1 Software Defined Networking Richard T. B. Ma School of Computing National University of Singapore Material from: Scott Shenker (UC Berkeley), Nick McKeown (Stanford), Jennifer Rexford (Princeton) CS 4226: Internet Architecture
2 What is Software Defined Networking? A new approach to do networking new fundamental principles How does it contrast with traditional networking? Before knowing what it is, let us understand why we need it in the first place what is wrong with the current Internet?
3 The Internet: A Remarkable Story Tremendous success From research experiment to global infrastructure Brilliance of under-specifying Network: best-effort packet delivery Hosts: arbitrary applications Enables innovation in applications Web, P2P, VoIP, social networks, virtual worlds But, change is easy only at the edge
4 Networks are Hard to Manage Operating a network is expensive More than half the cost of a network Yet, operator error causes most outages Buggy software in the equipment Routers with 20+ million lines of code Cascading failures, vulnerabilities, etc. The network is in the way Especially a problem in data centers and home networks
5 Networks Vs. Other Systems Networks are hard to manage Computation and storage have been virtualized Creating more flexible and manageable infrastructure Networks are still notoriously hard to manage Still heavily rely on network administrators Networks are hard to evolve Ongoing innovation in systems software New programming languages, operating systems, etc. Networks are stuck in the past Routing algorithms change very slowly Network management extremely primitive
6 Inside the Net: A Different Story Closed equipment Software bundled with hardware Vendor-specific interfaces Over specified Slow protocol standardization Few people can innovate Equipment vendors write the code Long delays to introduce new features Impacts performance, security, reliability, cost
7 Networking as a Discipline Other fields in systems : OS, DB, DS, etc. Teach basic principles Are easily managed Continue to evolve Networking: Teach big bag of protocols Notoriously difficult to manage Evolves very slowly A failure from an academic point of view
8 Why Does Networking Lag Behind? Networks used to be simple: Ethernet, IP, TCP. New control requirements led to great complexity Isolation VLANs, ACLs Traffic engineering MPLS Packet processing Firewalls, NATs Payload analysis Deep packet inspection Mechanisms designed and deployed independently Complicated control plane design, primitive functionality Stark contrast to the elegantly modular data plane Ability to master complexity a curse Extract simplicity is needed to build a discipline
9 A Good Example: Programming Machine languages: no abstractions Mastering complexity was crucial Higher-level languages: OS and other abstractions File system, virtual memory, abstract data types,... Modern languages: even more abstractions Object orientation, garbage collection, Abstractions key to extracting simplicity
10 Key to the Internet s Success Hourglass IP model Layered service abstractions (why is this important?) Decompose delivery into fundamental components Independent, compatible innovation at each layer Only for network edges
11 Complicated Router at the Core two key router functions: run routing algorithms/protocol (RIP, OSPF, BGP) forwarding datagrams from incoming to outgoing link routing processor Routing, management control plane (software) input ports line card switching fabric line card output ports Forwarding data plane (hardware) line card line card
12 Two Key Definitions Data Plane: processing and delivery of packets Based on state in routers and endpoints E.g., IP, TCP, Ethernet, etc. Fast timescales (per-packet) Control Plane: establishing the state in routers Determines how and where packets are forwarded Routing, traffic engineering, firewall state, Slow time-scales (per control event)
13 What have we learned so far? Layers are great abstractions Layers only deal with the data plane No powerful control plane abstractions! Modularity based on abstraction is the way things get done Barbara Liskov Abstractions Interfaces Modularity How do we find control plane abstractions? first define problem and then decompose it
14 The network control problem Compute the configuration of each physical devices, e.g., forwarding tables Operate without communication guarantees Operate within given network-level protocol, e.g., RIP, OSPF. Only people who love complexity would find this a reasonable request!
15 Separation of Control/Data Plane Control Plane Routing processor Data Plane Routing processor Switch Switch fabric Routing processor Switch Switch fabric Switch Switch fabric
16 Benefits of Separation Independent evolution and development The software control of the network can evolve independently of the hardware. Control from high-level software program Control behavior using higher-order programs Debug/check behavior more easily
17 Logically Centralized Control Routing processor Routing Controller processor Routing processor Control Plane Data Plane Switch Switch Switch
18 Benefits of Centralization Centralized decisions are easier to make E.g., OSPF (RFC 2328) 244 pages Distributed system part (builds consistent network 100 pages) Routing algorithm (Dijkstra s algorithm 4 pages) Logically vs. physically centralized Issues with of a physically centralized controller? How to implement a logically centralized one?
19 Open Interfaces Controller Southbound Interface Switch Southbound Interface Control Plane Data Plane Southbound Interface Switch Switch
20 Programmability Application Control Plane Network Controller Plane Northbound Interface Southbound Interface Switch Southbound Interface Control Plane Data Plane Southbound Interface Switch Switch
21 Benefits of Open Interfaces and Programmability Enable competitive technologies Independent developments Rapid innovation and fast evolution Cheap and better networks Make network management much easier Management goals are expressed as policies New control/services for network providers Detailed configuration are done by controller
22 A Quick Summary Principles of Software Defined Networking Separation of Control Plane and Data Plane Logically Centralized Control Open Interfaces Programmability All these principles use abstractions to modularize the network control problem. A nice analogy from Prof. Nick McKeown
23 Mainframes App App App App App App App App App App App Specialized Applications Specialized Operating System Specialized Hardware Windows (OS) Open Interface or Linux Open Interface Microprocessor or Mac OS Vertically integrated Closed, proprietary Slow innovation Small industry Horizontal Open interfaces Rapid innovation Huge industry
24 Routers/Switches App App App App App App App App App App App Specialized Features Specialized Control Plane Control Plane Open Interface or Control Plane or Open Interface Control Plane Specialized Hardware Merchant Switching Chips Vertically integrated Closed, proprietary Slow innovation Horizontal Open interfaces Rapid innovation
25 Conventional Vs. SDN (Pros) Easy to program Consistent policies Better integration of programs D. Kreutz et al. Software-Defined Networking: A Comprehensive Survey, Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 103, No. 1, January 2015.
26 Layers in a SDN D. Kreutz et al. Software-Defined Networking: A Comprehensive Survey, Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 103, No. 1, January 2015.
27 Abstractions Specification Distribution Forwarding D. Kreutz et al. Software-Defined Networking: A Comprehensive Survey, Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 103, No. 1, January 2015.
28 Three layers of abstractions Specification allow a application to express the desired network behavior without implementing it Distribution shield SDN apps from the distributed states, making distributed control logically centralized Forwarding allow any forwarding behavior desired by the network application (the control program) while hiding details of the underlying hardware
29 OpenFlow Protocol and Switch OpenFlow protocol Open southbound API OpenFlow switch Forwarding abstraction
30 Main components of an OpenFlow switch
31 Packet flow through the processing pipeline
32 OF terminology associated with packets For each packet from a packet flow Header and header field Pipeline fields values attached to the packet during pipeline processing, e.g., ingress port and metadata Action: an operation that acts on a packet e.g., drop, forward to a port, modify (decreasing TTL) Action set accumulated while processed by flow tables executed at then end of pipeline processing
33 OpenFlow flow entry A flow entry in a flow table looks like Match field: packets are matched against header fields and pipeline fields may be wildcarded (any) or bitmasked (subset of bits) Priority: used to choose from multiple matches Instruction set contains a list of actions to apply immediately contains a set of actions to add to the action set modify pipeline processing (go to another flow table) A default entry: table-miss flow entry
34 Packet flow through an OF switch
36 Matching and instruction execution Matching and Instruction execution in a flow table.
37 Operation of SDN (controller-switch) S. Sezer et al. Are we ready for SDN? Implementation Challenges for Software-Defined Networks, IEEE Communications Magazine, July 2013.
38 Interfaces of a SDN M. Jarschel et al. Interfaces, attributes, and use cases: a compass for SDN, IEEE Communications Magazine, June 2014.
39 S. Sezer et al. Are we ready for SDN? Implementation Challenges for Software-Defined Networks, IEEE Communications Magazine, July 2013.
40 Applications of SDN Killer application Network virtualization Other applications Datacenter and cloud computing WAN (Google B4) Software Internet exchange point (IXP) Mobility and wireless Security, measurement and monitoring
41 References D. Kreutz et al. Software-Defined Networking: A Comprehensive Survey, Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 103, No. 1, January OpenFlow Switch Specification Ver o ds/sdn-resources/onf-specifications/openflow/openflowswitch-v1.5.1.pdf
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