1 Bonding Assessments: What Defense Attorneys Should Know Renee L. Genin, LCSW Child and Family Psychotherapist (414) Systemic Perspectives, Inc N. 124th St. #106, Brookfield, WI 53005
2 TPR decisions and dilemmas... Breaking the cycle vs. breaking bonds Risk/harm to child if the bond to the biological parent is severed Risk/harm to child if bond to the foster parent is severed How long can the child wait? Prognosis for healing: Will any placement be successful for this child? Best interests: short-term? long-term? What should we tell the child?
3 What is Attachment?
4 Bonding vs. Attachment Bonding refers to the parent s tie to the infant which develops in the first few hours of life. Attachments are unique, lasting emotional ties between infants and their caregivers.
5 Attachment is... An affectional tie that a person... forms between himself and another specific (person)- a tie that binds them together in space and endures over time. (Mary Ainsworth)
6 The relationship between the mother and child is the prototype for all future relationships. -Freud
7 DMM Definition of Attachment: Attachment refers to the self-protective and progeny-protective strategy used when there is actual or perceived danger or threat of danger. (Crittenden & Ainsworth, 1989)
8 Attachment Styles Secure Attachment: Adults will keep me safe Insecure Attachment: I will keep MYSELF safe AT ALL COSTS
9 Why do we care about Attachment?
10 Developmental Attachment Keeps humans alive! Provides a protective factor against environmental stress and trauma The basis of healthy growth and development Shapes inner working model of social relationships template for future relationships blueprint for perceiving self (good vs. bad), others (trust vs. mistrust), environment (safe vs. unsafe)
11 Inner Working Models Positive Working Model Basic Trust I am good I am Worthy I am competent Others can be trusted The world is safe Vulnerability Connection Safety/Security Commitment Truth Validation Negative Working Model Basic Mistrust I am bad I am Unworthy I am impotent Others can t be trusted The world is unsafe Defense & Alienation Disconnection Threat Abandonment Lies & Tricks Rejection
12 Secure Attachment helps us Attain full intellectual potential Think logically (cause & effect thinking) Develop a conscience Become self-reliant; self-soothing Cope with stress and frustration; modulate affect; handle fear and worry. Develop relationships; have empathy
13 Consequences of Insecure Attachment can include: Poor self-esteem and self regulation Aggressive/rejecting behavior toward peers Withdrawn/isolating relations with peers Low frustration tolerance Less positive affect Lags in cognitive, developmental and academic competence Elevated levels of behavioral symptomatology, anxiety, mood disturbance
14 Attachment Development
15 Attachment across the lifespan Attachment impacts personality Attachment is a lifelong process Behavioral manifestations change over the course of development Impaired attachment (when left untreated) can result in personality disorders Attachment is repairable with intervention: children can learn how to attach Recent research suggests people can change the security of their attachment style into adulthood.
16 Process of Secure Developmental Attachment Repeated cycles of need fulfillment: parents successfully reduce uncomfortable emotions and meet child s needs Enables child to feel soothed and safe when upset This experience is encoded in implicit memory as expectations and then as mental models of social relationships Helps the child feel an internal sense of security in the world at large
18 Secure ( Healthy ) Attachment The child recognizes, prefers, and shows emotional response to a caregiver The emotional bond between caregiver and child is reciprocal The child is wary of unfamiliar people Has been defined as a lasting psychological connectedness between human beings Secure Attachment allows the child to launch into adulthood with a cohesive, nonshaming sense of self and others.
19 Secure Attachment Caregivers are generally attuned, responsive and available Child, at a core level, comes to perceive themself as safe, lovable, and worthy of love and connection Child comes to perceive caregivers as a reliable means of protection, support, and need provision Able to trust others and view the world as fairly safe
20 Behavioral Markers of Healthy Attachment in Children Proximity Seeking: insists on maintaining close proximity to preferred caregivers. Secure Base: uses caregivers as a secure base for exploration. Safe Haven: flees to caregiver as a safe haven when frightened or alarmed. Separation Protest: protest caregiver leaving
22 Harlow s Monkeys
23 Insecure Attachments Adaptive in nature Survival strategies Repeated daily interactions with caregivers lead babies to develop reasonably accurate representations of how the attachment figure is likely to respond to their attachment behaviors. Create self-fulfilling prophecies when indiscriminately applied to new relationships
24 Insecure Attachment Occurs when caregivers are generally unavailable and/or rejecting Child develops a inner working model of themselves as unworthy, unlovable, or bad Child learns over time the type of behavior they must exhibit in order to elicit the needed response from their caregiver/s or otherwise get their needs met Represents a risk factor for psychopathology
25 Sub-Types of Insecure Attachment Avoidant: Child presents as detached; doesn t seem to notice or care where their caregiver is even though internally they are feeling the need for comfort. Emotional distancing serves to reduce anticipatory anxiety of rejection/abandonment. Anxious/Ambivalent: Child is clingy, whiny, difficult to console. Disorganized Attachment: often reflects significant trauma (next slide)
27 What is a Bonding Assessment?
28 Bonding Assessment An assessment whose goal is to determine the nature and quality of the child s attachment relationships to birth and/or foster parents.
30 A Bonding Assessment asks: What is the child s capacity for healthy attachment? Who and what does the child need to feel safe in the world? Who occupies the position of psychological parent or Primary Attachment Figure? (Who is most central in the child s emotional life?) What is the quality of that attachment relationship?
31 Bonding assessments also answer questions like: Who are the child s important secondary attachment figures? What are the qualities of those attachment relationships? Can the primary attachment be transferred? What are emotional and psychological risks/benefits to the child if the PAf relationship is severed? What are the benefits?
33 What does the evaluator look for? Patterned, observable behavior (Approach/avoid) Unconscious or subconscious behaviors that are not easy to fake (body language) Discrimination: behavior exhibited in relationship to known caregivers differs from that exhibited toward the unknown evaluator ( stranger ) Explorative vs. self-protective behaviors
34 Caregiver Attachment Behaviors Attunement: Sensitivity to signals, anticipation of needs Responsiveness: Appropriate response to signals in a timely manner Reliability: physical and psychological availability Acceptance vs. rejection of the child s needs Cooperation vs. interference with on-going behavior
36 When should you ask for a bonding assessment?
37 Selling points... The child was placed with the parent during the first 2 years of life. (the first 4 is even better) Few transitions in care The parent has taken responsibility and can provide the child with a corrective narrative Mutual respect between parent/s and foster parent/s The parent is 1. Available, 2. Responsive, 3. Reliable The parent has maintained a relationship with the child The parent doesn t have an Axis II Personality Disorder The child hasn t been diagnosed with RAD The parent was not the primary abuser The parent has/had a healthy relationship with his or her own parent/s The parent has a positive support system The parent is actively working in therapy
38 Ask yourself... Is my client shaming? Is it FOGgy? (Fear, Obligation, Guilt) If you feel FOG, her children feel it too. FOG is toxic to child development. OBJECT to the assessment. And please, convince her to do a voluntary TPR.
39 Proceed with caution: FOGgy Axis II parents breed attachment disorders
40 Narcissistic Abuse: Emotional abuse of children by parents who require the child to give up their own wants and feelings in order to serve the parent's needs for esteem. Ex: Shaming the child for calling their foster parent mom. Ex: Excessive focus on the child s hair, hygiene, external appearance. It s not what she says, it s how she says it. Pawns and dolls OBJECT TO THE ASSESSMENT
41 Common characteristics of adults shamed in childhood Excerpted from: Andrea E. Lamont, Graduate Student Journal of Psychology, 2006, Vol. 8, Teachers College, Columbia University Sidebar: Jane Middelton-Moz, therapist and author. 1. Afraid of vulnerability and fear of exposure of the self. 2. May suffer extreme shyness, embarrassment and feelings of being inferior to others. They don't believe they make mistakes. Instead they believe they are mistakes. 3. Fear intimacy and tend to avoid real commitment in relationships. These adults frequently express the feeling that one foot is out of the door prepared to run. 4. May appear either grandiose and self-centered or seem selfless. 5. Often feel that, "No matter what I do, it won't make a difference; I am and always will be worthless and unlovable."
42 Adults shamed as children cont Frequently feel defensive when even a minor negative feedback is given. They suffer feelings of severe humiliation if forced to look at mistakes or imperfections. 7. Frequently blame others before they can be blamed. 8. May suffer from debilitating guilt These individuals apologize constantly. They assume responsibility for the behavior of those around them. 9. Feel like outsiders. They feel a pervasive sense of loneliness throughout their lives, even when surrounded with those who love and care. 10. Project their beliefs about themselves onto others. They engage in mindreading that is not in their favor, consistently feeling judged by others. 11. Often feel ugly, flawed and imperfect. These feelings regarding self may lead to focus on clothing and make-up in an attempt to hide flaws in personal appearance and self. 12. Often feel angry and judgmental towards the qualities in others that they feel ashamed of in themselves. This can lead to shaming others.
43 Adults shamed as children cont Often feel controlled from the outside as well as from within. Normal spontaneous expression is blocked. 14. Feel they must do things perfectly or not at all. This internalized belief frequently leads to performance anxiety and procrastination. 15. Experience depression. 16. Block their feelings of shame through compulsive behaviors like workaholics, eating disorders, shopping, substance abuse, list-making or gambling. 17. Lie to themselves and others. 18. Often have caseloads rather than friendships. 19. Often involve themselves in compulsive processing of past interactions and events and intellectualization as a defense against pain. 20. Have little sense of emotional boundaries. They feel constantly violated by others. They frequently build false boundaries through walls, rage, pleasing or isolation.
44 If you re considering a bonding assessment, read the visitation notes first.
45 Request a bonding assessment: IF the supervised visitation notes suggest a SECURE attachment.
46 Caregiver behaviors associated with SECURE attachment: Sensitive, attuned, and responsive care Clear, consistent, developmentally appropriate expectations and supervision Warm, positive, and responsive verbal interaction Treats the child as a unique individual "Holding the child in mind (i.e., awareness of and ability to reflect on the parent s own feelings and responses to the child)
47 Child behaviors associated with SECURE attachment: Comfort exploring in presence of an attachment figure When hurt, going to an attachment figure for comfort (i.e., not a stranger) Seeking help when needed Willingness to comply with requests with minimal conflict No pattern of controlling or directing the behavior of caregivers (no role-reversal)
48 Proceed with caution: IF the SV notes suggest an insecure attachment.
49 Caregiver behaviors associated with INSECURE attachment: Interfering with the child s attempts at exploration (i.e., intrusive, overly controlling) Unclear, inconsistent, developmentally inappropriate expectations and supervision Ignoring the child s needs and cues Inconsistent, unreliable responsiveness Hostile, threatening, and frightening behaviors
50 Caregiver behaviors associated with INSECURE attachment: Prioritizing the parent s needs over the child s (i.e., self-absorbed) Behaving like a child or treating the child as though he/she is in charge (i.e., rolereversal) Marked withdrawal, fright, hesitance or timidity around the child Sexualized or overly intimate behaviors
53 Child behaviors associated with INSECURE attachment: Excessive dependence Marked shyness, withdrawal, or unfriendliness Failure to seek contact, comfort when needed Indiscriminate friendliness or contact seeking Punitive, bossy behaviors
54 Child behaviors associated with INSECURE attachment: Disoriented or frightened in presence of the parent (ex: approaching while looking away, blank stare, freezing, or rocking) Promiscuous, sexualized behavior Over-concern with the parent s well-being (i. e., role reversal)
56 Protective factors... Detainment occurred after age 4 Child was breast fed Co-sleeping at child s request (no sexual activity) Positive secondary attachment relationships/ Connection to extended family Parent is secure : The best predictor (with 80% accuracy) of a child s attachment classification at six years of age is the birth mother s attachment classification before the birth of her child (Siegel, 1999).
57 SIGNIFICANT Risk Factors: Neglect, DV Child was detained before age of 2(-4) Child was traumatized before age 2(-4) The parent was traumatized before the age of 2(-4). The parent grew up in foster care. Child had failure to thrive. You never see the parent take her newest baby out of the car seat. DV in the home when the child was an infant.
58 Developmental Attachment Trauma
59 The Intentions of the Human Brain #1:SURVIVE... #2:THRIVE... AT ALL COST And Develop
60 Trauma Theory Trauma can disrupt the healthy development by overwhelming a person s ability to cope. Trauma is defined as: an overwhelming sense of terror, helplessness, and horror in response to real or perceived threat to the life or physical integrity of the child or someone important to that child The brain releases chemicals that help the body to respond to the threat (fight, flight, freeze)
61 Types of Trauma: Type I: Acute trauma: A single event that lasts for a limited time Type II: Chronic trauma: multiple traumatic events, often over a long period of time Neglect: Failure to provide for a child s basic needs is perceived as trauma by an infant or young child due to dependency on adults for care.
62 Brain Injury
63 The hippocampus is a brain structure crucially involved in the formation of memory for facts and events. ( thinking brain ) At birth and in early childhood this structure is not fully grown...memory of birth is unlikely. the brain structure for emotional memory, the amygdala ( lizard brain ), is mature in infancy... The outcome of these two facts:... an emotionally significant event during infancy may affect the way a child behaves later in life despite them not being able to remember the actual event. -David Sant
64 Complex Trauma Specific kind of chronic (Type II) trauma in which multiple traumatic events begin at a very young age and are caused by adults who should have been caring for and protecting the child Ex: ongoing sexual abuse, domestic violence, physical abuse
65 Complex Trauma continued Trauma that happens in childhood at the hands of a caregiver is doubly destructive because it destroys the attachment relationship that the child would normally need to depend on to manage the trauma of the abuse. The resolution of attachment issues is a central component of trauma recovery.
66 Complex Trauma & Disorganized Attachment Trauma at the hands of a caregiver creates a double bind for the child who is faced with two opposing needs. 1) The need to develop and maintain attachment to caregivers. 2) To need to defend himself emotionally, physically and mentally from the very people they are supposed to rely on When parent is a figure of both fear and reassurance, child can develop a disorganized attachment style.
67 Relationship between Trauma and Attachment Secure attachment serves as a buffer that mediates the post-trauma response (especially with Type I Trauma) Type II trauma more likely to result in Insecure Attachment Attachment protects against Trauma, but Trauma can hurt Attachment Development is derailed due to unmet safety and security needs
68 DISORGANIZED (Ambivalent) Attachment Trauma Bond 1. Contradictory responses ( I hate you, don t leave me. ) Responding to caregivers with a mixture of approach/avoidance ( push/pull dynamics, emotional manipulation) and 2. Resistance to comforting or 3. Frozen watchfulness (Dissociation)
69 Disorganized Attachment Caregiver behaviors are bizarre, threatening, unpredictable, violent or frightening Infant feels insecure, and cannot organize a strategy for insuring protective access to their caregivers. Under distress, child exhibits contradictory behavioral patterns, freezing, stilling, and slowed movements and expressions, clear signs of fear of the parent, clear signs of disorganization and disorientation.
70 Continuum of Attachment Attachment problems RAD Disorganized attachment and attachment insecurity are NOT disorders, but can increase risk of other disorders Reactive Attachment Disorder: A pattern of social relatedness based on a LACK OF an early attachment relationship
71 Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) Can include: control issues self destructive behavior destruction of property inappropriately demanding/clingy behavior stealing, lying passive aggression sneaky behavior hoarding, gorging inappropriate sexual attitudes and behaviors cruetly to animals or younger children
72 Attachment Classification Can Change based on: Emotional support, direction and structure provided by caregiver Stressful life events in the family Quality of home environment Environmental support Changes in mother s emotional functioning Changes in mother child interactions
73 It is loving that saves us, not loss that destroys us. -G. Vaillant, 1985
74 Role of Corrective Experience Experience changes or grows the brain The brain develops by forming connections. Interactions with caregivers are critical to brain development. The more an experience is repeated, the stronger the connections become. Important that the child perceives the experience as different. Goal is to challenge and correct (rather than reinforce) the underlying negative working model.
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