Ways to Reduce to Motorcycle Accidents

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1 4th. Asia Automobile Institute Summit September 2015, Chongqing Ways to Reduce to Motorcycle Accidents Yuji Arai Safety Research Division Japan Automobile Research Institute 1

2 Contents 1. Historical Review of Traffic Safety Measures in Japan 2. System for Collecting and Managing Traffic Accident Data 3. Measures to Enhance Motorcycle Safety 4. Summary 4th. AAI Summit, Sep. 2015, Chongqing 2

3 Contents 1. Historical Review of Traffic Safety Measures in Japan 2. System for Collecting and Managing Traffic Accident Data 3. Measures to Enhance Motorcycle Safety 4. Summary 4th. AAI Summit, Sep. 2015, Chongqing 3

4 Three Factors for Road Safety Education People Traffic rules Practical training, etc. Safety Technology Active safety (ABS, etc.) Passive safety Airbags, etc.) Road Environments Vehicles Infrastructure Roads Signals Crosswalks, etc. Safety measures in Japan are promoted based on analysis of road accidents from the standpoint of human factors, vehicle factors and road environments. 4th. AAI Summit, Summit, Sep. 2015, Chongqing 4

5 Significance of Accident Analysis Vehicle Safety Development Development of safety technologies Accident analysis Development of testing methods Accident analysis is the starting point for safety measures. - Concrete example - Frontal collision 402 (9.5%) Lateral collision 483 (11.5%) Accident analysis 30 (0.7%) 2,101 persons (49.8%) 105 (2.5%) 636 (15.1%) 36 (0.9%) 424 (10.1%) Number of fatalities of car occupants by impact location (1996) Source: National Police Agency Technical Standards Frontal collision testing (1994) Lateral collision testing (1998) Rigid barrier 50km/h Safety technologies Airbag, seatbelt with force limiter, etc. 50km/h 4th. AAI Summit, Sep. 2015, Chongqing 5

6 Overview of Traffic Safety Measures Main measures 1960s: Road traffic act (1960), administrative penalty against traffic offences (1968) 1970s: Infrastructure development, reinforcement of crackdown against traffic offences, promotion of traffic safety education 1980s: Enforcement of seat belt use for front-seat passengers (1985) 250,000 20,000 Registered vehicles (x10 3 ), Accidents (x10) 200, , ,000 Fatalities 50,000 Accidents Registered vehicles (car&motorcycle) Year 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 Fatalities 1990s: Improvement of passive safety performance Source: National Police Agency 2000s: Reinforcement of penalty against drink-driving (2002, 2007), enforcement of seat belt use for rear-seat passengers (2008) 2010s: Spread of vehicles with active safety technology 4th. AAI Summit, Sep. 2015, Chongqing 6

7 Focused Approaches since 1970 Infrastructure development - Roads, signals, sidewalks, crosswalks, road signs, lighting, etc. Reinforcement of crackdown against traffic offences - Increased about 9,000 road traffic police, from 1972 to 1974 Number of crackdown per 10,000 vehicles 4,000 3,000 2,000 Fatalities 20,000 15,000 10,000 Crackdown 1,000 5, Year Source: White paper on police 2005 Promotion of traffic safety education - Sharp increase in fatal accidents involving pedestrians - In particular, promotion of traffic safety education for children Fatalities Significant decrease in number of fatalities (16,765 in ,760 in 1980) 4th. AAI Summit, Sep. 2015, Chongqing 7

8 Main Factors in the Decline in Number of Fatalities since 1990 Improved vehicle safety Airbag,Seat belt reminder system,abs Collision absorption body Strengthened punishment against drink-driving (2002, 2007) Drunk driving: Imprisonment (years) or Fine (million yen) Reduction in high-speed driving accidents Number of accidents due to maximum speed violation: 1999= =34.4 Index Number of accidents due to drink-driving Number of accidents due to maximum speed violation Number of accidents (1999=100) Year Source: White paper on traffic safety th. AAI Summit, Sep. 2015, Chongqing 8

9 Contents 1. Historical Review of Traffic Safety Measures in Japan 2. System for Collecting and Managing Traffic Accident Data 3. Measures to Enhance Motorcycle Safety 4. Summary 4th. AAI Summit, Sep. 2015, Chongqing 9

10 Accident Database in Japan Accident database Macro DB All the accidents resulting in injury or death which occur in Japan (0.7 million accidents per year) Micro DB In-depth accident DB (300 accidents per year) Maintenance of databases The two kinds of databases are maintained by the Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis (ITARDA) established by the National Police Agency (NPA) and the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). ITARDA also conducts in-depth accident investigations. 4th. AAI Summit, Sep. 2015, Chongqing 10

11 Macro DB in Japan National accident data Drivers' license data Vehicle registration data Road traffic census data by National Police Agency by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Macro DB 4th. AAI Summit, Sep. 2015, Chongqing 11

12 National Accident Data Collection of accident data started collection and coding of accident data based on the "Original Report Form for Accident Statistics" from 1966 Original report form for accident statistics Purpose: to collect information necessary to investigate the causes of accidents Main investigation items: date and time of accident, day or night, weather location type (urban or not), road type, traffic lights, road width detailed type of accident age, gender, occupation type of vehicle, seatbelt/helmet use causes of accident, type of violation, drinking driving, speed of vehicles level of injury, primarily injured body part, vehicle part inflicting injury 4th. AAI Summit, Sep. 2015, Chongqing 12

13 Original Report Form for Accident Statistics - a part of the form - (previous version, 1975) date and time of accident type of vehicle detailed type of accident type of accident code number primarily injured body part level of injury seatbelt / helmet use Source: IATSS Review Vol. 2, No. 4, th. AAI Summit, Sep. 2015, Chongqing 13

14 National Accident Data Collection System Local Police Station accident investigation information call investigation Local Police Headquarters National Police Agency (NPA) National accident data is managed by the NPA Accident 4th. AAI Summit, Sep. 2015, Chongqing 14

15 Contents 1. Historical Review of Traffic Safety Measures in Japan 2. System for Collecting and Managing Traffic Accident Data 3. Measures to Enhance Motorcycle Safety 4. Summary 4th. AAI Summit, Sep. 2015, Chongqing 15

16 Safety Educational Programs for Motorcycle Users Driver license system of Japan Training to obtain a driver's license (driving school) - learn traffic rules and driving skills Re-educating during driver's license renewal - awareness of social responsibility as a driver - improvement of awareness of traffic safety and driving manners of drivers 4th. AAI Summit, Sep. 2015, Chongqing 16

17 Safety Educational Programs for Motorcycle Users Driver license system of Japan (cont.) Introduction of training program for novice moped (motorcycle up to 0.05 L) drivers Licensing requirement Before paper test only Since take a driver training program before/after passing the paper test Fatalities Fatalities caused by novice moped drivers * training program (1992) Year * less than a year after getting license Source: IATSS Review Vol. 31, No. 2, th. AAI Summit, Sep. 2015, Chongqing 17

18 Safety Equipment on Vehicles Active safety Daytime running lamp - enforced in 1998 ABS (anti-lock brake system) - enforced from 2018 to motorcycle over 0.05 L Passive safety Airbag An effective means to enhance the safety of all motorcycles has not been established yet. the only motorcycle model equipped with an airbag in Japan Source: Honda Motor Co., Ltd Website 4th. AAI Summit, Sep. 2015, Chongqing 18

19 Effect of Helmet Use Fatalities due to head injuries 1, Helmet wearing rate Fatalities due to head injuries 98.7 % Helmet wearing rate in casualties (%) Fatality rate (%) roughly 5 times 0.8 % Wearing helmet % Not-wearing helmet Year Note: Fatality rate = deaths/casualties Source: National Police Agency and ITARDA The helmet wearing rate in Japan is very high, and the rate has been increasing under the law of helmet use. The fatality rate when not wearing a helmet is much higher than that of when wearing a helmet, which indicates the importance of wearing helmets. 4th. AAI Summit, Sep. 2015, Chongqing 19

20 Traffic Offences under Road Traffic Act Penalties against traffic offences Administrative penalty (traffic penalty point system) Criminal penalty Minor offences: fine (traffic offence payment) Serious offences (drink-driving, speeding (30 km/h or more, general road), driving without a license, etc.) : imprisonment or fine Traffic penalty point system A certain number of points are established according to the nature of the traffic offence. The total points accumulated within 3 years shall constitute the criterion for determining suspension or revocation of the driver's license so as to eliminate dangerous driving. e.g.) In case the driver has not had his license suspended/revoked in the past: - Accumulated points 6-14: suspension of the driver s license (30 90 days) - Accumulated points 15 or more: revocation 4th. AAI Summit, Sep. 2015, Chongqing 20

21 Points and Fine by Traffic Offences Minor offences (an example) Speeding Traffic offences km/h (Expressway) km/h (Expressway) Points Traffic violation payment (*10 3 yen) Motorcycle Motorcycle up to 0.05 L km/h km/h km/h less 15 km/h Disregard for traffic signals Red etc Failure to stop in designated places Exceeding load limits 100 % or more Not-wearing helmet th. AAI Summit, Sep. 2015, Chongqing 21

22 Points and Fine by Traffic Offences Serious offences (an example) Traffic offences Points Imprisonment or fine Motorcycle Motorcycle up to 0.05 L Drunk driving 35 a a Driving under the influence of alcohol 0.25 mg/l or more 25 b b mg/l 13 b b Driving without a license 25 c c Speeding 50 km/h or more 12 d d km/h (General road) km/h (Expressway) 6 d d 6 d d a) imprisonment not exceeding 5 years or a fine not exceeding 1,000,000 yen b) imprisonment not exceeding 3 years or a fine not exceeding 500,000 yen c) imprisonment not exceeding 1 year or a fine not exceeding 300,000 yen d) imprisonment not exceeding 6 months or a fine not exceeding 100,000 yen 4th. AAI Summit, Sep. 2015, Chongqing 22

23 Contents 1. Historical Review of Traffic Safety Measures in Japan 2. System for Collecting and Managing Traffic Accident Data 3. Measures to Enhance Motorcycle Safety 4. Summary 4th. AAI Summit, Sep. 2015, Chongqing 23

24 Summary It is necessary to consider safety measures from the viewpoint of human factors, vehicle factors and road environments. Reliable and accurate road accident data are the basis for effective road safety measures. Effective measures for reducing motorcycle accidents are: Wearing a helmet Education for novice drivers Penalties against traffic offences (enforcement) 4th. AAI Summit, Sep. 2015, Chongqing 24

25 Thank you for your attention. Yuji Arai mailto: Tel: th. AAI Summit, Sep. 2015, Chongqing 25

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