LA/VENTURA REGION ITS STRATEGIC DEPLOYMENT PLAN TABLE OF CONTENTS

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2 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Purpose Background Methodology Development of the LA/Ventura Region ITS Strategic Deployment Plan Supporting Documents Additional Supporting Documents Strategic Plan Elements Plan Stakeholders Project Consultants ITS Vision 2.1 Purpose Vision Statement Priority Corridor Vision Showcase Vision Vision Statement Elements Needs Assessment 3.1 Purpose Needs Assessment Methodology Priority Transportation Problems ITS Deployment Issues Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Issues Interoperability Issues Standards Development Issues Procurement and Contracting Issues Education/Demonstration of Benefits and Training Grass Roots Public and Political Support Air Quality Issues User Service Prioritization 4.1 Purpose Definition of a User Service User Service Prioritization Applicability of User Services i

3 TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED) 5.0 Market Package Prioritization 5.1 Purpose Definition of Market Packages User Service / Market Package Relationship Prioritization Process Near Term Market Packages Medium Term Market Packages Long Term Market Packages Analysis of Priority Market Packages Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS) Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO) Emergency Management Services (EMS) ITS Planning System Architecture 6.1 Purpose Definition of a System Architecture The System Use Case Diagram City Agency Actor County Agency Actor Motorist Actor Private Business Actor State Agency Actor Traveler Actor VAR Actor City TMC Use Case Common Access/Control Use Case Corridor Coordination Use Case County TMC Use Case CVO Use Case Dissemination Devices Use Case Emergency Management Use Case Freeway ATMS Use Case Freeway Devices Use Case GPS Vehicle Use Case Highway Signals Use Case Joint Incident Management Use Case Local ATIS Use Case ii

4 TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED) Local ATrMS Use Case Rail Coordination Use Case Regional ATIS Use Case Regional ATrMS Use Case Shared Operations Use Case State Signal Coordination Use Case State TMC Use Case Street Devices Use Case Street Signals Use Case Traffic Probe Use Case Project Areas 7.1 Purpose Call For Projects Process Definition of Project Areas Project Area 1.0 Advanced Traffic Management Systems Project 1.1 ATMS Infrastructure Project 1.2 ATMS System Integration Project 1.3 ATMS Regional Integration Project Area 2.0 Advanced Public Transit Systems Project 2.1 APTS Infrastructure Project 2.2 APTS System Integration Project 2.3 APTS Regional Integration Project Area 3.0 Advanced Traveler Information Systems Project 3.1 ATIS Infrastructure Project 3.2 ATIS System Integration Project 3.3 ATIS Regional Integration Project Area 4.0 Commercial Vehicle Operations Project Area 5.0 Emergency Management Systems Deployment Element 8.1 Purpose Deployment Concept and Implementation Regional Deployment Concept and Suggested Process Suggested Deployment Timeline Operational Strategy Objective Concept of Operations Regional Applications Pros and Cons Mapping Regional Projects to Levels of Operation iii

5 TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED) Issues Strategies Developing a Memorandum of Understanding Contracting and Procurement Alternatives Procurement Options Recommended Procurement Approaches Funding Element 9.1 Purpose Funding Element Overview Funding is the Outcome of Strategy Execution Longer Term Strategic Positioning Opportunities Recommendations for Strategic Positioning Future ISTEA Reauthorizations Relating the Project to National, State and Regional Goals SCAG s Regional Transportation Plan (RTP) County Level Long Range Plans The State of California s Statewide Transportation Plan The California Transportation Commission s Annual Report to the Legislature State Transportation Improvement Plan (STIP) Public Private Partnerships Private Sector Opportunities Private Sector Motivation Types of Partnerships Summary LA/Ventura Region Funding Process Introduction Local Level Regional Level State Level Federal Level Management Element 10.1 Purpose Continuing Plan Sponsorship Plan Deployment Support Qualities and Role of a Deployment Champion Arenas of Deployment Champion Involvement Suggested Procedures and Policies iv

6 TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED) Suggested Procedures Suggested Policies A Addendum Table of Additional Projects...A-1 B List of Acronyms/Glossary... G-1 v

7 LIST OF TABLES 1.1 Description of Strategic Plan Sections Priority Transportation Needs Market Package Categories Mapping of Market Package to User Services Market Package Effectiveness Evaluation Near Term Market Packages Medium Term Market Packages Long Term Market Packages Influences on Near Term ATMS Deployment Influences on Near Term APTS Deployment Influences on Near Term ATIS Deployment Influences on Near Term CVO Deployment Influences on Near Term Emergency Management Services Deployment Influences on Near Term ITS Planning Deployment LA/Ventura Region Strategic Plan System Architecture Relationships With Other Architectures Classification of Projects Regional ATMS Infrastructure Implementation Time Frame Subregional ATMS Infrastructure Implementation Time Frame Caltrans Regional ATMS Infrastructure Projects Los Angeles County ATMS Regional Infrastructure Projects Ventura County ATMS Regional Infrastructure Projects LACMTA ATMS Regional Infrastructure Projects City of Los Angeles ATMS Subregional Infrastructure Projects North Los Angeles County ATMS Subregional Infrastructure Projects Arroyo Verdugo ATMS Subregional Infrastructure Projects East San Gabriel Valley ATMS Subregional Infrastructure Projects Pomona Valley ATMS Subregional Infrastructure Projects Gateway Cities ATMS Subregional Infrastructure Projects South Bay ATMS Subregional Infrastructure Projects West San Gabriel Valley ATMS Subregional Infrastructure Projects Western Region ATMS Subregional Infrastructure Projects Regional ATMS System Integration Implementation Time Frame Subregional ATMS System Integration Implementation Time Frame Caltrans ATMS Regional System Integration Projects Caltrans ATMS Regional System Integration Projects LACMTA ATMS Regional System Integration Projects City of Los Angeles ATMS Subregional System Integration Projects Arroyo Verdugo ATMS Subregional System Integration Projects vi

8 LIST OF TABLES (CONTINUED) 7.24 ATMS Regional Integration Implementation Time Frame ATMS Regional Integration Projects APTS Infrastructure Implementation Time Frame APTS Infrastructure Projects APTS System Integration Implementation Time Frame APTS System Integration Projects APTS Regional Integration Projects ATIS Implementation Time Frame ATIS Infrastructure Projects ATIS System Integration Projects ATIS Regional Integration Projects CVO Projects EMS Projects Deployment Timeframe Budget Distribution Advantages and Disadvantages of Showcase Operations Levels Levels of Initial Operation by Project Type Recommended Procurement Options Local Sources (Los Angeles County) Regional Sources State Sources Federal Funding Sources (TEA-21) TEA-21 ITS Specific Fund Sources High Priority Projects in TEA-21 Los Angeles and Ventura Region Final Staff Recommendation FY95/96-FY98/99 MTA Call-For-Projects vii

9 LIST OF FIGURES 1-1 LA/Ventura Region Map Regional Deployment Planning Structure FHWA ITS Planning Process LA/Ventura ITS Strategic Planning Vision Showcase Vision User Services and Bundles User Services Assignments Summary Near-Term User Services Mapping with Priority Needs Mid-Term User Services Mapping with Priority Needs Long-Term User Services Mapping with Priority Needs Project Areas and System Architectures LA/Ventura Region Use Case Diagram Common Access & Control: Device Sharing Corridor Coordination: Example Response Emergency Management: Emergency Control Rail Coordination: Crossing Regional Deployment of ITS Projects ATMS Project Classifications Implementation Elements for ATMS Deployment APTS Project Classifications Implementation Elements for APTS Deployment Regional Deployment Concept Suggested ITS System Deployment Process Deployment Timeframe Showcase Operational Models with LA/Ventura Recommendations SB45 Formula Roles for Deployment Champions Four Arenas of Deployment viii

10 DRAFT VERSION August, 1998 Findings of the Plan Transportation network stakeholders in the LA/Ventura Region were asked through a series of surveys, executive level interviews, and workshops to identify and prioritize the key regional transportation related problems, needs, and issues. Indicated priority problems included: 1 Roadway/Highway Safety 2 Commercial Vehicles Safety 3 Ports (Air & Sea) Ground Transportation 4 Roadway/Highway Congestion 5 Roadway/Highway Signal Coordination 6 Commercial Vehicles Hazardous Material Response 7 General Air Pollution 8 Roadway/Highway Travel Time 9 Transit Travel Time 10 Transit Safety/Security 11 Commercial Vehicles Safety Inspections 12 Interjurisdictional Cooperation 13 Emergency Response In addition to defining priority problems/needs areas, transportation stakeholders identified six critical issues in the deployment of ITS in the LA/Ventura Region. Operations and maintenance (O&M) Stakeholders identified O&M concerns as an often overlooked component of ITS deployment. In general, it was suggested that O&M costs be considered as part of the planning and preliminary design phases of ITS project deployments. Interoperability Many stakeholders stated their concerns of potentially losing control over their portions of the transportation network. It was suggested that an integrated operations policy be developed, and that educational efforts be undertaken both to show the benefits of integration and to allay fears of losing localized control. 1 The LA/Ventura Region ITS Strategic Deployment Plan is not meant to be inclusive of all ITS activities that will occur within the Region in the next twenty years. Instead, it is meant to serve as a framework for moving forward. Benefits of Intelligent Transportation Systems The most important reason to deploy ITS is the benefits it provides to the users of the transportation system. ITS deployments in the LA/Ventura Region and across the nation have already displayed measurable and significant benefits in: Traffic Management ITS has displayed benefits in the area of traffic management in terms of enhanced safety, increased average vehicle speeds, decreased travel times, decreased vehicle delay, swifter incident detection and verification, decreased incident duration, and numerous other areas. While the specific level of benefits achieved vary by specific area, benefits on the range of 15% reduction in travel times are not uncommon. The LA/Ventura Region is already making significant investments in ITS infrastructure. The Plan makes policy and funding suggestions for building upon these efforts. LA/VENTURA SUGGESTED ITS POLICIES Adoption of the LA/Ventura region and Showcase Corridor System Architectures LA/VENTURA should be encouraged ITS STRATEGIC to allow the exchange VISION of transportation related To use information intelligent between and advanced agencies. transportation technologies to: The increase inclusion mobility of and intermodal accessibility capabilities throughout should the region, be encouraged and supported in every regional ITS deployment effort. improve air quality, Agencies in the LA/Ventura region should be encouraged to work together use the existing infrastructure more efficiently and effectively to establish common ITS resources and systems. maximize the Federal, State and local funding opportunities Institutional arrangements and/or legal agreements should be encouraged for transportation improvements and sought where the joint deployment of an ITS project promotes economies by identifying, of scale, evaluating, avoids duplication and recommending of effort, and/or a promotes deployment integration among agencies. plan: Agencies to advance should available be encouraged and emerging to cooperate ITS Technologies at a local and subregional level to within establish a short, common medium and/or long seamless term integration transportation window operations across jurisdictional that satisfy local, boundaries. regional and intermodal transportation Needs Agencies while fostering should institutional be encouraged Partnerships, to integrate whether and establish Public/Public ITS elements or as part Public/Private, of all major necessary transportation to successfully projects, where implement, appropriate, operate, during and the maintain

11 Findings of the Plan (continued) EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Standards development - Some stakeholders indicated concern over the costs of establishing and maintaining systems standards. It was suggested that regional guidelines be established for setting and utilizing standards at the national, state, regional, and local level. Stakeholders also suggested that some agencies be assigned with the responsibility of assessing and maintaining regional and local standards. It is important to note that the new federal Transportation Equity Act (TEA21) requires conformity with the national architecture and standards, and that the broad application of standards tends to bring deployment costs down to a greater extent than the implementation of multiple proprietary systems over time. Procurement and contracting Stakeholders indicated that the existing contracting and procurement procedures utilized by public agencies are out of date and not always well suited to ITS deployment efforts. It was suggested that low-bid procurements not be utilized for ITS deployment efforts, and that a request for proposal approach be utilized instead. Education/demonstration of benefits and training needs - Stakeholders noted that greater education of public officials as to the value of ITS is needed, and that many agencies do not have staff fully trained in the operation of integrated management systems. It was suggested that regional education and training efforts be undertaken to fulfill these needs. Grass roots public and political support Stakeholders stated that information to the public on the benefits of ITS is limited. It was also noted that ITS, with many of its surveillance components, may seem like Big Brother to the general public. Stakeholders noted that efforts should be made to educate the general public on the benefits and purposes of ITS to gain public support and allay any fears. The LA/Ventura Region ITS Strategic Deployment Plan represents an opportunity for the LA/Ventura Region to work towards: More integrated and seamless transportation network, Network in which each agency and/or operator works together to achieve efficient operations without regard to arbitrary jurisdictional or departmental boundaries, Network in which sharing information, ideas, and control becomes more common than not, and most importantly Network that better meets the current and projected needs and demands of the traveling public. The LA/Ventura Region ITS Strategic Deployment Plan describes and categorizes over 125 potential ITS infrastructure and systems integration BENEFITS OF ITS (continued) Transit Management ITS has displayed visible benefits to transit managers and operators in terms of decreased operating costs, reduced reserve vehicle needs, enhanced on time performance, decreased transit travel times, and enhanced transit route planning/evaluation capabilities. Several Smart Shuttle and bus priority deployment efforts are already underway in the LA/Ventura Region. Traveler Information Management and Dissemination ITS improves the information available on the transportation network and at the same time provides for better methods of getting this information to the general public. The actual benefits of improved traveler information are easily defined in a qualitative manner, but are not so easily quantified. Commercial Vehicle Management Commercial vehicle operators have been deploying enhanced management and tracking capabilities into their container and vehicle fleets for years. The benefits of ITS to commercial vehicle operations have been tested in perhaps the toughest markets of all ones that are mostly profit driven. Emergency Services Management ITS can provide substantial benefits to emergency service managers and coordinators. Even some of the simplest ITS applications such as closed-circuit TV cameras, provide emergency services with a better understanding of the extent and type of incident from its earliest inception. ITS is leading towards better cooperation and integrated operations between emergency services and transportation services. With ITS the proper and timely response to incidents has improved. 2

12 Section Overview PLAN OVERVIEW O.1 PURPOSE OF THIS OVERVIEW The Los Angeles/Ventura Region Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Strategic Deployment Plan represents a comprehensive effort to define ITS deployment needs and issues for the LA/Ventura region over the next 20 years. The development of the Plan was a two-year effort involving a broad range of public and private transportation stakeholders from Los Angeles and Ventura Counties. As a part of this effort, a series of technical reports, an Early Action Plan, and this Strategic Deployment Plan have been developed. In recognition that many stakeholders may not have the time available to review the full Strategic Deployment Plan, this overview was developed to summarize many of the key points of the Plan. A very brief Executive Summary is also available which touches on the most important findings of the Plan. The Early Action Plan, available under separate cover, details three basic actions for a regional integration of systems effort which supports the projects defined in the Strategic Deployment Plan. Readers seeking more detailed information should review the Plan and the associated supporting technical reports as necessary. It is important to note that this Plan is a snapshot in time of existing and anticipated conditions, issues, needs, and priorities. It is not meant to be inclusive of all ITS related activities that are occurring or will occur in the region over the next 20 years. Instead, it is a framework for moving forward. O.2 BENEFITS OF INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS The primary purpose behind the development of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) is the benefits it can provide to the transportation network, as well as to the end users of that network, the general public. Intelligent Transportation System projects can be categorized into five major areas known as program areas. These include: Advanced Traffic Control/Traffic Management Systems (ATMS) Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) PAGE O-1

13 Commercial Vehicle Operations/Management Systems (CVO) Emergency Management Services (EMS) The general benefits of ITS deployment to each of the five major program areas are discussed below. O.2.1 Advanced Traffic Control/Traffic Management Systems (ATMS) The benefits associated with projects in this program area include: Reduction in travel time Improved safety (reduction in both number and severity of accidents) Reduction in fuel consumption Reduction in emissions Reduction in costs Traffic control/traffic management systems can reduce travel time by improving the flow of traffic through improved communications and control techniques. An example of this is the use of ramp meters on congested freeways. Safety improvements occur in management systems by controlling the conflict between different streams of traffic through improved control devices or by improving compliance with those devices. By reducing the number of accidents, the severity of accidents should also decrease. Improving the flow of traffic and reducing congestion will lead to a reduction in fuel consumption, and an improvement in local air quality. Cost reductions benefit both the system operators and the system users. By improving the traffic flow, a greater number of vehicles can travel a system in a shorter period of time. Users perceive that reducing the amount of time they spend traveling saves them actual dollars, and allows them more time in the day for activities other than traveling. O.2.2 Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) The benefits associated with projects in this program area include: Time savings Reduction in emissions Fuel savings Improved operations and maintenance More efficient vehicle use/purchase Time savings occur through the improvement of vehicle operation and overall operation of the transportation network. Emissions can be reduced by maximizing the operations of the PAGE O-2

14 fleet, providing transit when it is needed, and reducing service when and where it is not needed. Improving the transit system may also attract more riders, reducing the number of single-occupancy-vehicles on the road. A saving in fuel occurs by maximizing the operations of the transit fleet, and by attracting riders from private vehicles through improved service. Improved operations and maintenance includes having greater flexibility to increase or slightly alter service when incidents demand it, and by reducing maintenance costs to a fleet by tracking each vehicle. Improving vehicle use and purchase of new vehicles is another benefit of utilizing ITS for transit systems. By reducing travel time and maximizing service in all areas, an agency may be able to reduce the number of vehicles in the fleet, and purchase appropriate vehicles based on the existing and predicted future service demands. O.2.3 Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) The benefits associated with projects in this program area include: Reduction in travel time Savings in fuel Reduction in emissions Reduction in accidents Traveler information systems can reduce travel times by providing needed information to travelers in order for them to select the best route for each trip. By improving the travel time, there will be a reduction in fuel usage and a reduction in emissions. The information provided to travelers can also allow system users to avoid delays or unsafe conditions based on weather, roadway, or traffic conditions. O.2.4 Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO) The benefits associated with projects in this program area include: Reduction in travel time Reduction in accidents Reduction in costs Reduction in emissions Reduction in fuel usage Using ITS with commercial vehicle operations can reduce both actual travel time, and regulatory travel time (such as at weigh stations). By using electronic communications and automated monitoring tools, goods can be moved more efficiently and at a lower cost. PAGE O-3

15 Accidents can be reduced through ITS systems as well. The use of in-vehicle and roadside monitoring systems can help identify drivers and vehicles that are at a high risk for accidents. Additional reductions can result from improved traffic flow near regulatory stations that are a result of ITS technology. Costs can be reduced to both the regulators and the CVO industry by automating paperwork, improving employee productivity, and maximizing the use of facilities and equipment. Improved enforcement can also reduce maintenance costs to roadways and vehicles. As with all aspects of improving traffic flow, the use of ITS technologies with CVO can help reduce the amount of fuel consumption by, and emissions from, the commercial vehicles. O.2.5 Emergency Management Services (EMS) The benefits associated with projects in this program area include: Improvement in identifying, locating, and responding to incidents Reduction in delays due to incidents By automating incident detection and verification systems it is possible to reduce the time it takes to quickly identify the location of the accident and verify the type so that appropriate responses can be taken. By quickly and accurately responding to the incidents, delays can be reduced. O.2.6 Benefits of the ITS Strategic Deployment Plan The Los Angeles/Ventura Region Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Strategic Deployment Plan represents a concerted effort by the major transportation stakeholders in the region to enhance the management and information capabilities related to the transportation network, as well as to better coordinate and integrate these capabilities. For more than a decade, there has been growing recognition that the 1930 s vision of an efficient transportation network based on highways stretching from city to city is not enough. As a nation, we have accomplished an unprecedented roadway network. However, construction of this network did not bring efficiency for long. As travel demand has increased, the roadway network has become clogged and inefficient. The construction of the national roadway network was paralleled by advancements in management philosophy, information systems, and network technologies. While it has become apparent that we can no longer simply build ourselves out of the current and projected transportation problems, it has also become apparent that the opportunity to better manage the transportation network through improved information has arrived. Enhanced management capabilities are the key to achieving the previously mentioned benefits, and are the overarching goal of this Strategic Deployment Plan. In order to PAGE O-4

16 enhance our capabilities and better manage the transportation network, three crucial areas must be addressed. 1) Sensory/Communications Infrastructure The sensory and communications infrastructure in the transportation network must be comprehensive and consider how that network behaves. 2) Coordinated/Standardized Management Systems Deployment The deployment of management systems must be closely coordinated and standardized to the maximum extent possible in order to simplify the integration of information and management systems. 3) Integrated and Coordinated Operations Simply building information and management systems that talk to one another is not enough to reap the benefits of better management. The transportation network has developed much like any complex organization with different portions of the network being managed and controlled by different agencies and departments within agencies. On top of all the interlaced management structures are the users of the transportation network. The users do not readily recognize or even care about the complexities of operating and maintaining the network, they simply desire to use it to move from point A to B. With the growing ability to jointly manage the network, the managers and operators of the network must alter their behavior and standard operating procedures (SOP) to center around integrated operations. It is not enough that coordinated operations become a part of the way we do business on the transportation network. Day to day operations must eventually center around coordinated operations. The LA/Ventura Region ITS Strategic Deployment Plan is the first step towards addressing each of these three crucial areas at a regional level. Through the needs assessment and numerous infrastructure projects defined in this Plan, the major needs of the regional information systems infrastructure are addressed. The need for coordinated and standardized management systems deployments are recognized in the system architecture and the systems and regional integration projects defined in this Plan. Integrated and coordinated operations issues are outlined in the operational strategies and program management sections of this Plan. In addition, the Early Action Plan (available under separate cover) outlines specific actions for a regional integration of systems effort which considers communications, systems integration, software, and long term deployment support needs. The LA/Ventura Region ITS Strategic Deployment Plan represents an opportunity for the LA/Ventura region to work towards: A more integrated and seamless transportation network; PAGE O-5

17 A network in which each agency and/or operator works together to achieve efficient operations without regard to arbitrary jurisdictional or departmental boundaries; A network in which sharing information, ideas, and control becomes more common than not, and most importantly A network that better meets the current and projected needs and demands of the traveling public. The major findings, issues, suggestions, and policies of this Plan are outlined in the remainder of this Executive Summary. For more detailed information, direct reference to the specific Section of the Strategic Plan or supporting documentation should be made. The various Sections of the Plan and supporting documents are outlined in Section 1.0, Introduction. O.3 VISION FOR REGIONAL ITS DEPLOYMENT As part of this Strategic Deployment Plan, stakeholders developed an overall regional ITS deployment vision. This vision is stated below and graphically depicted in Figure O-1. The linking of integrated ITS technologies to pressing transportation network needs will lead to enhanced mobility and efficiency, if it is properly supported by partnerships among network operators and centered on a common vision of improving regional transportation services. To use intelligent and advanced transportation technologies to: increase mobility and accessibility throughout the region, improve air quality, use the existing infrastructure more efficiently and effectively maximize the Federal, State and local funding opportunities for transportation improvements by identifying, evaluating, and recommending a deployment plan: to advance available and emerging ITS Technologies within a short, medium and long term integration window that satisfy local, regional and intermodal transportation Needs PAGE O-6

18 while fostering institutional Partnerships, whether Public/Public or Public/Private, necessary to successfully implement, operate, and maintain the technologies throughout the life cycle of the identified projects Insert Figure O-1 Regional ITS Vision PAGE O-7

19 Infrastructure and Travel Demand LA/Ventura ITS Vision Architecture and Integration Leading to Funding Enhanced Mobility, Accessibility, Efficiency, and Air Quality FIGURE O-1 LA/Ventura ITS Strategic Planning Vision

20 The linking of integrated ITS technologies to pressing transportation network needs will lead to enhanced mobility and efficiency, if it is properly supported by partnerships among network operators and centered on a common vision of improving regional transportation services. It is important to note that the LA/Ventura Region ITS Strategic Deployment Plan is one of four Strategic Plans in the Southern California Priority Corridor. Therefore, the regional ITS deployment vision presented in this Plan is part of the larger Southern California ITS deployment picture. The Priority Corridor ITS vision parallels the LA/Ventura regional vision while considering the need for integrated systems management across Southern California. Showcase provides a vision for integrated information sharing and operations across all modes and all roads. The terminology often heard in relation to Showcase is a system of systems. O.4 OVERVIEW OF PROBLEMS, NEEDS, AND ISSUES Transportation network stakeholders in the LA/Ventura region were asked through a series of surveys, executive level interviews, and workshops to identify and prioritize the key regional transportation related problems, needs, and issues. Table O.1 lists the priority transportation problems through this process. TABLE O.1 PRIORITY TRANSPORTATION PROBLEMS/NEEDS AREAS Areas Problems/Needs Roadway/Highway Safety Commercial Vehicles Safety Ports (Air & Sea) Ground Transportation Roadway/Highway Congestion Roadway/Highway Signal Coordination Commercial Vehicles Hazardous Material Response General Air Pollution Roadway/Highway Travel Time Transit Travel Time Transit Safety/Security Commercial Vehicles Safety Inspections Roadway/Highway Interjurisdictional Cooperation Roadway/Highway Emergency Response Interestingly, safety concerns scored higher than congestion and travel time concerns. All of the priority transportation problems/needs listed in Table O.1 were considered important concerns by the transportation stakeholders interviewed. Identified needs seemed to reflect a mixture of modes including auto, transit, and commercial vehicles. PAGE O-8

21 In addition to defining priority problems/needs areas, transportation stakeholders identified several critical issues in the deployment of ITS in the LA/Ventura region. These issues and the recommendations made by stakeholders at the outreach workshop are displayed in Figure O-2 and discussed below. Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Stakeholders identified O&M concerns as an often overlooked component of ITS deployment. In general, it was suggested that O&M costs be considered as part of the planning and preliminary design phases of ITS project deployments. It was also suggested that the allowable application of various funding resources be expanded to address ITS O&M needs. Some stakeholders noted that they believe that the deployment of ITS should also contain a commitment to maintain the systems once they are deployed. Interoperability Many stakeholders stated concern over the value of regional integration, and also indicated their concerns of potentially losing control over their portions of the transportation network. It was suggested that an integrated operations policy be developed, and that educational efforts be undertaken both to show the benefits of integration and to allay fears of losing localized control. Standards development - Some stakeholders indicated concern over the costs of establishing and maintaining systems standards. It was suggested that regional guidelines be established for setting and utilizing standards at the national, state, regional, and local level. Stakeholders also suggested that some agencies be assigned with the responsibility of assessing and maintaining regional and local standards. It is important to note that the new federal Transportation Equity Act (TEA-21) requires conformity with the national architecture and standards, and that the broad application of standards tends to bring deployment costs down to a greater extent than the implementation of multiple proprietary systems over time. Procurement and contracting Stakeholders indicated that the existing contracting and procurement procedures utilized by public agencies are out of date and not always well suited to ITS deployment efforts. It was suggested that low-bid procurements not be utilized for ITS deployment efforts, and that a request for proposal approach be utilized. Education/demonstration of benefits and training needs - Stakeholders noted that greater education of public officials as to the value of ITS is needed, and that many agencies do not have staff fully trained in the operation of integrated management systems. It was suggested that regional education and training efforts be undertaken to fulfill these needs. Grass roots public and political support Stakeholders stated that information to the public on the benefits of ITS is limited. It was also noted that ITS, with many of its surveillance components, may seem like Big Brother to the general public. PAGE O-9

22 Insert Figure O-2 Overview of Issues and Actions PAGE O-10

23 Stakeholders noted that efforts should be made to educate the general public on the benefits and purposes of ITS to gain public support and allay any fears. Air quality issues Stakeholders noted that the air quality benefits of ITS remain somewhat uncertain. While it was agreed that ITS can serve to alleviate hot spots by reducing localized emissions, some stakeholders were concerned that ITS would induce further regional traffic demand and land development. It was suggested that ITS deployment efforts that focus on shifting the mode of persons and freight may be of more benefit in reducing emissions than those ITS projects which reduce traffic delays. It was also suggested that ITS could be utilized to identify gross polluting vehicles for follow-up inspection and correction. O.5 DEPLOYMENT EFFORTS More than half of the LA/Ventura Region ITS Strategic Deployment Plan focuses on deployment of ITS projects and related issues. The development of ITS projects for the LA/Ventura region was based on the federally defined ITS planning process. This process moves from the definition of problems, to the identification of users needs and services, to market package review, and finally, the development of specific projects. Each of the deployment related components of the Strategic Plan are summarized below. O.5.1 User Services Simply stated, a user service is: One or more specific ITS applications that address specific needs for a specific set of users. Thirty (30) user services have been identified to date as part of the national program ITS planning process. Table O.2 displays those user services identified as priority or near-term needs by LA/Ventura region transportation stakeholders. TABLE O.2 NEAR TERM PRIORITY USER SERVICES* Pre-Trip Travel Information (1.1) Emissions Testing and Mitigation (1.9) En-route Travel Information (1.2) Highway-Rail Intersection Control (1.10) Route Guidance (1.3) Public Transportation Management (2.1) Ride Matching and Reservation (1.4) Electronic Payment Services (3.1) Traffic Control (1.6) Commercial Vehicle Electronic Clearance (4.1) Incident Management (1.7) Emergency Vehicle Management (5.2) Notes: * The numbers in ( ) indicate the specific ID number for each user service by which they can be referenced in the National Program Plan or ITS National Architecture. PAGE O-11

24 The user services listed in Table O.2 represent those ITS services most desired by LA/Ventura region stakeholders within the next six years as stated in the workshops and interviews conducted for this Strategic Deployment Plan. Stakeholders at these workshops displayed a relatively strong affinity towards travel and traffic management services, while noting specific near term needs in the areas of public transportation, electronic payment (toll collection), commercial vehicle clearance, and emergency vehicle management. While the specific ranking of user services is not important, any ranking or prioritization of future deployment efforts should consider whether or not the proposed project addresses the nearterm needs of the region as expressed by the user services in Table O.2. It is important to note that user service priorities may change over time as technology advances and regional priorities shift. These results simply reflect the stated priorities of the regional stakeholders during the outreach components of this Plan. O.5.2 Market Packages Simply stated market packages are: A series of relatively detailed grouping of subsystems, equipment packages, and data flow definitions which can be logical and incrementally deployed over-time to provide increasing capabilities and levels of integration. Market packages were developed as part of the National ITS Architecture effort when it was found that user services lacked the level of detail necessary to link them directly into the National Architecture. User services and market packages are closely correlated, and a comparison matrix is provided in Section 5.0 of the Plan. The National Architecture program has identified a subset of the market packages that are defined as early market packages because they are viewed as Enabling, Feasible, and have an Established Benefit. As part of the LA/Ventura Region ITS Strategic Deployment Plan, it was recommended that the early market packages be adopted as the near term priority market packages with the exceptions of Vehicle Safety Monitoring, Fleet Administration, and Roadside CVO Safety. Considering these changes, the near term market packages for the Los Angeles / Ventura region are listed in Table O.3. PAGE O-12

25 TABLE O.3 NEAR TERM MARKET PACKAGES Traffic Management Network Surveillance Probe Surveillance Surface Street Control Freeway Control Incident Management System Regional Traffic Control HOV and Reversible Lane Management Traffic Information Dissemination Dynamic Toll/Parking Fee Management Standard Railroad Grade Crossing Rail Operations Coordination Transit Management Transit Vehicle Tracking Transit Fixed Route Operations Demand Response Transit Operations Transit Passenger and Fare Management Transit Maintenance Transit Security Multi-Modal Coordination Traveler Information Broadcast Traveler Information Interactive Traveler Information Autonomous Route Guidance Commercial Vehicle Ops Electronic Clearance Commercial Vehicle Administrative Processes Hazardous Materials Management (HAZMAT) Emergency Management Emergency Response Emergency Routing Mayday Support ITS Planning ITS Planning Unlike user services, market packages are more useful for the linkages they provide to the National Architecture than for any specific consideration of project deployment priorities. It is likely that any ITS project will incorporate numerous market packages, while only representing a couple of user services. In terms of project deployment, market packages should be viewed as a useful starting point for defining requirements and high-level design processes. PAGE O-13

26 O.5.3 System Architecture An ITS system architecture, when explained in its simplest terms, is best defined as: A blueprint for connecting various and often dissimilar ITS systems As noted in the National System Architecture Executive Summary (January, 1997), a system architecture provides a common structure for the design of intelligent transportation systems. It is not a system design nor is it a system design concept. What it does is define the framework around which multiple design approaches can be developed, each one specifically tailored to meet the individual needs of the user, while maintaining the benefits of a common architecture. The LA/Ventura region ITS systems architecture is based on three basic premises: 1) The LA/Ventura region will adopt and utilize the Showcase architecture for system to system communications, standards, and interoperability considerations. 2) The LA/Ventura region will conduct ITS efforts in a manner consistent with the National Architecture. 3) That given points one and two, it is more applicable for the LA/Ventura Region ITS Strategic Deployment Plan to provide a top-level informational architecture in the form of a regional use case (as provided in Section 6.0). It is important to note that the LA/Ventura region system architecture is meant to serve in support of the Showcase and National Architectures and not as a replacement. The information presented in the architecture was developed by considering the relationship between the near-term market packages identified for LA/Ventura region, the Showcase architecture, and the National architecture. Table O.4 outlines the various architectures, including the one defined in this Strategic Deployment Plan, and the relationships between each. All of the architecture should be utilized and thought of as serving to support one another rather than replacing one another. PAGE O-14

27 Architecture National Architecture Suggestion for the region: Maintain consistency with the National Architecture. Showcase Architecture TABLE O.4 LA/VENTURA REGION SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE RELATIONSHIPS WITH OTHER ARCHITECTURES Suggestion for the region: Utilize the Showcase architecture for system to system interoperability at a Regional and sometimes Subregional level. Priority Corridor Architecture Suggestion for the region: Maintain consistency with the Priority Corridor Architecture as appropriate. Track and participate in Corridor configuration management decisions. Provides National hardware, software, and communications standards and protocols. Frequently provides multiple options which are not always interchangeable or interoperable. The region should seek to utilize the national architecture as a starting point for establishing more specific regional standards (if similar standards have not already been established at the Priority Corridor level). Defines software standards for the interoperability of systems within the Priority Corridor. Based on the kernel/seed concept and object oriented software development concepts, namely Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). Provides a framework for the interaction of systems at a Corridor level. Does not serve to define specific Corridor standards, but does support a configuration management approach as established through the Priority Corridor Steering Committee. LA/Ventura System Architecture (Section 6.0) Suggestion for the region: Serves as an interoperability reference from the users point of view. May provide a useful starting point when considering how systems should interact at a regional level. Provides a top level use case based logical architecture. Expresses regional system to system interaction in terms of the user (or actors) rather than specific system to system terms. The LA/Ventura region systems architecture does not define specific standards, interfaces, or protocols. It is intended that the LA/Ventura region will move towards greater standardization as part of the Southern California Priority Corridor. Priority Corridor standards stem from the Priority Corridor architecture, Showcase, National Architecture, and the Priority Corridor Configuration Management Group. The Early Action Plan also outlines a specific series of actions and steps to enhance the regional integration of systems and the coordination of ITS standards and deployment efforts. PAGE O-15

28 O.5.4 Project Types and Projects Call for Projects To gather input on potential projects from stakeholders, a call for projects was distributed. The potential projects were collected and summarized in a regional ITS project candidate list. Over 125 candidate projects, totaling more than an estimated $1.25 billion, were received through this process. All of these projects are included in Section 7.0 of the Strategic Deployment Plan. Market packages were assigned and additional information (as necessary) was listed for each project. Projects were then classified by levels, project areas, and project types. It is important to note that the call for projects process and candidate project list does not in any way exclude additional or future projects from the Strategic Deployment Plan or the LA/Ventura region ITS deployment process. Projects provided by stakeholders during revisions to the Plan have been included in a separate addendum table near the end of the Plan. Classification Levels The LA/Ventura Region ITS Strategic Deployment Plan involves three basic project classification levels. Infrastructure - These projects involve the deployment of base ITS infrastructure, usually in the form of communications or sensor systems. Infrastructure projects serve to provide the region with the necessary level of transportation information to effectively utilize more advanced management systems. Systems Integration These projects seek to integrate various infrastructure and management systems at a local or subregional level. One example of a systems integration project would be two or three adjacent cities developing interoperability between their various signal systems. Regional Integration Deployment of these projects goes the next step beyond systems integration projects and achieves the ultimate purpose of regional ITS deployment. The focus of these projects is on a regionwide application of a system which links various subregions or regions. One example of a regional integration project is current Caltrans efforts to achieve interoperability between District Transportation Management Centers (TMCs). PAGE O-16

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