Software Defined Networking Architecture

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1 Software Defined Networking Architecture Brighten Godfrey CS 538 October slides by Brighten Godfrey

2 The Problem Networks are complicated Just like any computer system Worse: it s distributed Even worse: no clean programming APIs, only knobs and dials Network equipment is proprietary Integrated solutions (software, configuration, protocol implementations, hardware) from major vendors (Cisco, Juniper, etc.) Result: Hard to innovate and modify networks

3 Traditional networking monolithic, proprietary, distributed protocol protocol protocol protocol protocol protocol

4 OpenFlow Software Defined Networking app app software abstractions Logically centralized controller Thin, ideally open interface to data plane

5 Evolution of SDN app app software abstractions Logically centralized controller Thin, ideally open interface to data plane OpenFlow

6 Evolution of SDN Routing Control Platform (2005) [Caesar, Caldwell, Feamster, Rexford, Shaikh, van der Merwe, NSDI 2005] Centralized computation of BGP routes, pushed to border routers via ibgp ebgp Physical Peering ibgp RCP without requ the legacy r ing in Secti ture and des ing paths, w tween the re type implem can compute work with h

7 Evolution of SDN Routing Control Platform (2005) 4D architecture (2005) A Clean Slate 4D Approach to Network Control and Management [Greenberg, Hjalmtysson, Maltz, Myers, Rexford, Xie, Yan, Zhan, Zhang, CCR Oct 2005] Logically centralized decision plane separated from data plane network wide views network level objectives Decision Dissemination Discovery Data direct control databases. Data plane: Th the state that is ou the forwarding tab queue-managemen dress translation m grain support for c covery plane. The 4D architec plane logic operat

8 Evolution of SDN Routing Control Platform (2005) 4D architecture (2005) Ethane (2007) [Casado, Freedman, Pettit, Luo, McKeown, Shenker, SIGCOMM 2007] Centralized controller enforces enterprise network Ethernet forwarding policy using existing hardware

9 Evolution of SDN Routing Control Platform (2005) 4D architecture (2005) [Casado, Freedman, Pettit, Luo, McKeown, Shenker, waps = ["wap1","wap2"]; SIGCOMM 2007] %% #Rules [(hsrc=in("server")^(hdst=in("private"))] : deny; Centralized controller enforces enterprise network [(hsrc=in("phones")^(hdst=in("computers"))] : deny; Ethernet forwarding policy [(hsrc=in("computers")^(hdst=in("phones"))] using existing hardware : deny; # NAT-like protection for laptops Switch has been configured with the Controller s credentials and the Controller with the Switches credentials. If aswitch findsashorter path to thecontroller, it attemptstwoway authentication with it before advertising that path as a valid route. Ethane Therefore, the minimum (2007) spanning tree grows radially from the Controller, hop-by-hop as each Switch authenticates. Authentication is done using the preconfigured credentials to ensure that a misbehaving node cannot masquerade as the Controller or another Switch. If authentication is successful, the Switch creates an encrypted connection with the Controller that is used for all communication between the pair. By design, the Controller knows the upstream Switch and physical port to which each authenticating Switch is attached. After a Switch authenticates and establishes a secure channel to the Controller, it forwards all packets it receives for which it does not have a flow entry to the Controller, annotated with the ingress port. This includes the traffic of authenticating Switches. Therefore, thecontroller can pinpoint theattachment point to the spanning tree of all non-authenticated Switches and hosts. Once a Switch authenticates, the Controller will establish a flow in the network between itself and the Switch for the secure channel. 4. THE POL-ETH POLICY LANGUAGE Pol-Eth is a language for declaring policy in an Ethane network. While Ethane doesn t mandate a particular language, we describe Pol-Eth as an example, to illustrate what s possible. We have im- # Groups desktops = ["griffin","roo"]; laptops = ["glaptop","rlaptop"]; phones = ["gphone","rphone"]; server = ["http_server","nfs_server"]; private = ["desktops","laptops"]; computers = ["private","server"]; students = ["bob","bill","pete"]; profs = ["plum"]; group = ["students","profs"]; # Do not allow phones and private computers to communicate [(hsrc=in("laptops")] : outbound-only; # No restrictions on desktops communicating with each other [(hsrc=in("desktops")^(hdst=in("desktops"))] : allow; # For wireless, non-group members can use http through # a proxy. Group members have unrestricted access. [(apsrc=in("waps"))^(user=in("group"))] :allow; [(apsrc=in("waps"))^(protocol="http)] : waypoints("http-proxy"); [(apsrc=in("waps"))] : deny; []: allow; # Default-on: by default allow flows Figure 4: A sample policy file using Pol-Eth Unfortunately, in today s multi-user operating systems, it is dif-

10 Evolution of SDN Routing Control Platform (2005) 4D architecture (2005) Ethane (2007) OpenFlow (2008) [McKeown, Anderson, Balakrishnan, Parulkar, Peterson, Rexford, Shenker, Turner, CCR 2008] Thin, standardized interface to data plane General-purpose programmability at controller

11 Evolution of SDN Routing Control Platform (2005) 4D architecture (2005) Ethane (2007) app1 app2 app3 NOX Controller PC Server OF switch OF switch Network View wireless OF switch OpenFlow (2008) NOX (2008) [Gude, Koponen, Pettit, Pfaff, Figure Casado, 1: McKeown, Shenker, CCR 2008] First OF controller: centralized network view provided to multiple control apps as a database Behind the scenes, handles state collection & distribution Components of a NOX-based netw OpenFlow (OF) switches, a server running a N controller process and a database containing the work view. We argue for an affirmative answer to this question via p by-example; herein we describe a network operating sys called NOX (freely available at that achieves the goals outlined above.

12 Evolution of SDN Industry explosion (~ )

13 Opportunities Open data plane interface Hardware: easier for operators to change hardware, and for vendors to enter market Software: can finally directly access device behavior Centralized controller Direct programmatic control of network Software abstractions on the controller Solve distributed systems problems only once, then just write algorithms Libraries/languages to help programmers write net apps

14 Opportunities Open data plane interface Hardware: easier for operators to change hardware, and for vendors to enter market Software: can finally directly access device behavior Centralized controller Direct programmatic control of network Software abstractions on the controller All active areas of current research! Solve distributed systems problems only once, then just write algorithms Libraries/languages to help programmers write net apps

15 Challenges for SDN Scalability (controller is bottleneck) Single point of failure (or small number) Latency to controller Needs new hardware or software Distributed system challenges still present Imperfect knowledge of network state Consistency issues between controllers

16 Q: Drivers of early deployment? What drove early deployment of OpenFlow & SDN? [Gourav] Access control in enterprises? Net research? Good ideas, are already valuable (e.g. NSF GENI) But not the killer apps for initial large-scale deployment

17 Q: Drivers of early deployment? Cloud virtualization Create separate virtual networks for tenants Allow flexible placement and movement of VMs WAN traffic engineering Drive utilization to near 100% when possible Protect critical traffic from congestion Key characteristics of the above Special-purpose deployments with less diverse hardware Existing solutions aren t just annoying, they don t work!

18 Q: When do you control the net? When does the SDN controller send instructions to switches?...in the OpenFlow paper? reactive...other options? proactive

19 Q: How does SDN affect reliability? More bugs in the network, or fewer?

20 From SDN to Fabric [Casado,Koponen,Shenker,Tootoonchian, HotSDN 12] Separate interfaces: Host-network (external-to-internal data plane) Operator-network Packet-switch (internal data plane) headers) requires s of bits; ly match rwarding from the Src Host Edge Controller Fabric Controller Fabric Elements Dst Host e expect Ingress Edge Switch Egress Edge Switch

21 Fabric common comments 1. Is edge layer scalable? 2. No experimental results :-) 3. Is a two-layer design hard to manage? How do established router vendors approach SDN? [Jereme Lamps]

22 Announcements Poster Session Dec 17, 1:30-4:30 All must attend Conflict? Describe situation to me by Monday Oct 14 Online students will do separate presentation, to be scheduled Thursday SDN applications Reading: B4 [SIGCOMM 2013]

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