Urban Transformation in Turkey Marc Pierini Article, June 20, 2013

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Urban Transformation in Turkey Marc Pierini Article, June 20, 2013"

Transcription

1 Urban Transformation in Turkey Marc Pierini Article, June 20, 2013 For more than a decade, Turkey has enjoyed unprecedented growth that is in many ways unique to Europe. In turn, the country s infrastructure and social services have improved drastically, and major business developments have taken place, especially joint investments with the EU. However, the Turkish government is implementing urban transformation through sudden, topdown decisions that do not sufficiently account for environmental protection or consultations with citizens. In the process, the population s leanings are largely ignored, making it impossible to nurture civic consensus on the pace and nature of economic development. In addition, there is no systematic monitoring of urban transformation practices and abuses. Few national and international NGOs are allocating time to the subject, and most of the evidence of abuses comes not from academic or other dispassionate sources but from stakeholders in the process and commentators. Moreover, projects such as nuclear plants and a new canal will affect other countries in the region and may be challenged on that ground. In late May, civilian protests started in Istanbul s Taksim Square in response to the government s planned modification of the space to make way for road tunnels and a replica of military barracks that would include a commercial center. Small and moderate at the outset, these protests have now become a major headache for the Turkish government. Beyond the Taksim renovation project, what is now criticized is the lack of democratic management of decisions pertaining to new public infrastructure and urban transformation. The Turkish government is being asked to account for the environmental and socioeconomic repercussions of its actions and to give the people a greater voice at the local level in the decisionmaking process. Major Infrastructure and Urban Transformation Subjects of Contention After winning Turkey s 2002 general election, the Justice and Development Party (AKP) government continued the efficient economic policies that were introduced by its predecessor after a major financial crisis. Thanks to that and to a fifteen-year-old customs union with the EU and EU accession negotiations that were opened in 2005, there has been a major influx of European direct investment in Turkey. The country has emerged as an integrated production platform for European manufacturing industries. 1

2 This growth period has led to major advances in Turkey s public services and infrastructure, including airports, roads and highways, high-speed railroads, utilities, hospitals, universities, and museums. In parallel, a vast process of urban transformation and renewal has taken place in many Turkish cities, at times catalyzed by local conditions and events, such as when infrastructure was built and renovations made for Istanbul s stint as European Capital of Culture in Boosted by its economic success and unchallenged political predominance, the AKP government has launched a number of initiatives, such as Istanbul s candidacy for the 2020 Olympic Games. The most emblematic projects are in or around Istanbul, which is not surprising given that the city s wider area is home to some 25 percent of the country s total population. Some projects are presented as indispensable ingredients of Turkey s economic growth. The growing road and air traffic has led to decisions to construct a third bridge over the Bosphorus and a third airport for Istanbul (the build-operate-transfer tender was awarded on May 3 for 22.1 billion $29.6 billion after some last-minute changes to the tender rules). In undertaking these megaprojects, the Turkish authorities are taking immense responsibility for the ecosystems in and around Istanbul. Sustainable development is a prime long-term concern, as these projects have a major environmental impact, especially on the forested areas to the north of Istanbul the 7,659-hectare (18,926-acre) airport will directly or indirectly affect 2.5 million trees. Similarly, the Kanal Istanbul project, a canal linking the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara that will run in parallel to the Bosphorus, is formally meant to protect the Istanbul urban area from accidents and pollution resulting from increasing long-haul maritime traffic, including hydrocarbons. But it could have a massive effect on the environment in Turkey and beyond. If the Kanal Istanbul project were to proceed, it would potentially impact a major ecosystem affecting several countries around the Black Sea and the Mediterranean: Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Russia, Georgia, and Greece. For example, heavy pollution from the Danube and Dnieper Rivers could flow into the Marmara and Mediterranean Seas, while the project could affect sea currents and sea temperature on both sides of the canal. In addition, the Turkish government would inevitably need to address legal considerations linked to the Montreux Convention on high-sea commercial and military traffic in the Bosphorus. Construction of the canal is therefore not a decision for Turkey to take alone. The wider legal impact of such a canal should be thoroughly evaluated at the international level. In a similar vein, the EU and a number of neighboring countries including Turkey agreed in June 2011 to a voluntary cooperation scheme on nuclear risk assessment. Under that arrangement, the projects for two new nuclear power plants to be built on the shores of the Black Sea and the Mediterranean are being subjected to the nuclear stress tests procedure in line with EU policies introduced after the Chernobyl catastrophe. The results were reported to the European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group in March 2013, and cooperation continues. Other projects are more directly related to Istanbul s urban transformation: Galata Port, the transformation of the Haydarpaşa rail terminal into a hotel, the redevelopment of Taksim Square, and renovations in the districts of Süleymaniye and Tarlabaşı. Each of these projects is heavily criticized for representing a purely economic, even speculative, vision of urban renewal. 2

3 With urban transformation of this sort, commercial and collective interests naturally collide. In a city like Istanbul, where trade and industry have moved into the suburbs, vast built-up city-center areas have become available and inevitably elicit huge financial appetites. This process is not unique to Turkey, as most industrial cities in Europe or the United States have gone through the same problems and have nurtured techniques and methods to cope with the issues at hand. What does seem unique to Turkey is both the speed at which these developments are taking place and the overwhelming role of the central government in the process. The country s urban transformation is criticized for two main reasons: the excessive centralization of decisionmaking and the lack of consultation with citizens before projects are given the green light. Changing Laws to Speed Up Transformation In Turkey as in most countries, projects such as transforming a city, erecting new buildings or demolishing old ones, and developing natural spaces are regulated by national or local laws. In addition, professional bodies of experts are supposed to be involved. But, according to Prof. Cengiz Aktar, the Turkish government has been substantially amending the legislative, regulatory, and administrative frameworksfor these projects. Laws have been changed, controls reduced, and consultations forgotten about. The aim has been to speed up the process of urban transformation in a fashion compatible with the government s political goals. There have been numerous legislative changes affecting urban transformation. For instance, a law on the transformation of areas at risk of natural disaster was implemented. Though it is justified by the earthquake risk in many parts of Turkey, in actual fact it affects the authority to make demolition and development decisions about vast expanses of land and runs counter to preexisting legislation and supervisory bodies. The law also introduces emergency procedures that leave all decisions about demolition and construction activities in the hands of the government and give a new supervisory role to a few private construction companies selected for those undertakings. Then there is the law on the conservation of nature and biological diversity, which is still to be voted on in parliament. It would allow for fast and drastic changes to the definition of protected areas. It would also give the Ministry of Environment and Urbanization more authority and reduce the role of NGOs. The new 2B Law, which deals with the sale of public land, is expected to allow for more sales of public land to private parties. As a result, a massive amount of land assets will be transferred from public entities to private interests. In the Istanbul region alone, this is estimated to cover 35,000 hectares (86,487 acres). Environmental impact assessment regulations were amended in 2011, allowing for more exemptions. In particular, these changes affect large projects, such as the third bridge over the Bosphorus, a major highway from the Istanbul region to the city of Izmir, and dams and power plants. Public procurement procedures have also been substantially amended, allowing for more frequent exceptions to the 2002 law that originally outlined the financial basis for projects. These 3

4 amendments have permitted more direct procurements to take place and curtailed the autonomy of the public procurement agency. In addition, the administrative role of municipalities has been redefined so that the real decisionmaking powers are transferred to the metropolitan municipalities, whose number in Turkey as a whole has recently risen from sixteen to twenty-five. This shift has concentrated key decisions in fewer hands. The main professional Turkish organizations responsible for upholding technical standards, such the Chamber of Environmental Engineers or the Chamber of Architects, have seen their role and function curtailed. Democracy at the Center of the Debate Traditionally, the Turkish state plays the central role in making decisions about public works projects. In the case of urban transformation projects, state dominance not only is being felt but has recently been reinforced. The ballot box is the centerpiece of any democratic system, but elected parliaments and the governments emanating from them cannot decide on every issue concerning citizens daily lives only through majoritarian rule by the central state. Local and regional considerations do matter. A democratic government should allow opposing views, seek consultations with its citizenry, and attempt to achieve consensus among the population. Yet, amid the changes taking place in Turkey s infrastructure and cities, the voice of the people has in large part been disregarded. The authorities have generally shunned attempts by civil society to introduce local consultation mechanisms for urban transformation projects. Such consultations either have not taken place at all or have not happened in any genuine way. Frustration with the manner in which the central government has conducted urban transformation without local consultation has now morphed into a generalized protest by civil society, at least in Istanbul, Ankara, and other major cities. The civic protest against the Taksim Square renovation project has been repressed so violently and dialogue has been denied in such a way that the protest movement has now become the focal point of opposition to the government. Disturbing the Social Fabric The current wave of urban transformation also has massive cultural and socioeconomic effects. One consequence is the marginalization of Istanbul s Roma people, an ethnic group that accounts for less than 1 percent of Turkey s population. For instance, the Sulukule neighborhood in Istanbul, which has historically been inhabited by Roma communities, was demolished to make way for a renovation project despite an international campaign against the evictions. A 2012 report by the Open Society Foundation concluded that: Evictions are about more than property; they interrupt the entire life, education, employment and progress of a family, possibly irreparably, and hasten the decline of the Roma people. Evictions must be viewed and addressed in this light. 4

5 Another major effect of urban modernization is the development of new forms of wealth and poverty now occurring in parallel to the transformation. According to a study in the journal New Perspectives on Turkey, while gated residential compounds have introduced new forms of living, governance, and social and political relations and non-relations, the traditional temporary housing for recently arrived internal migrants (called gecekondu in Turkish) has been replaced by permanent marginal developments. Gentrification and marginalization go hand in hand in Turkey, and urban transformation especially in Istanbul has led to a form of social and spatial segregation of different groups. Here too, consultations have been kept to a minimum. In addition, some aspects of urban transformation are subject to the UNESCO World Heritage status of certain parts of Istanbul, such the historic peninsula, the center of the ancient city. But in several cases, transformation projects have bypassed historic preservation requirements. Some urban development projects have also ended up in court. The frenzy of construction has been repeatedly criticized. One Today s Zaman commentator, Suat Kiniklioğu, called the current process the cementization of Turkish cities and the ruthless exploitation of every centimeter of land. Can Technical Improvements Be Made? At the technical level, there are several steps that can be taken to improve democratic decisionmaking for urban transformation projects. First, environmental considerations should be seriously incorporated into the decisionmaking process. In any country experiencing strong growth, there are inevitably temptations to give priority to immediate gains and visible results over longer-term considerations such as environmental protection and the interests of future generations. Democratic governments should resist these temptations. Second, inclusive consultation mechanisms should be set up with all stakeholders, including impartial specialists such as environmental engineers and architects, city planners, citizens associations, and local communities. That would provide a counterweight to government decisions on such difficult questions as demolition versus reconstruction and natural conservation versus economic development. Finally, importing best practices from abroad may improve decisionmaking. EU policies and practices are especially relevant since Turkey is currently negotiating its EU accession and is supposed to adopt the union s policies and standards. Ultimately, it is to the benefit of Turkey and its citizens to adopt the practices of those countries that have learned from their mistakes and patiently improved their policies. The EU has a wide array of policies on urban transformation and regional development that could be put to use. Internationally, as much as the Turkish authorities may feel confident about mastering their country s economic and physical transformation, Turkey will have to shoulder its international responsibilities when it purports to launch projects impacting the regional environment and international agreements. This will be the case for the two nuclear plants and for Kanal Istanbul. 5

6 In the End, It s all About Politics The issue of urban transformation has morphed into a nationwide political problem in Turkey. It is now the symbol of the country s disputed style of democratic management. With its mix of neoliberal economics, top-down political decisions, and hurried schedules, the Turkish government has imposed its views on a wide array of construction and transformation projects and ended up running projects of local interest from offices in Ankara. Put in perspective and although the issues may seem only remotely connected the debate is now much broader than urban transformation. As a matter of fact, the Taksim renovation project, in substance and in style, has become the symbol of the majoritarian concept of democracy to which the AKP so strongly adheres. As Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan put it on June 7: We have said that we are going to demolish AKM [the Atatürk Cultural Center on Taksim Square] and build a huge opera house there. Participants of this vandalism immediately responded we won t let you demolish it. Excuse me, but we made this decision before the elections and the majority of the people said yes for us in the elections. People supported us, because they supported these [projects]. A micromanagement issue the government s refusal to consult the Taksim Platform, a local citizens initiative has become the epicenter of a lasting political storm, the full political fallout of which is still to be measured. Subsequently, the excessively forceful handling of the protest created an outrage resulting in a degraded image of the government, both domestically and internationally. The issue here is not the legitimacy of the Turkish government it was elected democratically in 2002, 2007, and 2011, with up to 50 percent of the vote but the way in which the opinions, beliefs, and lifestyles of the other half of the population are disregarded, when not suppressed. This poses fundamental questions about the nature of the advanced democracy promised by the ruling party. And it does not bring Turkey any closer to the EU or the United States, two crucial allies for its future well-being, prosperity, and security. 6

GREECE S FOREIGN POLICY IN THE 21 ST CENTURY By George A. Papandreou 1

GREECE S FOREIGN POLICY IN THE 21 ST CENTURY By George A. Papandreou 1 GREECE S FOREIGN POLICY IN THE 21 ST CENTURY By George A. Papandreou 1 Abstract Greece is committed to embracing all those nations who strive for democracy within their frontiers, and peaceful cooperation

More information

Overview of Turkish Coastline Policy and Implementation

Overview of Turkish Coastline Policy and Implementation MARE NOSTRUM BRIDGING THE LEGAL-INSTITUTIONAL GAP IN MEDITERRANEAN COASTLINE MANAGEMENT March 2-6, the Technion, Haifa Israel Overview of Turkish Coastline Policy and Implementation Prof.Dr. Fatma Unsal

More information

SULUKULE. Urban Renewal or Ethnic Relocation? Rroma Foundation July 2008

SULUKULE. Urban Renewal or Ethnic Relocation? Rroma Foundation July 2008 SULUKULE Urban Renewal or Ethnic Relocation? Rroma Foundation July 2008-1 - I. BACKGROUND The Sulukule neighbourhood in Istanbul lies right next to and within the old Byzantine Theodosian land walls. It

More information

Urban Renewal: Social Aspects in Planning. Summary

Urban Renewal: Social Aspects in Planning. Summary Urban Renewal: Social Aspects in Planning Summary Urban renewal in Israel today is being promoted by parliamentary legislation and by a number of different strategies initiated by the Ministry of Construction

More information

Screening report Turkey

Screening report Turkey 13 February 2006 Screening report Turkey Chapter 26 Education and Culture Date of screening meetings: Explanatory meeting: 26 October 2005 Bilateral meeting: 16 November 2005 1 I. CHAPTER CONTENT The areas

More information

of European Municipal Leaders at the Turn of the 21 st Century

of European Municipal Leaders at the Turn of the 21 st Century The Hannover Call of European Municipal Leaders at the Turn of the 21 st Century A. PREAMBLE We, 250 municipal leaders from 36 European countries and neighbouring regions, have convened at the Hannover

More information

Commission of Urban Geography Urban Challenges in a Global World

Commission of Urban Geography Urban Challenges in a Global World Commission of Urban Geography Urban Challenges in a Global World 2016-2020 Mission The Urban Commission is designed to encourage geographical research on the new Urban Challenges emerging in an increasingly

More information

EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGAINST THE NATURAL DISASTERS OF TURKEY: MITIGATION, RESPONSE AND RECOVERY ISSUES

EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGAINST THE NATURAL DISASTERS OF TURKEY: MITIGATION, RESPONSE AND RECOVERY ISSUES 3 rd Roundtable Meeting on Disaster Management 19 November 2014; JCSE HQ Auditorium EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGAINST THE NATURAL DISASTERS OF TURKEY: MITIGATION, RESPONSE AND RECOVERY ISSUES Beyza TASKIN (PhD)

More information

Suspend the negotiations for a free trade agreement with the USA no agreement at the expense of workers, consumers or the environment

Suspend the negotiations for a free trade agreement with the USA no agreement at the expense of workers, consumers or the environment German Trade Union Confederation (DGB) Executive Board DGB Position Suspend the negotiations for a free trade agreement with the USA no agreement at the expense of workers, consumers or the environment

More information

ALF Turkey Network Administration

ALF Turkey Network Administration Anna Lindh Euro-Mediterranean Foundation for the Dialogue Between Cultures Survey Evaluation Report on Turkey Network Voluntarism and Active Participation (Step-4) 2011 ALF Turkey Network Administration

More information

Negotiating a Deep Regional Trade Agreement Simulation Exercise prepared for CUTS training seminar October, 2007

Negotiating a Deep Regional Trade Agreement Simulation Exercise prepared for CUTS training seminar October, 2007 Negotiating a Deep Regional Trade Agreement Simulation Exercise prepared for CUTS training seminar 21-27 October, 2007 Common Facts Northistan and Southistan should be negotiating a free trade agreement,

More information

Declaration on the 20th Anniversary of the Barents Euro-Arctic Cooperation. (Kirkenes, Norway, 3 4 June 2013)

Declaration on the 20th Anniversary of the Barents Euro-Arctic Cooperation. (Kirkenes, Norway, 3 4 June 2013) 1 Declaration on the 20th Anniversary of the Barents Euro-Arctic Cooperation (Kirkenes, Norway, 3 4 June 2013) Prime Ministers and other high-level representatives of the members of the Barents Euro- Arctic

More information

(COSAC) CONTRIBUTION OF THE XLI COSAC

(COSAC) CONTRIBUTION OF THE XLI COSAC Conference of Community and European Affairs Committees of Parliaments of the European Union (COSAC) CONTRIBUTION OF THE XLI COSAC Prague, 10-12 May 2009 1. Current Economic and Financial Situation 1.1

More information

MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EEA FINANCIAL MECHANISM 2009-2014. between ICELAND, THE PRINCIPALITY OF LIECHTENSTEIN,

MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EEA FINANCIAL MECHANISM 2009-2014. between ICELAND, THE PRINCIPALITY OF LIECHTENSTEIN, MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EEA FINANCIAL MECHANISM 2009-2014 between ICELAND, THE PRINCIPALITY OF LIECHTENSTEIN, THE KINGDOM OF NORWAY, hereinafter referred to as the Donor

More information

MINISTERIAL MEETING OF THE BLUE WEEK 2015

MINISTERIAL MEETING OF THE BLUE WEEK 2015 5 JUNE 2015 MINISTERIAL MEETING OF THE BLUE WEEK 2015 We, Ministers responsible for Ocean/ Fisheries/ Maritime Affairs, having met in Lisbon on June the 5 th, 2015, at the invitation of the Minister of

More information

Governance as Stewardship: Decentralization and Sustainable Human Development

Governance as Stewardship: Decentralization and Sustainable Human Development Governance as Stewardship: Decentralization and Sustainable Human Development by Jerry VanSant Research Triangle Institute USA EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Introduction The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)

More information

Bioeconomy: Policy Implementation

Bioeconomy: Policy Implementation Bioeconomy: Policy Implementation Dr. Antonio Di Giulio Head of Strategy Unit Bioeconomy Directorate Directorate-General for Research & Innovation European Commission Building bioeconomy in Europe http://ec.europa.eu/research/bioeconomy/

More information

United Cities and Local Governments, UCLG Policy Paper on Local Finance

United Cities and Local Governments, UCLG Policy Paper on Local Finance Commission on Urban Strategic Planning Policy Paper on Strategic Urban Development Introduction: The context of urban strategic planning The world population is rapidly becoming urbanized as the rural

More information

EDRi s. January 2015. European Digital Rights Rue Belliard 20, 1040 Brussels www.edri.org @EDRi tel. +32 (0) 2 274 25 70

EDRi s. January 2015. European Digital Rights Rue Belliard 20, 1040 Brussels www.edri.org @EDRi tel. +32 (0) 2 274 25 70 EDRi s Red lines on TTIP January 2015 European Digital Rights Rue Belliard 20, 1040 Brussels www.edri.org @EDRi tel. +32 (0) 2 274 25 70 ABOUT EDRI European Digital Rights is a network of 34 privacy and

More information

WATER MANAGEMENT IN BULGARIA. Atanaska Tuntova at_tuntova@abv.bg Director of East Aegean River Basin Directorate, Bulgaria

WATER MANAGEMENT IN BULGARIA. Atanaska Tuntova at_tuntova@abv.bg Director of East Aegean River Basin Directorate, Bulgaria WATER MANAGEMENT IN BULGARIA Atanaska Tuntova at_tuntova@abv.bg Director of East Aegean River Basin Directorate, Bulgaria The national water management in Bulgaria has a long history Common state water

More information

ROADMAP. Initial IA screening & planning of further work

ROADMAP. Initial IA screening & planning of further work ROADMAP Title of the initiative: Youth programme post 2013 Type of initiative (CWP/Catalogue/Comitology): CWP Lead DG: DG EAC/E-2, Youth in Action Unit Expected date of adoption of the initiative (month/year):

More information

Daily scoops, or policy imperative?

Daily scoops, or policy imperative? The PLACE of SCIENCE in the EUROPEAN SOCIETY Daily scoops, or policy imperative? Jean-Michel Baer Director Science & Society European Commission If any one could have any doubt on the place held by science

More information

Integrated watershed management system in Korea

Integrated watershed management system in Korea RR 2004 3rd European Conference on River Restoration RIVER RESTORATION 2004 Zagreb, Croatia, 17-21 May 2004 Integrated watershed management system in Korea Ji-Yong Choi ABSTRACT: A watershed management

More information

Numbered 2010/11 Prime Ministry Circular about Istanbul International Finance Center Administrative Structure was published in the Official Gazette

Numbered 2010/11 Prime Ministry Circular about Istanbul International Finance Center Administrative Structure was published in the Official Gazette Numbered 2010/11 Prime Ministry Circular about Istanbul International Finance Center Administrative Structure was published in the Official Gazette dated May 1, 2010 and numbered 27568. UNOFFICIAL TRANSLATION

More information

Discussion Paper. This document is intended to nurture the debate of the informal Council of Ministers meeting in Turin on the 24 September.

Discussion Paper. This document is intended to nurture the debate of the informal Council of Ministers meeting in Turin on the 24 September. INFORMAL E.U. CULTURE MINISTERS MEETING Venaria Reale, Turin, 24 September 2014 Discussion Paper This document is intended to nurture the debate of the informal Council of Ministers meeting in Turin on

More information

TURKISH CONTRACTING IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET

TURKISH CONTRACTING IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET Brief overview TURKISH CONTRACTING IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET Construction plays a crucial role in Turkey s economic development, accounting for 5.9% of GDP and employing some 1.8 million people. When

More information

Policy recommendations on urban strategic planning

Policy recommendations on urban strategic planning Policy recommendations on urban strategic planning They are conceived as key orientations to ensure local government s access to strategic planning and concerns different actors represented by the following

More information

The World We Want. A North-East Asian Youth Vision

The World We Want. A North-East Asian Youth Vision The World We Want A North-East Asian Youth Vision This Declaration was handed to His Excellency Kim Sung-hwan, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade of the Republic of Korea, in Seoul on 9 th of January

More information

Proposal for Establishment of Reconstruction Fund and Reconstruction Solidarity Tax to Finance Rehabilitation after Great Earthquake of Unprecedented

Proposal for Establishment of Reconstruction Fund and Reconstruction Solidarity Tax to Finance Rehabilitation after Great Earthquake of Unprecedented Proposal for Establishment of Fund and Solidarity Tax to Finance Rehabilitation after Great Earthquake of Unprecedented Scale Daiwa Institute of Research 18 March 2011 1. Preliminary Work to Support Earthquake

More information

IUCN SUSTAINABLE TOURISM IN THE MEDITERRANEAN PANORAMA AND PERSPECTIVES, STRATEGIES AND ACTIONS WORKING DOCUMENT DRAFT TEXT SUMMARISED VERSION

IUCN SUSTAINABLE TOURISM IN THE MEDITERRANEAN PANORAMA AND PERSPECTIVES, STRATEGIES AND ACTIONS WORKING DOCUMENT DRAFT TEXT SUMMARISED VERSION IUCN SUSTAINABLE TOURISM IN THE MEDITERRANEAN PANORAMA AND PERSPECTIVES, STRATEGIES AND ACTIONS WORKING DOCUMENT DRAFT TEXT SUMMARISED VERSION Author: José María de Juan Alonso October 2010 1 CONTENTS

More information

Frank M. Rapoport Featured in Corporate Livewire s Infrastructure 2014 Virtual Roundtable as a Leading Expert

Frank M. Rapoport Featured in Corporate Livewire s Infrastructure 2014 Virtual Roundtable as a Leading Expert PRESS RELEASE R E S U L T S F I R S T SM Frank M. Rapoport Featured in Corporate Livewire s Infrastructure 2014 Virtual Roundtable as a Leading Expert FRANK M. RAPOPORT Frank M. Rapoport was featured in

More information

The National standardization and Current status of Eurocodes in Turkey

The National standardization and Current status of Eurocodes in Turkey ADOPTION OF THE EUROCODES IN THE BALKAN REGION 5-6 December 2013, Milan & Ispra, Italy The National standardization and Current status of Eurocodes in Turkey Atila ERENLER (Deputy DG-MoEU) Prof. Dr. Ahmet

More information

The Geneva UN Charter on Sustainable Housing

The Geneva UN Charter on Sustainable Housing The Geneva UN Charter on Sustainable Housing Chapter 1. Challenges to sustainable housing United Nations Economic Commission for Europe member States note that: 1. Sustainable housing has a key role in

More information

Planning Policy Statement 2015

Planning Policy Statement 2015 Planning Policy Statement 2015 Introduction It is just over 50 years since national planning legislation was first implemented in Ireland. The Government wishes to reaffirm its strong belief in the value

More information

The Limitations and Factors of Local Strategies for the Economic Development of Municipalities in Bulgaria

The Limitations and Factors of Local Strategies for the Economic Development of Municipalities in Bulgaria Nora Ananieva The Limitations and Factors of Local Strategies for the Economic Development of Municipalities in Bulgaria The topic concerning economic development on the local and regional level has been

More information

Emergency Management in Turkey Adil Özdemir

Emergency Management in Turkey Adil Özdemir Adil Özdemir Turkey has been exposed to natural disasters throughout history. The main sources of these natural disasters have been earthquakes, floods, erosion and avalanches. Disaster response policies

More information

INTEGRATION IN DENMARK

INTEGRATION IN DENMARK INTEGRATION IN DENMARK 3 INTEGRATION TODAY As of January 2012, the total population of Denmark was 5,580,516 including a total of 580,461 migrants and descendants (10,4 % of the total population). The

More information

Development and Recovering From Disaster

Development and Recovering From Disaster Development and Recovering From Disaster hasan.coban@kalkinma.gov.tr International Symposium on Disaster Economics 3-5 April 2013, Istanbul Natural Disaster in Turkey Other disasters 4% Avalanche 2% Multiple

More information

The trade fairs Seismic Safety and INTERGEO Eurasia

The trade fairs Seismic Safety and INTERGEO Eurasia The trade fairs Seismic Safety and INTERGEO Eurasia Essen, Oct. 9, 2013 Julia Wenzel, Messe München Key information at a glance April 28 29, 2014 Istanbul, WOW Convention Center Frequency: Every 2 years

More information

Preparing Istanbul for Future Disasters: İstanbul Seismic Risk Mitigation and Preparedness Project (ISMEP) Istanbul Project Coordination Unit

Preparing Istanbul for Future Disasters: İstanbul Seismic Risk Mitigation and Preparedness Project (ISMEP) Istanbul Project Coordination Unit Preparing Istanbul for Future Disasters: İstanbul Seismic Risk Mitigation and Preparedness Project (ISMEP) Istanbul Project Coordination Unit TURKEY is prone to mainly three types Earthquakes; 70% of the

More information

The issue of Secret Ballot: Chapter I. Sovereignty versus Transparency by IWMC

The issue of Secret Ballot: Chapter I. Sovereignty versus Transparency by IWMC The issue of Secret Ballot: Chapter I Sovereignty versus Transparency by IWMC Table of Contents I. Secret ballots at CITES: Sovereignty versus Transparency II. Historical background III. Proposals for

More information

"The European Union's Security Architecture and its role to strengthen Peace and Security"

The European Union's Security Architecture and its role to strengthen Peace and Security Chairman EU Military Committee General Patrick de Rousiers at the 29 th Asia Pacific Round Table in Kuala Lumpur 02 June 2015 "The European Union's Security Architecture and its role to strengthen Peace

More information

Development of Public Administration in China: Since 1978 Mao Shoulong (Draft)

Development of Public Administration in China: Since 1978 Mao Shoulong (Draft) Development of Public Administration in China: Since 1978 Mao Shoulong (Draft) Since the end of 1978, China s economy has developed very quickly because of the introducing of reform and opening up policy.

More information

TURKISH CATASTROPHE INSURANCE POOL (TCIP): PAST EXPERIENCE AND RECOMMENDATIONS

TURKISH CATASTROPHE INSURANCE POOL (TCIP): PAST EXPERIENCE AND RECOMMENDATIONS TURKISH CATASTROPHE INSURANCE POOL (TCIP): PAST EXPERIENCE AND RECOMMENDATIONS M. Semih YUCEMEN Director, Earthquake Engineering Research Center Department of Civil Engineering, Middle East Technical University

More information

INTRODUCTION THE 2ND EUROPEAN YOUTH WORK CONVENTION

INTRODUCTION THE 2ND EUROPEAN YOUTH WORK CONVENTION INTRODUCTION This Declaration, prepared within the framework of the Belgian Chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, is addressed to the Member States of the Council of Europe,

More information

183/2006 Coll. ACT of 14 th March 2006. on town and country planning and building code (Building Act)

183/2006 Coll. ACT of 14 th March 2006. on town and country planning and building code (Building Act) Contents and text 183/2006 Coll. latest wording of the text 183/2006 Coll. ACT of 14 th March 2006 on town and country planning and building code (Building Act) The Parliament passed this Act of the Czech

More information

Lobbying: Sweet Smell of Success?

Lobbying: Sweet Smell of Success? Lobbying: Sweet Smell of Success? A case study on the transparency of lobbying around sugar regulation in the European Union and Spain 1. Introduction It is essential that government decision making be

More information

Rights & Responsibilities. Human Dignity. Stewardship. Development. Democracy. Law. Interdependence. Compiled by the CSPE Support Service

Rights & Responsibilities. Human Dignity. Stewardship. Development. Democracy. Law. Interdependence. Compiled by the CSPE Support Service Rights & Responsibilities Human Dignity Stewardship Development Democracy Law Compiled by the CSPE Support Service Interdependence In the CSPE Syllabus (pages 10 12) the 7 course Concepts are explained

More information

CEEweb s position for limiting non-renewable energy use in Europe

CEEweb s position for limiting non-renewable energy use in Europe CEEweb for Biodiversity Széher út 40. 1021 Budapest, Hungary Phone: +36 1 398 0135 Fax: +36 1 398 0136 ceeweb@ceeweb.org www.ceeweb.org CEEweb s position for limiting non-renewable energy use in Europe

More information

PPIAF Assistance in Afghanistan

PPIAF Assistance in Afghanistan August 2012 PPIAF Assistance in Afghanistan Emerging from a decade of war, massive support from various development partners has been pouring in over the last few years to help rebuild Afghanistan. PPIAF

More information

Common Sense Economics Part III: Economic Progress and the Role of Government Practice Test

Common Sense Economics Part III: Economic Progress and the Role of Government Practice Test Common Sense Economics Part III: Economic Progress and the Role of Government Practice Test 1. A government fulfills a protective function when it a. taxes some citizens in order to provide income transfers

More information

Save the Children. Protecting Children in Zambia from Violence, Abuse, Neglect and Exploitation

Save the Children. Protecting Children in Zambia from Violence, Abuse, Neglect and Exploitation Protecting Children in Zambia from Violence, Abuse, Neglect and Exploitation Baseline 2010: National Child Protection System in Zambia What is a National Child Protection System and why do we need it?

More information

Co-operatives for Europe: Moving forward together

Co-operatives for Europe: Moving forward together Co-operatives for Europe: Moving forward together 3 In Finland, 75% of the population are members of a co-operative enterprise. In Belgium, when you enter a pharmacy, there is a 1 in 5 chance that you

More information

Capacity Building in the New Member States and Accession Countries on Further Climate Change Action Post-2012

Capacity Building in the New Member States and Accession Countries on Further Climate Change Action Post-2012 Capacity Building in the New Member States and Accession Countries on Further Climate Change Action Post-2012 (Service Contract N o 070402/2004/395810/MAR/C2) 29 November 2007 Almost all New Members States

More information

Standards for Advanced Programs in Educational Leadership

Standards for Advanced Programs in Educational Leadership Standards for Advanced Programs in Educational Leadership for Principals, Superintendents, Curriculum Directors, and Supervisors NATIONAL POLICY BOARD FOR EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION Published January,

More information

EUROPEAN STUDIES IN TURKEY: PRESENT STATE AND PROPOSALS FOR THE FUTURE

EUROPEAN STUDIES IN TURKEY: PRESENT STATE AND PROPOSALS FOR THE FUTURE EUROPEAN STUDIES IN TURKEY: PRESENT STATE AND PROPOSALS FOR THE FUTURE European studies in Turkey have gone through intensive development in the last few years, especially after the Helsinki summit. Today

More information

Trade Debates - Liberal Voices Needed

Trade Debates - Liberal Voices Needed European Commission Speech [Check against delivery] Trade Debates - Liberal Voices Needed 3 December 2015 Cecilia Malmström, Commissioner for Trade Berlin Event at Friedrich Naumann Stiftung Ladies and

More information

Student Handout #1: A Brief History of Canadian Citizenship

Student Handout #1: A Brief History of Canadian Citizenship Student Handout #1: A Brief History of Canadian Citizenship Section One: Citizenship The concept of citizenship goes all the way back to ancient Greece. In the Greek city states, citizens were people who

More information

TURKISH NUCLEAR POWER PROGRAMME NUCLEAR ENERGY PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION DEPARTMENT

TURKISH NUCLEAR POWER PROGRAMME NUCLEAR ENERGY PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION DEPARTMENT TURKISH NUCLEAR POWER PROGRAMME NUCLEAR ENERGY PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION DEPARTMENT 0 75 75 150 km Kocaeli (İzmit) BOSBORUS 0 İzmir Konya ANKARA 150 mi İçel (Mersin) REPUPLIC OF CYPRUS Iskenderun Adana SYRIA

More information

KINGDOM OF MOROCCO. Ministry of Energy, Mines, Water and Environment. Conference. Concentrated Solar Power

KINGDOM OF MOROCCO. Ministry of Energy, Mines, Water and Environment. Conference. Concentrated Solar Power KINGDOM OF MOROCCO Ministry of Energy, Mines, Water and Environment Conference Concentrated Solar Power Speech by Mrs. Amina Benkhadra, Minister of Energy, Mines, Water and Environment London, February

More information

PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR DOCTORAL PROGRAMS. EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP (Superintendent)

PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR DOCTORAL PROGRAMS. EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP (Superintendent) 1 PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR DOCTORAL PROGRAMS EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP (Superintendent) 2 PREAMBLE VINCENTIAN SPIRIT AND URBAN MISSION Given that the School of Education subscribes to the Vincentian spirit

More information

Pan European Fire Strategy 2020 A safer Europe for all

Pan European Fire Strategy 2020 A safer Europe for all Federation of European Union (FEU) Fire Officer Associations www.f-e-u.org Pan A safer Europe for all Contents Context...3 Introduction...5 Who we are...6 Aims...6 Mission...6 Values...6 Vision...7 Objectives...7

More information

FIRST SEMESTER. SHF 101 Introduction to Social Work Profession 3 0 3 / 10

FIRST SEMESTER. SHF 101 Introduction to Social Work Profession 3 0 3 / 10 GEDİZ UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF HEALTH SCIENCES DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAM FIRST DEGREE COURSE CONTENT FIRST SEMESTER SHF 101 Introduction to Social Work Profession 3 0 3 / 10 The course

More information

SPEECH FOR THE PANEL ON BUSINESS CLIMATE AND INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES, Support for Ukraine Conference, 28 April 2015

SPEECH FOR THE PANEL ON BUSINESS CLIMATE AND INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES, Support for Ukraine Conference, 28 April 2015 SPEECH FOR THE PANEL ON BUSINESS CLIMATE AND INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES, Support for Ukraine Conference, 28 April 2015 Ministers, friends, ladies and gentlemen, Ukraine has extraordinary potential. We all

More information

U.S. POLICY IN THE BLACK SEA REGION

U.S. POLICY IN THE BLACK SEA REGION U.S. POLICY IN THE BLACK SEA REGION From the U.S. point of view, NATO is and will remain the premier provider of security for the Euro-Atlantic region, which includes the Black Sea. Far from seeking to

More information

Green infrastructure and urban resilience in Central Europe: A solution for environmental and spatial challenge in the inner-city of Ljubljana

Green infrastructure and urban resilience in Central Europe: A solution for environmental and spatial challenge in the inner-city of Ljubljana Green infrastructure and urban resilience in Central Europe: A solution for environmental and spatial challenge in the inner-city of Ljubljana Nataša Pichler-Milanović Mojca Foški University of Ljubljana

More information

Italy: toward a federal state? Recent constitutional developments in Italy

Italy: toward a federal state? Recent constitutional developments in Italy BENIAMINO CARAVITA Italy: toward a federal state? Recent constitutional developments in Italy 1. The federal idea in Italian history Italy became a unitary State between 1861 and 1870, assembling under

More information

INTERVIEW WITH ANDERS FOGH RASMUSSEN *

INTERVIEW WITH ANDERS FOGH RASMUSSEN * INTERVIEW WITH ANDERS FOGH RASMUSSEN * In this exclusive interview with TPQ, the Honorable Secretary General provides an overview of the major developments of the past two years in Turkey s neighborhood,

More information

State of Israel. Regulating the Status of Bedouin Settlement in the Negev

State of Israel. Regulating the Status of Bedouin Settlement in the Negev [Emblem] StateofIsrael RegulatingtheStatusofBedouinSettlementintheNegev SummaryoftheProcessofConsultationwiththePublic RegardingtheDraftLawfortheRegulationof BedouinSettlementintheNegevandRecommendationsRelatingtoPolicyand

More information

Elements of a Framework for Collaborative Regional Decision-Making in California

Elements of a Framework for Collaborative Regional Decision-Making in California Occasional Papers Elements of a Framework for Collaborative Regional Decision-Making in California Michael Teitz J. Fred Silva Elisa Barbour Prepared for The Speaker's Commission on Regionalism September

More information

Citizenship. Programme of study for key stage 3 and attainment target (This is an extract from The National Curriculum 2007)

Citizenship. Programme of study for key stage 3 and attainment target (This is an extract from The National Curriculum 2007) Citizenship Programme of study for key stage 3 and attainment target (This is an extract from The National Curriculum 2007) Crown copyright 2007 Qualifications and Curriculum Authority 2007 Curriculum

More information

2015 COES Annual Conference Urban and Territorial Conflicts: Contesting Social Cohesion? (Santiago de Chile, November 17-20, 2015)

2015 COES Annual Conference Urban and Territorial Conflicts: Contesting Social Cohesion? (Santiago de Chile, November 17-20, 2015) 2015 COES Annual Conference Urban and Territorial Conflicts: Contesting Social Cohesion? (Santiago de Chile, November 17-20, 2015) Following the 2014 COES Annual Conference on Social Movements in Latin

More information

Cybersecurity and the Romanian business environment in the regional and European context

Cybersecurity and the Romanian business environment in the regional and European context KPMG Legal Cybersecurity and the Romanian business environment in the regional and European context Developing a cybersecurity culture for the users of digital and communications systems has become a mandatory

More information

Civic Engagement in Policy Development and Implementation

Civic Engagement in Policy Development and Implementation Civic Engagement in Policy Development and Implementation Adil Khan Expert on Participatory Governance Former Chief, Socio-economic Governance & Management Branch, UNDESA Why Civic Engagement: The Context

More information

The Public Participation Process in Cyprus

The Public Participation Process in Cyprus The Public Participation Process in Cyprus Priority Actions Programme Regional Activity Centre Split, February 2007 Table of Contents 1. Introduction... 1 2. Benefits of Public Participation in Decision

More information

THE ROLE OF CULTURE AND CULTURAL HERITAGE IN CONFLICT PREVENTION, TRANSFORMATION, RESOLUTION AND POST- CONFLICT ACTION: THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE APPROACH

THE ROLE OF CULTURE AND CULTURAL HERITAGE IN CONFLICT PREVENTION, TRANSFORMATION, RESOLUTION AND POST- CONFLICT ACTION: THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE APPROACH AT(2010)397 rev.1 18 January 2011 THE ROLE OF CULTURE AND CULTURAL HERITAGE IN CONFLICT PREVENTION, TRANSFORMATION, RESOLUTION AND POST- CONFLICT ACTION: THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE APPROACH Document prepared

More information

CZECH REPUBLIC. Similarities of the good practice with the experience of the Czech Republic

CZECH REPUBLIC. Similarities of the good practice with the experience of the Czech Republic Promoting social inclusion of children in a disadvantaged rural environment Tomas Habart People in Need Viktor Piorecky Agency for Social Inclusion in Excluded Roma Localities A brief assessment of the

More information

Annex 1 Primary sources for international standards

Annex 1 Primary sources for international standards Annex 1 Primary sources for international standards 1. The United Nations The 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights Article 20 1. Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.

More information

The role of ICT in the new urban agenda

The role of ICT in the new urban agenda The role of ICT in the new urban agenda September 2014 Introduction The new urban agenda For the first time in human history more people live in cities than in rural areas. By 2050 it is expected that

More information

An Open and Safe Europe What s next?

An Open and Safe Europe What s next? An Open and Safe Europe What s next? Private Security Services Industry views to the European Commission public consultation on the Future of DG HOME Policies The Confederation of European Security Services

More information

AP Comparative Government and Politics 2012 Scoring Guidelines

AP Comparative Government and Politics 2012 Scoring Guidelines AP Comparative Government and Politics 2012 Scoring Guidelines The College Board The College Board is a mission-driven not-for-profit organization that connects students to college success and opportunity.

More information

Address by Mr Gianni BUQUICCHIO, President of the Venice Commission, presenting its Annual Report of Activities for 2011 to the Committee of Ministers

Address by Mr Gianni BUQUICCHIO, President of the Venice Commission, presenting its Annual Report of Activities for 2011 to the Committee of Ministers Strasbourg, 12 September 2012 Address by Mr Gianni BUQUICCHIO, President of the Venice Commission, presenting its Annual Report of Activities for 2011 to the Committee of Ministers Ms Chairperson, Ambassadors,

More information

HISTORIC CITIES Urban rehabilitation issues through h URBACT experience

HISTORIC CITIES Urban rehabilitation issues through h URBACT experience HISTORIC CITIES Urban rehabilitation issues through h URBACT experience Ewa Kipta Forum for Revitalisation URBACT project: Heritage as Opportunity (HerO) Polish urban policies 1945-1989 attempt of synthesis

More information

Davutoglu as Turkey's PM and Future Challenges

Davutoglu as Turkey's PM and Future Challenges Position Papers Davutoglu as Turkey's PM and Future Challenges AlJazeera Centre for Studies Al Jazeera Center for Studies Tel: +974-44663454 jcforstudies-en@aljazeera.net http://studies.aljazeera.net/en/

More information

Energy Security: Role of Regional Cooperation

Energy Security: Role of Regional Cooperation Energy Security: Role of Regional Cooperation Traian Chebeleu Today s Conference is dedicated to a topic that has deeply preoccupied the governments and the business communities in the Emerging Europe,

More information

PUBLIC POLICY AND ADMINISTRATION

PUBLIC POLICY AND ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC POLICY AND ADMINISTRATION CURRICULUM Master of Arts DEGREE REQUIREMENTS Credits PA8100 Public Admin & Governance 1 PA8101 Policy Analysis and Challenges 1 PA8102 The State & the Economy 1 PA8103

More information

THE HON JULIA GILLARD MP DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER Minister for Education Minister for Employment and Workplace Relations Minister for Social Inclusion

THE HON JULIA GILLARD MP DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER Minister for Education Minister for Employment and Workplace Relations Minister for Social Inclusion THE HON JULIA GILLARD MP DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER Minister for Education Minister for Employment and Workplace Relations Minister for Social Inclusion SPEECH ***CHECK AGAINST DELIVERY*** Address to Sydney

More information

Legal backgrounder The Species at Risk Act (2002)

Legal backgrounder The Species at Risk Act (2002) Legal backgrounder The Species at Risk Act (2002) Overview The Species at Risk Act (SARA) is one of Canada s key federal environmental laws. Its passage into law in 2002 represented an important step forward

More information

Philadelphia County. Land Use and Growth Management Profile

Philadelphia County. Land Use and Growth Management Profile Philadelphia County is located in the southeastern corner of Pennsylvania and is bordered by the Pennsylvania counties of Delaware, Montgomery, and Bucks, and the New Jersey counties of Burlington, Camden,

More information

The EU Democratic Governance Pact

The EU Democratic Governance Pact The EU Democratic Governance Pact Upholding the Rule of law and Fundamental Rights ALDE initiative outline The EU Democratic Governance Pact Upholding the Rule of law and Fundamental Rights ALDE initiative

More information

FRAMING THE FUTURE: A REGIME CHANGE AND THE KURDISH QUESTION

FRAMING THE FUTURE: A REGIME CHANGE AND THE KURDISH QUESTION 1 Minority Rule: the Kurdish Key to the Turkish Elections Turkey s upcoming June 7 parliamentary elections are due to be the most critical vote in the country s recent history. Wikistrat recently ran a

More information

Opinion of the International Juvenile Justice Observatory

Opinion of the International Juvenile Justice Observatory The International Juvenile Justice Observatory promoting international development strategies of appropriate policies, and intervention methods within the context of a global juvenile justice without borders.

More information

Turkey's Era of Political and Economic Stability

Turkey's Era of Political and Economic Stability WWW.PILDAT.ORG Turkey's Era of Political and Economic Stability Pakistan Institute of Legislative Development And Transparency WWW.PILDAT.ORG Turkey's Era of Political and Economic Stability Pakistan Institute

More information

Achievements and challenges of the single market. S&D responses to citizens top 10 concerns

Achievements and challenges of the single market. S&D responses to citizens top 10 concerns Achievements and challenges of the single market S&D responses to citizens top 10 concerns The European economic model must be based on three principles: competition which stimulates, co-operation which

More information

Diversion Programs for Drug Addicts, Restorative Justice and New Community- Based Treatment Measures in Thailand

Diversion Programs for Drug Addicts, Restorative Justice and New Community- Based Treatment Measures in Thailand Diversion Programs for Drug Addicts, Restorative Justice and New Community- Based Treatment Measures in Thailand By Dr. Kittipong Kittayarak Introduction: A New Era for Community-Based Treatment of Offenders

More information

Comparing Israeli Farmers Land Rights against FAO's Tenure Guidelines

Comparing Israeli Farmers Land Rights against FAO's Tenure Guidelines Comparing i Farmers Land Rights against 's Tenure Guidelines Micha Drori 1 2 s Land Tenure Guidelines Land provides a platform for livelihoods and a basis for social, cultural and religious practices.

More information

Ministerie van Toerisme, Economische Zaken, Verkeer en Telecommunicatie Ministry of Tourism, Economic Affairs, Transport and Telecommunication

Ministerie van Toerisme, Economische Zaken, Verkeer en Telecommunicatie Ministry of Tourism, Economic Affairs, Transport and Telecommunication SME Policy Framework for St. Maarten May, 2014 Department of Economic Affairs, Transportation & P. 1 of 16 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. SME Developments in St. Maarten 2.1 Definition 2.2 Government

More information

2010 Salida Community Priorities Survey Summary Results

2010 Salida Community Priorities Survey Summary Results SURVEY BACKGROUND The 2010 Salida Community Priorities Survey was distributed in September in an effort to obtain feedback about the level of support for various priorities identified in the draft Comprehensive

More information

ISTANBUL EARTHQUAKE RISK AND MITIGATION STUDIES

ISTANBUL EARTHQUAKE RISK AND MITIGATION STUDIES ISTANBUL EARTHQUAKE RISK AND MITIGATION STUDIES O. Metin Ilkisik, M. Nilay Ergenc and Murat T. Turk Disaster Coordination Center, Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, Istanbul, Turkey e-mail: omilkisik@hotmail.com

More information