instance when a party is involved in drawing up the PPC who runs the risk of losing his job if it is decided to have the service provided by an external party. Please be advised to take this into account when organising the PPC process. The Directorate-General for Public Works and Water Management and the Government Buildings Agency have standardised the decision-making process within the framework of the PPC Manual 6. The Government Buildings Agency has defined these agreements in collaboration with the Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations (DGOBR) and with the Ministry of Finance 7. In addition, the Government Buildings Agency uses a standard reporting format, which can be retrieved from 'PPSsupport' 8. 5 In certain cases, standard processes and standard methodologies are already in place in external policy documents or manuals. For instance, the PPP knowledge pool of the Directorate-General for Public Works and Water Management has specifically concentrated its PPC methodology on infrastructure projects. Similarly, the PPP knowledge pool of the Government Buildings Agency has focused on government buildings projects (see the reader 'PPC in housing projects'). 6 The decision-making process in projects of the Government Buildings Agency is in accordance with the 'PPC policy line for government buildings projects' (2005). 7 See Final report of work group 'Inclusion of DBFMO in operational management in central government', 21 September See
14 14 Public-Private Comparator Manual Three groups of stakeholders important in the PPC process At the start of the PPC, the PPC Team conducts a stakeholder analysis and determines the communication objectives and communication actions for each target group based on this analysis. Stakeholders are all parties which are directly or indirectly involved in the PPC, which influence the PPC, or have an interest in the PPC. Involvement, influence and interest may apply to the drawing up of the PPC and to the decision-making process regarding the PPC (choice of implementation scenario). Based on the stakeholder analysis, the PPC Project Leader also determines the composition of the project group. The analysis may also prompt the Project Leader to propose to the client(s) any changes to the group of decision-makers regarding the PPC. There are roughly three groups of stakeholders in the PPC process: Decision-makers They receive all information relevant to the decision-making process in time. Decision-makers are mainly interested in the quality and costs of the service provision envisaged in the Project, and how the implementation scenario influences the quality and costs. Members of the PPC Team The PPC Team in its entirety is involved in the PPC process. This means that all team members must be informed in a timely manner as well as at the same time about anything that may be relevant to the team. The relevant information roughly consists of all data and assumptions with the associated substantiation which are necessary for understanding the result of the PPC. Interested parties In general, interested parties are (groups of ) persons or institutions which may have to deal with the PPC and with the consequences of the chosen implementation scenario. The composition of the group of interested parties differs per PPC. This may concern: purchasers of the envisaged service or product; parties which have to provide the product or service, or which are responsible for the provision; parties which have a policy-related interest in the implementation scenario. For instance, the human resources department may be interested in the transfer of staff, and facilities services may be interested in housing projects; market players. Designing communication per target group Since the group of stakeholders is so heterogeneous, you determine the communication design for each target group. You should always take account of the confidentiality regulations for PPCs. Certain parties, particularly external parties, are not informed about the implementation scenario until the PPC has been completed and a decision about the implementation has been made.
15 Module 1 Initiation report 15 Action 1B Listing preconditions from the preliminary stage Only when the initial phase of a project has been concluded, are you able to decide to conduct a PPC. This is because the project's preconditions have to be sufficiently clear in advance in order to be able to determine the scope, duration and implementation scenario in the PPC phase. No later than at the end of the initial phase, it must also be determined if there is sufficient support and, in principle, financing for the Project. In order to be able to conduct a PPC, you must have answered the following questions beforehand: 1 What is the benefit of the Project? 2 Are there sufficient means available for the Project, or will there be sufficient means available? 3 Is there sufficient administrative commitment? 4 Is the scope of the Project clear in broad outlines? 5 Is the desired output of the Project clear in broad outlines? Action 1C Delineating scope, duration and implementation scenarios With this action, you can unequivocally delineate the PPC. Since this delineation is of major influence on the result of the PPC, you must make sure to substantiate it carefully. 9 Sound substantiation can prevent delays in the PPC at a later stage caused by discussions about the delineation. The PPC must at any rate be delineated in the following areas: the scope of the PPC; the duration of the PPC; the implementation scenarios which have to be assessed in the PPC; Delineating the scope of the PPC This concerns the scope of the PPC. Make sure to formulate the scope in such a way that the added value which may be achieved is maximal. For this reason, it is wise to keep the scope sufficiently wide, so that market players have room to achieve efficiency benefits by aligning activities more closely. The starting point is the scope in broad outlines, as provided to the PPC Team by the client at the start of the PPC. Since the scope determines the result of the PPC, the PPC Team must always investigate how the scope may be optimised. 9 In some cases, the starting points are already uniformised and laid down in policy documents, such as in the new building and renovation projects of the Government Buildings Agency.
16 16 Public-Private Comparator Manual Determining the scope in a five-step plan The scope is determined and delineated in five steps. The first three steps are taken by the client, and fall outside the scope of the assignment of the PPC Team. However, the PPC Team must have a full understanding of the results of these steps in order to be able to delineate the scope. In case of ambiguities, the PPC Team must contact the client. The plan comprises the following five steps: 1 Describe the public objective to which the Project contributes. 2 Describe the Project in broad outlines. 3 Describe in broad outlines the desired output of the Project. Which results must the Project yield? Lay down this output with the public objective in mind. 4 List and analyse which activities are necessary to realise the desired output. Do not only include the direct activities, but also the indirect activities, such as facilities services and human resources management. Then, consider which mutual connections there are and list the activities which cannot be outsourced, for instance because only the government is allowed to perform them (military activities, the administration of justice), or because they have to be performed by the government itself in order to safeguard the continuity of core duties (access to critical databases). 5 Determine the scope of the PPC by combining all activities which could be outsourced. 10 Include all related activities in the scope. You can increase the chances of financial added value by combining activities. Furthermore, combining activities offers private parties more options for optimisation. Example, combining activities offers private parties more options for optimisation. One private contractor designs and realises a building and is also responsible for cleaning during the operational phase. This combination means that this contractor can already take the cleaning activities into account in designing the building by making sure that the rooms in the design are easy to clean. Submitting the determined scope to the decision-makers The result of this five-step plan may be an amended scope or even an entirely different scope from the one provided at the start of the PPC. You must submit this amended or new scope and the initiation report to the decision-makers as advice. If the decision-makers wish to deviate from the scope which potentially provides the most added value, they are obliged to state their reasons in the PPC for doing so. Appendix 2 lists examples of how you can determine the scope of the PPC in concrete project situations. 10 If you do not include a particular activity in the PPC, you must substantiate this exception. If outsourcing a separate activity in itself does not provide added value, this does not constitute a reason for leaving it out of the scope, because added value is often achieved by a better harmonisation of activities. A valid reason for excluding an activity from the scope may be that the market does not offer good solutions.
17 Module 1 Initiation report 17 Determining the duration: carefully and substantiated The duration selected in the PPC is usually the same as the duration of the contract in the private implementation scenario, although this is not always the same. Carefully choose the duration, because it influences the outturn of the PPC. In determining the optimal duration several factors come into play, such as the duration of an object's lifecycle, the predictability of demand and the customary contract terms for the product or service in the market. Therefore, the optimal duration is not always unambiguous. In these cases, the choice for a particular duration is a strategic decision which you have to substantiate well. Assessment of lifecycle and investment expenses In determining the duration, you must take into account the period in which reasonably can be provided for the demand for the product and/or the service from the Project. On the other hand, it is important to harmonise the duration in the PPC with the lifecycle of the necessary investments in order to optimise the financial results. This enables private parties which have to make investments first before they can provide the products and/or services to have sufficient time to recover investment expenses and to stimulate them to minimise the total costs across the entire lifecycle. You may also decide you want the duration of the PPC to be longer than the duration of the investments which have to be made. By making the duration of the contract longer than the lifecycle of certain investments, private parties are stimulated to take account of replacement investments. They will strive to minimise the replacement investments or to extend the lifecycle by using sustainable materials and by providing optimal maintenance. Example, Duration in relation to investment lifecycle A PPC of 31 years has been chosen for the project involving the widening of a road. The duration is divided into a preparation phase of 1.5 years, a transaction phase of 1.5 years, a realisation phase of 3 years, followed by a maintenance phase of 25 years. A 25-year maintenance phase has been chosen because all important components of the contract, such as the layer of asphalt, will have at least been replaced one in the course of the contract. Customary contract terms: sometimes a good indicator for duration In actual practice, a good indicator for the optimal duration is usually found in the contract terms customary in certain sectors. However, you must take account of project-specific situations. Sometimes, the customary contract term gives the wrong indication, particularly if you have to determine a duration for operational management activities. In case of operational management activities, services do not terminate after expiry of the contract, but they are put out or 'in' for tender again. The risk in this is that the outturn of the PPC are strongly determined by the contract term chosen, particularly when the transition costs are high. The shorter the
18 18 Public-Private Comparator Manual contract term, the less time private parties have to recover the transition costs, and the more expensive the private implementation scenario becomes. In these cases, it is often forgotten that the costs in private implementation scenarios may structurally be lower after the contract term due to cost-saving measures. This advantage is not factored in when the contract term is applied as the duration in the PPC. In order to prevent this situation, the duration in the PPC in case of structural operational management activities such as catering or ICT support for workstations is at least twenty years. You are free to deviate from this duration, but only if you can substantiate this decision. In the PPC, allow for the fact that upon expiry of a contract, activities have to be put out to tender again. This entails extra expenses, but the organisation also has to be prepared for this. Include an estimation of these costs in the PPC. Three implementation scenarios in the PPC Before you start the qualitative and quantitative comparison of the implementation scenarios (see modules 2 and 3), it has to be clear which implementation scenarios you are going to compare. Therefore, it is important that you describe the various scenarios in great detail. In the PPC, three implementation scenarios are assessed and compared. The public implementation scenario This is the implementation scenario in which the Project is executed in accordance with current practice. A desired implementation scenario in principle cannot be used as a public implementation scenario 11. If a public implementation scenario which deviates from current practice is still selected, this must be clearly substantiated, for instance by means of already approved and implemented change processes. It is recommended to take a critical look at the expected results of these change processes. In the public implementation scenario, a government agency does not have to do everything on its own, because certain elements may have already been outsourced in the existing situation. In case of new products or services, make sure to link up with the implementations scenario of any previous, similar projects assigned by the client. Contract with external parties in the public implementation scenario are usually shorter than the selected duration of the PPC. Also make sure to include future contracts which will be concluded within the duration of the PPC. Otherwise you will not be able to properly compare the public implementation scenario with the private implementation scenario. Private implementation scenario The private implementation scenario is based on activities being outsourced in an integrated manner based on output specifications. The starting point is that all activities which fall within the scope are contracted out to the private party. In the private implementation scenario, the central government, as the client, determines the 'what' and the private contractor determines 11 Often, there are plans to improve the existing practice, but the implementation does not take place, or the results fall short of expectations. Therefore, a desired implementation is often unsuitable as a reference for the public implementation scenario.
19 Module 1 Initiation report 19 the 'how'. The private contractor therefore has the freedom the optimise the implementation. The private contractor is remunerated based on performances agreed on beforehand. The agreed on performances are not products, but obligations of result such as high customer satisfaction. The central government uses the DBFM(O) contract form (Design-Build-Finance- Maintain-Operate) as the private implementation scenario for investments in buildings amounting to more than twenty-five million euros and for investments in infrastructure amounting to more than sixty million euros. Other (interim) scenarios If you wish, you may include more scenarios in the PPC in addition to the public and private implementation scenarios. 12 These may be public-private interim scenarios, but also other private scenarios or other public scenarios. You do need sufficient reliable data in order to identify and quantify the relevant differences between these scenario(s) and the public and private implementation scenarios. You must take into account that it takes more time to conduct the PPC with each extra scenario you decide to include. A critical assessment of the financial added value each possible implementation scenario may yield saves time in the rest of the process. Action 1D Listing non-financial considerations The PPC is essentially a financial comparison tool. However, the decision-makers also allow for non-financial matters, which therefore form a part of the PPC. In the PPC, financial and non-financial considerations are not balanced against each other, but the decision-makers determine to what extent the non-financial considerations are weighed. 13 Non-financial considerations may influence the selection of the scenario with the highest financial added value, but they may also form a decisive argument against a particular implementation scenario. Therefore, it is important to clearly formulate and substantiate the non-financial considerations so that the decision-makers are informed about the arguments, which may result in them selecting another scenario, despite the financial added value of a particular implementation scenario (public, private or other). In order to prevent too much attention being placed on the scenario with the most financial added value, the identification of the non-financial considerations takes place before the financial calculation. 12 It is also possible to compare the public and private scenarios in the PPC first. Only when the private implementation scenario does not yield added value, may the public implementation scenario be compared to other scenarios. This is the current practice for government buildings projects. 13 For investments in buildings and infrastructure, such as roads, railways and sluices, the government has decided that the central government must in principle choose DBRM(O) when this would yield added value ( , Government's view on DBRM(O)).
20 20 Public-Private Comparator Manual General and project-specific non-financial considerations Non-financial consideration may be general (e.g., effects on a sector or region) or projectspecific (e.g., consequences for the organisation's identity). Include all relevant non-financial considerations in the initiation report. Continuing insights into non-financial considerations Even if the initiation report has already been released, new non-financial considerations may be identified during the rest of the PPC process. It may also become transparent that nonfinancial considerations may be translated into financial considerations after all. The amendments ensuing from the continuing insights must be included in the final report (see module 4).
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