SAFE SOFTWARE FOR SPACE APPLICATIONS: BUILDING ON THE DO-178 EXPERIENCE. Cheryl A. Dorsey Digital Flight / Solutions

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1 SAFE SOFTWARE FOR SPACE APPLICATIONS: BUILDING ON THE DO-178 EXPERIENCE Cheryl A. Dorsey Digital Flight / Solutions DIGITAL FLIGHT / SOLUTIONS

2 Presentation Outline DO-178 Overview What vs. How Standard System Safety Process (begins prior to software development) Software Tie to System Safety Requirements Traceability Standards Verification Quality Assurance Good Practices Conclusion

3 DO-178 Overview Presentation Context DO-178 International Standard for Assurance of Software Used in Civil Airborne Systems Also used in other Mission Critical Industries Current Status Latest Version is DO-178C (2012) Same Overall Concept as DO-178B (fixes mistakes, adds tribal knowledge) Four New Supplements (Tool Qualification, Formal Methods, OO, Model Based Development) Presentation Context Relevance to Space Community What v. How Standard Strengths and Weaknesses Best Practices RTCA SOFTWARE CONSIDERATIONS IN AIRBORNE SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT CERTIFICATION DOCUMENT NO. RTCA/DO-178B December 1, 1992 Prepared by: SC-167 Requirements and Technical Concepts for Aviation

4 What vs. How Standard Objective Based Approach Qualitative Requires some tribal knowledge 1 Objectives and Reference Control Category by SW level Objective Output SW Level Description Ref A B C D Description Ref A B C D Test procedures are correct b Verification Results

5 PSAC High-Level Reqs SDP Derived High- SVP Level Reqs CMP Trace data SQAP Verification Standards Results Slide Planning Four Annex Tables for Verification of Development and Test Processes Verification of Development and Test Table A-3 Table A-4 Table A-5 Table A-7 Requirements Table A-2 Design Design Architecture Low-Level Reqs Derived Reqs Trace Data Verification Results 2.5 Code/Integration Source Code Trace data Executable Object Code Verification Results Table A-6 Integration/Test Test Cases and Procedures Test Results Trace Data Verification Results

6 An Example of What Taken From Annex A Table 3 DO-178 attributes of requirements: High level requirements conform to system requirements High level requirements are accurate and consistent High level requirements are compatible with target computer High Level Requirements are Verifiable High level requirements conform to standards High level requirements are traceable to system requirements Algorithms are accurate

7 System Safety Process SAFETY ASSESSMENT Aircraft FHA SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT Aircraft Functions Aircraft Rqmts. Failure Conditions, Effects CCA Separation Rqmts. Separation Verification Failure Conditions, Effects, Classification System FHA Failure Conditions, Effects, Classification, Safety Objectives PSSA Items Rqmts, Safety Objectives Analyses SSA System Functions System Architecture Architecture Rqmts. Items Rqmts, Analyses Required Analysis Results Allocation of Rqmts. To Systems Development of System Architecture System Implementation 06/04/98 Certification (Taken from ARP 4754)

8 Airworthiness Requirements System Operational Requirements Systems Software Tie SYSTEM LIFE-CYCLE PROCESSES System Safety Assessment Process System Requirements Allocated to Software Software Level(s) Design Constraints Hardware Definition Fault Containment Boundaries Error Sources Identified and Eliminated Software Requirements and Architecture Slide 2.8 SOFTWARE LIFE-CYCLE PROCESSES Introduction to DO-178B Taken from DO-178B

9 Safety Tie To Software DO-178 References System and Safety Standard (ARP4754) Section 2 of DO Informative Section (no objectives) Safety is really a systems property in civil airborne DO-178b Safety Processes Assumes safe requirements as an entry point Extensive Verification (assures requirements are met) Safety Review of Derived Requirements (may not be enough) Best Practices

10 Requirements Use of non-standard requirements terminology High level requirements vs. Low level requirements Derived requirements definition and understanding Leads to problematic non-standard practices Combined low and high level requirements Derived requirements not tagged as derived Pseudo-code as low-level requirements Implementation not requirements/testability Maintenance issue after original development

11 Requirements Best practices for requirements Assure clear criteria is established for DO-178 requirement review Independently develop requirements based tests in parallel to assure the requirements are testable Provide clear definition and criteria for derived requirements

12 Traceability Traceability is a clear strength of DO-178 One way trace upward to system requirements allocated to sw Two way trace between high level requirements and low level requirements Two way trace between low-level and code Trace between tests and requirements Forward trace assures all requirements are implemented Backward trace assures nothing but requirements implemented (no unintended function on the aircraft)

13 Traceability Review of requirements traceability After each phase during verification Again during requirements coverage analysis (requirement completely tested (normal and robust), structure covered Best practices Clear guidance (review criteria) for tracing Nothing but the requirements are implemented (unless derived) Independent trace review in each direction and compare the results for high criticality

14 Standards Three development standards Requirements, Design, Code Standards in DO-178 do not assure good practices Often minimal and add little toward design assurance Best practice Use a strong standard like (MISRA or a subset of it) for DAL A and B Although not required by DO-178, use a testing standard to assure all requirements are fully tested (normal and robustly) with observable results (you don t want to find problems at the certification reviews)

15 Verification Reviews Requirements review Design Review (low level requirements and architecture) Code Review Test Review Testing Normal and robustness Structural Coverage of the code via requirements based testing MCDC (catastrophic), Decision (hazardous), statement (major)

16 Verification Analyses Data Coupling Control Coupling Requirements Coverage Stack Depth Memory Margin Worst Case Timing Analyses lack clear guidance and objectives, therefore often do not meet the intent

17 Verification Verification is a strength of DO-178 DO-178 is an assurance standard and verification intensive (measuring stick put over development). When done correctly, assurance is gained through a series of reviews, analysis and tests DO-178 could benefit in clearer guidance with respect to: Review criteria Clear objective criteria for each analysis Strong criteria for robustness testing commensurate with safety classification

18 Quality Assurance DO-178 Quality Assurance is really process assurance Main concept - say what you do (planning), do what you say (follow the plans), prove it (records) If Quality is not built into the process, than quality is not assured Quality is often not involved at key points as prescribed by DO-178 transition criteria (between each life cycle phase) Quality assurance often does not review the CM of development and verification artifacts To work QA should be fully engaged throughout DO-178 does require dated records for each QA activity (check the checker)

19 Good Practices in the Airborne Community Required four certification reviews called SOIs Planning, development, verification, final Support for reviews found in FAA Order Good news FAA Software Job Aid provides a more detailed set of evaluation criteria at the SOI audits to mitigate weaknesses of DO-178 Bad news is many companies do not know of this or use it during their development.

20 Conclusions Strength of DO-178 is when understood and implemented correctly provides an excellent mechanism to assure software is bug free To be effective it requires good knowledge of software engineering and process Strength and weakness is that it is not prescriptive Not tied to any specific lifecycle or methodology Requires a key knowledge of good SW Engineering processes and implementation Could benefit by clear examples and more How guidance

21 Conclusions (con t) Needs a stronger tie to systems and safety architectural mitigations (e.g. monitors) are implemented correctly and tested robustly Stronger tie, with feedback to systems and safety when requirements are not understood, missing, or too weak to implement ECSS has a safety process built in to the software process (this would benefit DO-178)

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