1 Relevant Costs for Decision Making Identifying Relevant Costs A relevant cost is a cost that differs between alternatives. An avoidable cost can be eliminated, in whole or in part, by choosing one alternative over another. Avoidable costs are relevant costs. Unavoidable costs are irrelevant costs. Two broad categories of costs are never relevant in any decision. They include: Sunk k costs. Future costs that do not differ between the alternatives.
2 Identifying Relevant Costs Cynthia, a Boston student, is considering visiting her friend in New York. She can drive or take the train. By car, it is 230 miles to her friend s apartment. She is trying to decide which alternative is less expensive and has gathered the following information: Automobile Costs (based on 10,000 miles driven per year) Annual Cost Cost per of Fixed Items Mile 1 Annual straight-line depreciation on car $ 2,800 $ Cost of gasoline Annual cost of auto insurance and license , Maintenance and repairs Parking fees at school Total average cost $ $45 per month 8 months $1.60 per gallon 32 MPG $18,000 cost $4,000 salvage value 5 years Identifying Relevant Costs Automobile Costs (based on 10,000 miles driven per year) Annual Cost Cost per of Fixed Items Mile 1 Annual straight-line depreciation on car $ 2,800 $ Cost of gasoline Annual cost of auto insurance and license 1, Maintenance and repairs Parking fees at school Total average cost $ Some Additional Information 7 Reduction in resale value of car per mile of wear $ Round-tip train fare $ Benefits of relaxing on train trip???? 10 Cost of putting dog in kennel while gone $ Benefit of having car in New York???? 12 Hassle of parking car in New York???? 13 Per day cost of parking car in New York $ 25
3 Identifying Relevant Costs Which costs and benefits are relevant in Cynthia s decision? i The cost of the car is a sunk cost and is not relevant to the current decision. The annual al cost of insurance is not relevant. It will remain the same if she drives or takes the train. However, the cost of gasoline is clearly relevant if she decides to drive. If she takes the train, the cost would not be incurred, so it varies depending on the decision. Identifying Relevant Costs Which costs and benefits are relevant in Cynthia s decision? The cost of maintenance and repairs is relevant. In the long-run these costs depend upon miles driven. The monthly school parking fee is not relevant because it must be paid if Cynthia drives or takes the train. At this point, we can see that some of the average cost of $0.569 per mile are relevant and others are not.
4 Identifying Relevant Costs Which costs and benefits are relevant in Cynthia s decision? The decline in resale value due to additional miles is a relevant cost. Relaxing on the train is relevant even though it is difficult to assign a dollar value to the benefit. The round-trip train fare is clearly relevant. If she drives the cost can be avoided. The kennel cost is not relevant because Cynthia will incur the cost if she drives or takes the train. Identifying Relevant Costs Which costs and benefits are relevant in Cynthia s decision? The cost of parking is relevant because it can be avoided if she takes the train. The benefits of having a car in New York and the problems of finding a parking space are both relevant but are difficult to assign a dollar amount.
5 Identifying Relevant Costs From a financial standpoint, Cynthia would be better off taking the train to visit her friend. Some of the nonfinancial factors may influence her final decision. Relevant Financial Cost of Driving Gasoline $ per mile) $ Maintenance $0.065 per mile) Reduction in resale $0.026 per mile) Parking in New York (2 $25 per day) Total $ Relevant Financial Cost of Taking the Train Round-trip ticket $ Total and Differential Cost Approaches The management of a company is considering a new labor saving machine that rents for $3,000 per year. Data about the company s annual sales and costs with and without the new machine are: Situation Differential Current Situation With New Machine Costs and Benefits Sales (5,000 $40 per unit) $ 200,000 $ 200,000 - Less variable expenses: Direct materials (5,000 $14 per unit) 70,000 70,000 - Direct labor (5,000 $8 and $5 per unit) 40,000 25,000 15,000 Variable overhead (5,000 $2 per unit) 10, , Total variable expenses 120, ,000 - Contribution margin 80,000 95,000 15,000 Less fixed expense: Other 62,000 62,000 - Rent on new machine - 3,000 (3,000) Total fixed expenses 62,000 65,000 (3,000) Net operating income $ 18,000 $ 30, ,000
6 Total and Differential Cost Approaches As you can see, the only costs that differ between the alternatives are the direct labor costs savings and the increase in fixed rental costs. Current Situation Situation With New Machine Differential Costs and Benefits Sales (5,000 $40 per unit) $ 200,000 $ 200,000 - Less variable expenses: Direct materials (5,000 $14 per unit) 70,000 70,000 - Direct labor (5,000 $8 and $5 per unit) 40,000 25,000 15,000 Variable overhead (5,000 $2 per unit) 10, , Total variable expenses 120, ,000 - Contribution margin 80,000 95,000 15,000 Less fixed expense: Other 62,000 62,000 - Rent on new machine - 3,000 (3,000) Total fixed expenses 62,000 65,000 (3,000) Net operating income $ 18,000 $ 30,000 12,000 We can efficiently analyze the decision by looking at the different costs and revenues and arrive at the same solution. NtAd Net Advantage to Renting the New Machine Decrease in direct labor costs (5,000 $3 per unit) $ 15,000 Increase in fixed rental expenses (3,000) Net annual cost saving from renting the new machine $ 12,000 Total and Differential Cost Approaches Using the differential approach is desirable for two reasons: 1. Only rarely will enough information be available to prepare detailed income statements for both alternatives. 2. Mingling irrelevant costs with relevant costs may cause confusion and distract attention away from the information that is really critical.
7 Decision 1: Drop or retain a product line? Adding/Dropping Segments Due to the declining popularity of digital watches, Lovell Company s digital watch line has not reported a profit for several years. Lovell is considering dropping this product line.
8 A Contribution Margin Approach DECISION RULE Lovell should drop the digital watch segment only if its profit would increase. This would only happen if the fixed cost savings exceed the lost contribution margin. Adding/Dropping Segments Segment Income Statement Digital it Watches Sales $ 500,000 Less: variable expenses Variable manufacturing costs $ 120,000 Variable shipping costs 5,000 Commissions 75, ,000 Contribution margin $ 300,000 Less: fixed expenses FMOH $ 60, Salary of line manager 90,000 Depreciation of equipment 50,000 Advertising - direct 100,000 Rent - factory space 70,000 General admin. expenses 30, ,000 Net operating loss $ (100,000)
9 Adding/Dropping Segments Segment Income Statement Digital Watches Sales $ 500,000 Less: Investigation variable has expenses revealed that total FMOH and general Variable manufacuring costs $ 120, administrative expenses would not be affected if the Variable shipping costs 5,000 digital Commissions watch line is dropped. The FMOH 75,000 and general 200,000 Contribution administrative margin expenses assigned to this product $ 300,000 would Less: fixed expenses be reallocated to other product lines. General factory overhead $ 60, Salary of line manager 90,000 Depreciation of equipment 50,000 Advertising i - direct 100, Rent - factory space 70,000 General admin. expenses 30, ,000 Net operating loss $ (100,000) Adding/Dropping Segments Segment Income Statement Digital Watches Sales $ 500,000 Less: variable expenses The Variable equipment manufacturing used costs to manufacture $ 120, Variable shipping costs 5,000 digital watches has no resale Commissions 75, ,000 Contribution value margin or alternative use. $ 300,000 Less: fixed expenses General factory overhead $ 60,000 Salary of line manager 90,000 Depreciation of equipment 50,000 - i Rent - factory space the digital watch 70,000 segment? General admin. expenses 30, ,000 Net operating loss $ (100,000) 000)
10 A Contribution Margin Approach Contribution Margin Solution Contribution margin lost if digital watches are dropped $ (300,000) 000) Less fixed costs that can be avoided Salary of the line manager $ 90,000 Advertising i - direct 100, Rent - factory space 70, ,000 Net disadvantage $ (40,000) Decision: Retain Decision 2: Make or Buy? Produce in-house or outsource?
11 The Make or Buy Decision: An Example Essex Company manufactures part 4A that is used in one of its products. The unit product cost of this part is: Direct materials $ 9 Direct labor 5 Variable overhead 1 Depreciation of special equip. 3 Supervisor's s salary 2 General factory overhead 10 Unit product cost $ 30 The Make or Buy Decision The special equipment used to manufacture part 4A has no resale value. The total amount of general factory overhead, which is allocated on the basis of direct labor hours, would be unaffected by this decision. The $30 unit product cost is based on 20,000 parts produced each year. An outside supplier has offered to provide the 20,000 parts at a cost of $25 per part. Should we accept the supplier s offer?
12 The Make or Buy Decision Cost Per Unit Cost of 20, Units Make Buy Outside purchase price $ 25 $ 500,000 Direct materials $ 9 180,000 Direct labor 5 100, Variable overhead 1 20,000 Depreciation of equip. 3 - Supervisor's salary 2 40, General factory overhead 10 - Total cost $ 30 $ 340,000 $ 500,000 20,000 $9 per unit = $180,000 The Make or Buy Decision Cost Per Unit Cost of 20, Units Make Buy Outside purchase price $ 25 $ 500,000 Direct materials $ 9 180,000 Direct labor 5 100, Variable overhead 1 20,000 Depreciation of equip. 3 - Supervisor's salary 2 40, General factory overhead 10 - Total cost $ 30 $ 340,000 $ 500,000 The special equipment has no resale value and is a sunk cost.
13 The Make or Buy Decision Cost Per Unit Cost of 20, Units Make Buy Outside purchase price $ 25 $ 500,000 Direct materials $ 9 180,000 Direct labor 5 100, Variable overhead 1 20,000 Depreciation of equip. 3 - Supervisor's salary 2 40, General factory overhead 10 - Total cost $ 30 $ 340,000 $ 500,000 Not avoidable; irrelevant. If the product is dropped, it will be reallocated to other products. The Make or Buy Decision Cost Per Unit Cost of 20, Units Make Buy Outside purchase price $ 25 $ 500,000 Direct materials $ 9 180,000 Direct labor 5 100, Variable overhead 1 20,000 Depreciation of equip. 3 - Supervisor's salary 2 40, General factory overhead 10 - Total cost $ 30 $ 340,000 $ 500,000 Should we make or buy part 4A?
14 Opportunity Cost An opportunity cost is the benefit that is foregone as a result of pursuing some course of action. Opportunity costs are not actual dollar outlays and are not recorded in the formal accounts of an organization. How would this concept potentially relate to the Essex Company? Decision 3: Accept or reject a special order?
15 Special Orders Jet, Inc. makes a single product whose normal selling price is $20 per unit. A foreign distributor offers to purchase 3,000 units for $10 per unit. This is a one-time order that would not affect the company s regular business. Annual capacity is 10, units, but Jet, Inc. is currently producing and selling only 5,000 units. Should Jet accept the offer? Special Orders Jet, Inc. Contribution Income Statement Revenue (5,000 $20) $ 100,000 Variable costs: Direct materials $ 20,000 Direct labor 5,000 Manufacturing overhead 10,000$8000$8 variable cost Marketing costs 5,000 Total variable costs 40,000 Contribution margin 60,000 Fixed costs: Manufacturing overhead $ 28,000 Marketing costs 20,000 Total fixed costs 48,000 Net operating income $ 12,000
16 Special Orders If Jet accepts the offer, net operating income will increase by $6,000. Increase in revenue (3,000 $10) $ 30,000 Increase in costs (3,000 $8 variable cost) 24,000 Increase in net income $ 6,000 Note: This answer assumes that fixed costs are unaffected by the order and that variable marketing costs must be incurred on the special order. Decision 4: Knowing that t we have a bottleneck, should we be emphasizing Product 1 or Product 2?
17 Utilization of a Constrained Resource When a constraint exists, a company should select a product mix that maximizes the total contribution margin earned since fixed costs usually remain unchanged. A company should not necessarily promote those products that have the highest unit contribution margin. Rather, it should promote those products that earn the highest contribution margin in relation to the constraining resource. Utilization of a Constrained Resource: An Example Ensign Company produces two products and selected data are shown below: Product 1 2 Selling price per unit $ 60 $ 50 Less variable expenses per unit Contribution margin per unit $ 24 $ 15 Current demand per week (units) 2,000 2,200 Contribution margin ratio 40% 30% Processing time required on machine A1 per unit 1.00 min min.
18 Utilization of a Constrained Resource Machine A1 is the constrained resource and is being used at 100% of its capacity. There is excess capacity on all other machines. Machine A1 has a capacity of 2,400 minutes per week. Should Ensign focus its efforts on Product 1 or Product 2? Utilization of a Constrained Resource The key is the contribution margin per unit of the constrained resource. Product 1 2 Contribution margin per unit $ 24 $ 15 Time required to produce one unit 1.00 min min. Contribution margin per minute $ 24 $ 30 Product 2 should be emphasized. Provides more valuable use of the constrained resource machine A1, yielding a contribution margin of $30 per minute as opposed to $24 for Product 1.
19 Utilization of a Constrained Resource The key is the contribution margin per unit of the constrained resource. Product 1 2 Contribution margin per unit $ 24 $ 15 Time required to produce one unit 1.00 min min. Contribution margin per minute $ 24 $ 30 If there are no other considerations, the best plan would be to produce to meet current demand for Product 2 and then use remaining capacity to make Product 1. Utilization of a Constrained Resource Let s see how this plan would work. Alloting Our Constrained Resource (Machine A1) Weekly demand for Product 2 2,200 units Time required per unit 0.50 min. Total time required to make Product 2 1,100 min.
20 Utilization of a Constrained Resource Let s see how this plan would work. Alloting Our Constrained Resource (Machine A1) Weekly demand for Product 2 2,200 units Time required per unit 0.50 min. Total time required to make Product 2 1,100 min. Total time available 2,400 min. Time used to make Product 2 1,100 min. Time available for Product ,300 min. Utilization of a Constrained Resource Alloting Our Constrained Resource (Machine A1) Weekly demand for Product 2 2,200 units Time required per unit 0.50 min. Total time required to make Product 2 1,100 min. Total time available 2,400 min. Time used to make Product 2 1,100 min. Time available for Product ,300 min. Time required per unit 1.00 min. Production of Product 1 1,300 units
21 Utilization of a Constrained Resource According to the plan, we will produce 2,200 units of Product 2 and 1,300 of Product 1. Our contribution margin looks like this. Product 1 Product 2 Production and sales (units) 1,300 2,200 Contribution margin per unit $ 24 $ 15 Total contribution margin $ 31,200 $ 33,000 The total contribution margin for Ensign is $64,200. Managing Constraints Finding ways to process more units through a resource bottleneck At the bottleneck itself: Improve the process Add overtime or another shift Hire new workers or acquire more machines Subcontract production Reduce amount of defective units produced Add workers transferred from non-bottleneck departments
22 Decision 5: Should a joint product be sold at the split-off point or processed further? Joint Costs In some industries, a number of end products are produced from a single raw material input. Two or more products produced from a common input are called joint products. The point in the manufacturing process where each joint product can be recognized as a separate product is called the split-off point.
23 Joint Products Oil Joint I t Common Production Gasoline Input Production Process Gasoline Chemicals Split Split-Off Off Point Point Point Point Joint Products Joint Joint Separate Processing Final Sale Joint Joint Costs Costs Oil Final S l Joint I t Common Production Gasoline Sale Input Production Process Gasoline Separate Processing Final Sale Chemicals Separate Separate Product Product Split Split-Off Off Point Point Product Product Costs Costs Point Point
24 The Pitfalls of Allocation Joint costs are often allocated to end products on the basis of the relative sales value of each product or on some other basis. Although allocation is needed for some purposes such as balance sheet inventory valuation, allocations of this kind are very dangerous for decision making. Sell or Process Further Joint costs are irrelevant in decisions regarding what to do with a product from the split-off point forward. It will always be profitable to continue processing a joint product after the split-off point so long as the incremental revenue exceeds the incremental processing costs incurred after the split-off point.
25 Sell or Process Further: An Example Sawmill, Inc. cuts logs from which unfinished lumber and sawdust are the immediate joint products. Unfinished lumber is sold as is or processed further into finished lumber. Sawdust can also be sold as is to gardening wholesalers or processed further into presto-logs. Sell or Process Further Data about Sawmill s joint products includes: Per Log Lumber Sawdust Sales value at the split-off point $ 140 $ 40 Sales value after further processing Allocated joint product costs Cost of further processing 50 20
26 Sell or Process Further Analysis of Sell or Process Further Lumber Per Log Sawdust Sales value after further processing $ 270 $ 50 Sales value at the split-off point Incremental revenue Sell or Process Further Analysis of Sell or Process Further Per Log Lumber Sawdust Sales value after further processing $ 270 $ 50 Sales value at the split-off point Incremental revenue Cost of further processing Profit (loss) from further processing $ 80 $ (10)
27 Sell or Process Further Analysis of Sell or Process Further Per Log Lumber Sawdust Sales value after further processing $ 270 $ 50 Sales value at the split-off point Incremental revenue Cost of further processing Profit (loss) from further processing $ 80 $ (10) We should process the lumber further and sell the sawdust as is.
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