Driving under the Influence of Alcohol in Israel and the Middle East

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1 Driving under the Influence of Alcohol in Israel and the Middle East Dangers, Problems and ((hopefully) new) Solutions Michael H. Cale ICAP and UNECE, Geneva, May 2013 Regional perspectives on preventing alcohol related road crashes involving VRUs CogniTo Ltd. 2013

2 Additional sources: General Directorate of Traffic Saudi Arabia 2013 WHO Factsheats 2012 CogniTo Ltd. 2013

3 Distribution of road traffic deaths in the middle east by type of road user, WHO 2010 Drink driving: 10 countries in the Region legally prohibit the use of alcohol; however, 18 of the 19 surveyed have a drink driving law. Fewer than two thirds of these countries (61%) base their drink driving laws on blood alcohol concentration (BAC). Of these, 7 countries (37%) stipulate BAC limits of 0.05 g/dl or less, which is recommended by WHO and considered to be best practice. Many countries do not know the magnitude of their drink driving problem; fewer than third of countries test all fatally-injured drivers. Enforcement of drink driving laws is reported as good in only 4 countries.

4 Another concern raised by health officials and the police is a rise in drink-driving. In , Iran's police withdrew the driving licenses of 829 drivers, including 43 women, who had failed to pass alcohol and drug tests. Most recently, alcohol tests taken from drivers in Tehran in the period of 20 April-20 May [2012] showed that 26% of them were drunk. A further major concern of Iranian health officials is a general unwillingness among relevant authorities to admit to such problems. "As the consumption of alcoholic drinks is haram [religiously forbidden], some officials are just trying to conceal the facts... But the lack of data on alcohol consumption and consumers is itself a serious threat," wrote a conservative news website on 15 May [2012]

5 Average Alcohol consumption per year in Lebanon Israel Turkey Iran Egypt Saudi Arabia Libya Source: FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), World Drink Trends 2003 CogniTo Ltd. 2013

6 CogniTo Ltd My world

7 Risk of Fatal Accident for Jews and Arabs in Israel 2011 CogniTo Ltd. 2013

8 Comparison of the Relative Risks of being injured or killed in an alcohol related road accident in Israel CogniTo Ltd Baseline Arab Young Male 100% 400% 800% 900%

9 CogniTo Ltd The big unknown.

10 Reasons for serious and fatal accidents in Israel 2010 (Source RSA 2011) CogniTo Ltd. 2013

11 BAC limits in Israel Young Driver 0.00 Adult Driver 0.05 CogniTo Ltd. 2013

12 Number of drivers per 1000 in the population who were tested with a breathalyzer in Israel (e.g. Sweden 287, France 190, Eire 128, Austria 87, Portugal 63 ) Correlation of number of breathalyzer tests per 1000 drivers with number of drivers who are legally drunk is !!! - Data from ETSC (2010b) 4 / 1000 in / 1000 in / 1000 in 2008 CogniTo Ltd. 2013

13 How often did you drink and drive in the past year? Source RSA 2012 never once total male female

14 CogniTo Ltd. 2013

15 CogniTo Ltd. 2013

16 CogniTo Ltd To drink or not to drink, that is the question

17 CogniTo Ltd Tastes good

18 CogniTo Ltd Make a good impression

19 CogniTo Ltd Guarantee a positive self esteem

20 CogniTo Ltd Social Pressure

21 CogniTo Ltd They will love me.

22 CogniTo Ltd Influence of Cultural Factor(s) (real men drink)

23 Enjoying taste Making a good impression Guarantee a positive self-esteem Social Pressure Having her fall in love with me Influence of cultural factors CogniTo Ltd. 2013

24 + X X X X X X = Sum total of positive expectancies from dangerous behavior CogniTo Ltd. 2013

25 CogniTo Ltd Being cited or punished

26 CogniTo Ltd Looking like a fool when I throw up

27 CogniTo Ltd You might be injured or even killed

28 If you are caught and have your license evoked or your parents car impounded you will definitely look like an idiot CogniTo Ltd. 2013

29 If you are caught and have your license evoked or your parents car impounded you will definitely look like an idiot CogniTo Ltd. 2013

30 CogniTo Ltd Influence of Cultural Characteristic

31 Possible punishment Risk of injury or fatality Looking like a fool when I throw up Social punishment Influence of cultural factors CogniTo Ltd. 2013

32 X X X X X = Sum total of negative expectancies from dangerous behavior CogniTo Ltd. 2013

33 CogniTo Ltd Values and Needs

34 CogniTo Ltd. 2013

35 CogniTo Ltd. 2013

36 Driving under the Influence of Alcohol in Israel and the Middle East Dangers, Problems and ((hopefully) better) Solutions CogniTo Ltd Michael H. Cale ICAP and UNECE, Geneva, May 2013 Regional perspectives on preventing alcohol related road crashes involving VRUs

Relative risk of fatal crash by blood alcohol level. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 BAC (mg/100ml)

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