1 Professor Julie Hall Napa Valley College Flex Day Fall 2012
2 Practical Steps & Strategies to Engage Students in Critical Reflective Thinking Samples of Reflective Prompts & Question Stems for Bloom s Taxonomy Practical Exercises Idea Sheet One-Minute Paper Think-Pair Share Mind Map
4 Some people study all their life and at their death they have learned everything except to THINK Francois Domergue Why?
5 As an instructor, how do you know that learning has occurred? Use Idea Sheet to take notes for End-of- Session Mind Map Team Activity
6 1. Do you want your students to do more in class than recite facts and state opinions? 2. Is it important for you that your students demonstrate an ability to think through important course concepts? 3. Why is Critical Thinking Important? 4. What are some of the attributes of Critical Thinking? 5. Does Critical Thinking Occur Naturally in Adults?
7 1. Memorizing IS NOT learning! (Rusten & Schuman, Slideshare May 2, 2012) 2.To learn is to think! 3.To think poorly is to learn poorly! 4.Being open minded is considerate, not myopic! 5.CT helps to question own belief systems! 6.To think well is to learn well!
8 Defining Critical Thinking Some Attributes of a Critical Thinker: Asking pertinent questions Admits a lack of knowledge & understanding Seeks proof Curiosity Seeks new solutions Seeks evidence to support assumptions and beliefs Seeks clarity and exactness Careful and active observer Distinguishes between facts and opinion Problem solver Actively shares new knowledge Evaluates statements & arguments Willing to examine beliefs, assumptions & opinions Sees critical thinking as a life-long process of self-assessment Reflective Accepts others beliefs and opinions Actively enjoys learning Open to changing ones mind Waits till all facts before making judgments Humility
9 Not necessarily Adults may experience something that prompts reflective thinking loss of a job, a marriage, divorce, new career evaluate one s life Events can prompt reflection and introspection It is necessarily thinking in a critically reflective manner about the adult s beliefs that does not occur naturally or in a classroom learning process. (Johnson 2012)
10 Critical Thinking is a process of students utilizing logic and reasoning when interacting with information. Done through practicing techniques to think critically. Focused thinking. Higher-Order Thinking & Cognitive Development Critical Reflection is a method of examining assumptions that adult students possess and then questioning those beliefs. Done through Introducing, Engaging, Coaching, and Encouraging Students to think critically! Higher-Order Thinking & Cognitive Development
11 High quality thinking comes with routine practice in internalizing and applying theoretical structures (2008, p. 33) Students need routine practice Internalizing concepts Applying concepts Evaluating their work
12 No. Adults must learn about these concepts processes first, then implement through practice. Adults may not be familiar with methods to examine their belief systems in a critically reflective manner unless they have been prompted to use these skills.
13 1. Clearly defined Student Learning Outcomes (SLOs) with higher level Bloom s Taxonomy goals 2. Design the Reflection Activities to Achieve SLOs 3. Engage Students in Reflection 4. Assess Learning through Critical Reflection (Jacoby in Bart, Faculty Focus, May 11, 2011)
14 Benjamin Bloom, 1956 Anderson & Krathwohld, 2001
16 In-Class & Online Discussions Role Playing & Group Activities Individual Journaling Private Chats Think-Pair-Share Real-World Articles/Cases Reflective Writing Exercises Letters to Successors--how to survive the class One-Minute Paper Math- Conduct experiment/survey using statistics Personal Goal Statement Mind Maps
18 Ok. Thanks everyone! Contact me with questions... See you next week! Dead end comments! How about the What, So What, Now What? Closing? Encourages students to think more complexly, bigger! Begin with the end in mind! What do I want learners to DO with what they have learned today AFTER class?
19 Evokes critical reflection Any discipline Example: What did I learn? So, what does it mean for me? What does it mean to me in the context of other learning done in this class or other classes? Now, what am I going to do about (or with) what I have learned or experienced? Work BACKWARDS to evoke answers to questions!
20 CATS (Classroom Assessment Techniques) by Angelo & Cross (1993). Ongoing assessments and reflections to monitor critical thinking. Examples: What was the most important thing you learned in today s class? What one question related to this lesson remains uppermost in your mind? How is what you learned today relevant to other classes of life outside of school?
21 Structured groups to foster critical thinking Structured question stems to evoke critical reflection Examples: Clear-cut Prompts Role Playing & Group Activities- Take sides Think-Pair-Share- Debate an issue Team Article and Case Analyses- Don t provide all of the answers! Let them think e.g., pros/cons
22 Formative- Assess prior to and during class Traditional M/C, T/F, Essays Pre-tests Scavenger Hunts Think-Pair-Share Guided Reflections- Aha! Moments One-Minute Papers Clickers Summative- Assess at end of class or specific instruction Traditional M/C, T/F, Essays Post-tests Letters to Successors Guided Reflection/Debrief Portfolios End-of-Course Surveys
23 Carefully crafted assignments Guided Prompts Proper Scaffolding Examples: Analyzing an Article Analyzing a Visual Image, Movie, or Art Object Blue-Sky questions, such as What are your goals for this class this semester? What do you plan to do with the information you learn in this class?
24 Extended learning questions, such as create, evaluate, and analyze...versus lower-level questions. Create: Can you create new and unusual uses for? Can you design a to? Evaluate: Do you agree with? Prioritize. How would you decide about? Analyze: Classify according to. What solutions would you suggest for? Outline/diagram. (See Handout WCPSS AG Program )
25 Conceiçāo and Lehman (2010) contend those online instructors who assign reflective practice activities may be viewed as being there (p. 1) or present in the online learning environment to guide and transform students learning experiences (Marchi & Ciceri, 2011). Yet, all content to be learned must be intellectually constructed!
26 Reflective learning is based on an appreciative reflection (Marchi & Ciceri 2011) Adult learning is enhanced when instructors help learners develop critical thinking and critical reflection skills (Johnson 2012) It may not be a straight-forward, tidy student exercise Scaffolds help! Can lead to broader discussions
27 Write Theme in Center of horizontally aligned paper with no boundaries. Need markers, poster board, masking tape, your brain, creativity, a sense of fun!
28 Angelo T. A., & Cross, K. P. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers. (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Anderson, L. W., & Krathwold, R. (eds.) (2001). A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Retrieved from Bloom, B. S. (ed.) (1956) Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, the classification of educational goals Handbook I: Cognitive Domain. New York, NY: McKay. Hall, J. (2011). Is my instructor there for me? A Study of reflective practice and students perceptions of online teaching presence. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Capella University/Minneapolis, MN. Johnson, B. A. (2012). The benefits of critical reflection and critical thinking. Retrieved from
29 Marchi, S., & Ciceri, E. (2011). Login and logout: Practices of resistance and presence in virtual environments as a kind of reflective learning activity, Reflective Practice, 12(2), doi: / Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2008, Fall). Critical thinking: Strategies for improving student learning. Journal of Developmental Education, 32(1), 32-33). Rusten & Schuman, Slideshare May 2, 2012
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